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OLD HIGH GERMAN (OHG, German : Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language
German language
, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century , and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason. There are, however, a number of Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
inscriptions dating to the 6th century (notably the Pforzen buckle ), as well as single words and many names found in Latin
Latin
texts predating the 8th century.

CONTENTS

* 1 Territory * 2 Literacy * 3 Characteristics * 4 Dialects

* 5 Phonology

* 5.1 Vowels * 5.2 Consonants * 5.3 Phonological developments

* 6 Morphology

* 6.1 Nouns

* 6.2 Verbs

* 6.2.1 Tense * 6.2.2 Conjugation

* 7 Texts * 8 Example Texts * 9 See also * 10 Notes

* 11 Sources

* 11.1 Grammars

* 12 External links

TERRITORY

Further information: Francia and Carolingian Empire The Old High German speaking area around 950.

During the Migration Period , the High German -speaking tribes settled in what became Alamannia
Alamannia
, the Duchy of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
and the Kingdom of the Lombards . At the same time the Franconian -speaking tribes settled the area between those two rivers before crossing the Rhine to conquer Northern Gaul, where, under the Merovingians , they created the Frankish kingdom, Francia , which eventually stretched down to the Loire
Loire
.

Old High German
Old High German
comprises the dialects of these groups which underwent the Second Sound Shift during the 6th Century, namely all of Elbe
Elbe
Germanic and most of the Weser-Rhine Germanic dialects.

The Franks in the western part of Francia ( Neustria and western Austrasia ) gradually adopted Gallo-Romance by the beginning of the OHG period, with the linguistic boundary later stabilised approximately along the course of the Meuse
Meuse
and Moselle
Moselle
in the east, and the northern boundary probably a little further south than the current boundary between French and Flemish
Flemish
. North of this line, the Franks retained their language, but it was not affected by the Second Sound Shift, which thus separated their Low Franconian variety (the ancestor of Dutch ) from the more easterly Franconian dialects which formed part of Old High German.

The Saxons
Saxons
and the Frisians
Frisians
along the shores of North Sea
North Sea
were likewise not affected by the Second Sound Shift and a bundle of isoglosses in a similar location to the modern Benrath line marked the Northern limit of the sound shift and separated the dialect of the Franks from Old Saxon .

In the south, the Lombards
Lombards
, who had settled in Northern Italy , maintained their dialect until their conquest by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 774. After this the Germanic-speaking population, who were by then almost certainly bilingual, gradually switched to the Romance language of the native population (the ancestor of Italian ), so that Langobardic
Langobardic
had died out by the end of the OHG period.

At the beginning of the period, no Germanic language was spoken east of a line from Kieler Förde to the rivers Elbe
Elbe
and Saale
Saale
, earlier Germanic speakers in the Northern part of the area having been displaced by the Slavs . This area did not become German-speaking again until the German eastward expansion ("Ostkolonisation") of the early 12th century, though there was some attempt at conquest and missionary work under the Ottonians .

The Alemannic polity was conquered by Clovis I in 496, and in the last twenty years of the 8th century Charlemagne
Charlemagne
subdued the Saxons, the Frisians, the Bavarians, and the Lombards, bringing all continental Germanic-speaking peoples under Frankish rule. While this led to some degree of Frankish linguistic influence, the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, and this unification did not therefore lead to any development of a supra-regional variety of Frankish nor a standardized Old High German; the individual dialects retained their identity.

LITERACY

Further information: Oaths of Strasbourg , Germanic Christianity , and Anglo-Saxon mission

Old High German
Old High German
literacy is a product of the monasteries, notably at St. Gallen
St. Gallen
, Reichenau Island
Reichenau Island
and Fulda
Fulda
. Its origins lie in the establishment of the German church by Saint Boniface in the mid 8th century, and it was further encouraged during the Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th. The dedication to the preservation of Old High German epic poetry among the scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance was significantly greater than could be suspected from the meagre survivals we have today (less than 200 lines in total between the Hildebrandslied and the Muspilli ). Einhard
Einhard
tells how Charlemagne himself ordered that the epic lays should be collected for posterity. It was the neglect or religious zeal of later generations that led to the loss of these records. Thus, it was Charlemagne's weak successor, Louis the Pious , who destroyed his father's collection of epic poetry on account of its pagan content.

Rabanus Maurus
Rabanus Maurus
, a student of Alcuin 's and abbot at Fulda
Fulda
from 822, was an important advocate of the cultivation of German literacy. Among his students were Walafrid Strabo and Otfrid of Weissenburg .

Towards the end of the Old High German
Old High German
period, Notker Labeo (d. 1022) was among the greatest stylists in the language, and developed a systematic orthography.

CHARACTERISTICS

Main article: High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift

The main difference between Old High German
Old High German
and the West Germanic dialects from which it developed is that it underwent the High German consonant shift (also called the second consonant shift in relation to the similar but much earlier Grimm\'s law ). This is generally dated approximately to the late 5th and early 6th centuries—hence dating its start to around 500. The result of this sound change is that the consonantal system of German remains different from all other West Germanic languages, including English and Low German . Grammatically, however, Old High German
Old High German
remained very similar to Old English
Old English
, Old Dutch , and Old Saxon .

By the mid 11th century the many different vowels found in unstressed syllables had all been reduced to /ə /. Since these vowels were part of the grammatical endings in the nouns and verbs , their loss led to radical simplification of the inflectional grammar of German. For these reasons, 1050 is seen as the start of the Middle High German period, though in fact there are almost no texts in German for the next hundred years.

Examples of vowel reduction in unstressed syllables:

OLD HIGH GERMAN MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN ENGLISH

machôn machen to make, do

taga tage days

demu dem(e) to the

(the Modern German forms of these words are broadly the same as in Middle High German)

DIALECTS

Map showing the main Old High German
Old High German
scriptoria and the areas of the Old High German
Old High German
"monastery dialects".

There was no standard or supra-regional variety of Old High German—every text is written in a particular dialect, or in some cases a mixture of dialects. Broadly speaking, the main dialect divisions of Old High German
Old High German
seem to have been similar to those of later periods—they are based on established territorial groupings and the effects of the Second Sound Shift, which have remained influential until the present day. But because the direct evidence for Old High German
Old High German
consists solely of manuscripts produced in a few major ecclesiastical centres, there is no isogloss information of the sort on which modern dialect maps are based. For this reason the dialects may be termed "monastery dialects" (German Klosterdialekte).

The main dialects, with their bishoprics and monasteries :

* Central German
Central German

* East Franconian : Fulda
Fulda
, Bamberg
Bamberg
, Würzburg
Würzburg
* Middle Franconian : Trier
Trier
, Echternach , Cologne
Cologne
* Rhine Franconian : Lorsch
Lorsch
, Speyer
Speyer
, Worms , Mainz
Mainz
, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
* South Rhine Franconian : Wissembourg

* Upper German
Upper German

* Alemannic : Murbach , Reichenau , Sankt Gallen , Strasbourg
Strasbourg
* Bavarian : Freising , Passau
Passau
, Regensburg
Regensburg
, Augsburg
Augsburg
, Ebersberg , Wessobrunn , Benediktbeuern , Tegernsee , Salzburg
Salzburg
, Mondsee

In addition, there are two poorly attested dialects:

* Thuringian is attested only in four runic inscriptions and some possible glosses. * Langobardic
Langobardic
was the dialect of the Lombards
Lombards
who invaded Northern Italy in the 6th century, and little evidence of it remains apart from names and individual words in Latin
Latin
texts, and a few runic inscriptions. It declined after the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by the Franks in 774. It is classified as Upper German
Upper German
on the basis of evidence of the Second Sound Shift.

The continued existence of a West Frankish dialect in the Western, Romanized part of Francia is uncertain. Claims that this might have been the language of the Carolingian court or that it is attested in the Ludwigslied
Ludwigslied
, whose presence in a French manuscript suggests bilingualism , are controversial.

PHONOLOGY

The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of the East Franconian dialect in the 9th century. This is the dialect of the monastery of Fulda
Fulda
, and specifically of the Old High German
Old High German
Tatian . Dictionaries and grammars of OHG often use the spellings of the Tatian as a substitute for genuine standardised spellings, and these have the advantage of being recognizably close to the Middle High German forms of words, particularly with respect to the consonants.

VOWELS

Old High German
Old High German
had five phonemic long vowels and six phonemic short vowels. Both occurred in stressed and unstressed syllables.

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

SHORT LONG SHORT LONG SHORT LONG

CLOSE i î

u û

MID e, ë ê

o ô

OPEN

a â

Notes:

* All back vowels likely had front-vowel allophones as a result of Umlaut . The front-vowel allophones likely became full phonemes in Middle High German. In the Old High German
Old High German
period, there existed (possibly a mid-close vowel) from the Umlaut of /a/ and /e/ but it probably wasn't phonemicized until the end of the period. Manuscripts occasionally distinguish two /e/ sounds. Generally, modern grammars and dictionaries use ⟨ë⟩ for the mid vowel and ⟨e⟩ for the mid-close vowel. * The short high and mid vowels may have been articulated lower than their long counterparts as in Modern German. This cannot be established from written sources. * Short vowels followed later by long vowels tended to be reduced to ⟨e⟩ in unstressed syllables. The ⟨e⟩ may have represented or schwa . * Vowel length was indicated in the manuscripts inconsistently (though modern handbooks are consistent). Vowel letter doubling, a circumflex , or an acute accent was generally used to indicate a long vowel.

Old High German
Old High German
diphthongs are indicated by the digraphs ⟨ei⟩, ⟨ie⟩, ⟨io⟩, ⟨iu⟩, ⟨ou⟩, ⟨uo⟩.

CONSONANTS

BILABIAL LABIODENTAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR PALATAL /VELAR GLOTTAL

PLOSIVE p b

t d c,k /k / g /ɡ /

AFFRICATE pf /p͡f /

z /t͡s /

NASAL m

n ng /ŋ /

FRICATIVE

f, v /f / /v / th /θ / s, ȥ /s̠ /, /s / h, ch /x / h

APPROXIMANT w, uu /w /

j, i /j /

LIQUID

r, l

* There is wide variation in the consonant systems of the Old High German dialects arising mainly from the differing extent to which they are affected by the High German Sound Shift . Precise information about the articulation of consonants is impossible to establish. * In the plosive and fricative series, where there are two consonants in a cell, the first is fortis the second lenis . The voicing of lenis consonants varied between dialects. * Old High German
Old High German
distinguished long and short consonants. Double-consonant spellings don't indicate a preceding short vowel as in Modern German but true consonant gemination . Double consonants found in Old High German
Old High German
include pp, bb, tt, dd, ck (for /kk/), gg, ff, ss, hh, zz, mm, nn, ll, rr. * /θ/ changes to /d/ in all dialects during the 9th century. The status in the Old High German
Old High German
Tatian (c. 830), reflected in modern Old High German dictionaries and glossaries, is that th is found in initial position, d in other positions. * It is not clear whether Old High German
Old High German
/x/ had already acquired a palatalized allophone following front vowels as in Modern German. * A curly-tailed z (ȥ ) is sometimes used in modern grammars and dictionaries to indicate the alveolar fricative which arose from Common Germanic t in the High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift
, to distinguish it from the alveolar affricate, represented as z. This distinction has no counterpart in the original manuscripts, except in the OHG Isidor, which uses tz for the affricate. * The original Germanic fricative s was in writing usually clearly distinguished from the younger fricative z that evolved from the High German consonant shift - the sounds of these two graphs seem not to have merged before the 13th century. Now seeing that s later came to be pronounced /ʃ/ before other consonants (as in Stein /ʃtaɪn/, Speer /ʃpeːɐ/, Schmerz /ʃmɛrts/ (original smerz) or the southwestern pronunciation of words like Ast /aʃt/), it seems safe to assume that the actual pronunciation of Germanic s was somewhere between and , most likely about , in all Old High German
Old High German
up to late Middle High German. A word like swaz, "whatever", would thus never have been but rather , later (13th century) , .

PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS

Here are enumerated the sound changes that transformed Common West Germanic into Old High German, not including the Late OHG changes which effected Middle High German

* /ɣ/, /β/ > /ɡ/, /b/ in all positions (/ð/ > /d/ already took place in West Germanic). Most but not all High German areas are subject to this change.

* PG *sibi "sieve" > OHG sib (cf. Old English
Old English
sife), PG *gestra "yesterday" > OHG gestaron (cf. OE ġeostran, ġ being a fricative /ʝ/ )

* High German consonant shift
High German consonant shift
: Inherited voiceless plosives are lenited into fricatives and affricates, while voiced fricatives are hardened into plosives and in some cases devoiced.

* Ungeminated post-vocalic /p/, /t/, /k/ spirantize intervocalically to /ff/, /ȥȥ/, /xx/ and elsewhere to /f/, /ȥ/, /x/. Cluster /tr/ is exempt from this. Compare Old English
Old English
slǣpan to Old High German slāfan.

* Word-initially, after a resonant and when geminated, the same consonants affricatized to /pf/, /tȥ/ and /kx/, OE tam : OHG zam.

* Spread of /k/ > /kx/ is geographically very limited and is not reflected in Modern Standard German.

* /b/, /d/ and /ɡ/ are devoiced.

* In Standard German, this applies to /d/ in all positions, but to /b/ and /ɡ/ only when geminated. PG *brugjo > *bruggo > brucca, but *leugan > leggen.

* /eː/ (*ē²) and /oː/ are diphthongized into /ie/ and /uo/ respectively.

* Proto-Germanic /ai/ became /ei/, except before /r/, /h/, /w/ and word finally, where it monophthongizes into ê ( which is also the reflex of unstressed /ai/) .

* Similarly /au/ > /ô/ before /r/, /h/ and all dentals, otherwise /au/ > /ou/. PG *dauþaz "death" > OHG tôd, but *haubudą "head" > houbit.

* It should be noted that /h/ refers here only to inherited /h/ from PIE *k, and not to the result of the consonant shift /x/, which is sometimes written as h.

* /eu/ merges with /iu/ under i-umlaut and u-umlaut, but elsewhere is /io/ (earlier /eo/). In Upper German
Upper German
varieties it also becomes /iu/ before labials and velars. * /θ/ fortifies to /d/ in all German dialects. * Initial /w/ and /h/ before another consonant are dropped.

MORPHOLOGY

NOUNS

Main article: Old High German declension

VERBS

Tense

Germanic had a simple two-tense system, with forms for a present and preterite . These were inherited by Old High German, but in addition OHG developed three periphrastic tenses : the perfect , pluperfect and future .

The periphrastic past tenses were formed by combining the present or preterite of an auxiliary verb (wësan, habēn) with the past participle. Initially the past participle retained its original function as an adjective and showed case and gender endings - for intransitive verbs the nominative, for transitive verbs the accusative. For example:

After thie tho argangana warun ahtu taga ( Tatian , 7,1) "When eight days had passed", literally "When there were eight passed days" Latin: Et postquam consummati sunt dies octo (Luke 2:21)

phīgboum habeta sum giflanzotan ( Tatian 102,2) "someone had planted a fig tree", literally "someone had a planted fig-tree" Latin: arborem fici habebat quidam plantatam (Luke3:6 )

In time, however, these endings fell out of use and the participle came to be seen no longer as an adjective but as part of the verb, as in Modern German.

This development is generally taken to be the result of a need to translate Latin
Latin
forms, but parallels in other Germanic languages (particularly Gothic, where the Biblical texts were translated from Greek, not Latin) raise the possibility that it was an independent development.

Germanic also had no future tense, but again OHG created periphrastic forms, using an auxiliary verb skulan (Modern German sollen) and the infinitive, or werden and the present participle:

Thu scalt beran einan alawaltenden (Otfrid's Evangelienbuch I,5,23) "You will bear an almighty"

Inti nu uuirdist thu suigenti' ( Tatian 2,9) "And now you will start to fall silent" Latin: Et ecce eris tacens (Luke 1:20)

The present tense continued to be used alongside these new forms to indicate future time (as it still is in Modern German).

Conjugation

The following is a sample conjugation of a strong verb, nëman "to take".

nëman

INDICATIVE OPTATIVE IMPERATIVE

PRESENT 1ST SG nimu nëme —

2ND SG nimis (-ist) nëmēs (-ēst) nim

3RD SG nimit nëme —

1ST PL nëmemēs (-ēn) nëmemēs (-ēn) nëmamēs, -emēs (-ēn)

2ND PL nëmet nëmēt nëmet

3RD PL nëmant nëmēn —

PAST 1ST SG nam nāmi —

2ND SG nāmi nāmīs (-īst) —

3RD SG nam nāmi —

1ST PL nāmumēs (-un) nāmīmēs (-īn) —

2ND PL nāmut nāmīt —

3RD PL nāmun nāmīn —

GERUND GENITIVE nëmannes

DATIVE nëmanne

PARTICIPLE PRESENT nëmanti (-enti)

PAST ginoman

TEXTS

Further information: Medieval German literature

The early part of the period saw considerable missionary activity, and by 800 the whole of the Frankish Empire had, in principle, been Christianized. All the manuscripts which contain Old High German
Old High German
texts were written in ecclesiastical scriptoria by scribes whose main task was writing in Latin
Latin
rather than German. Consequently, the majority of Old High German
Old High German
texts are religious in nature and show strong influence of ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
on the vocabulary. In fact, most surviving prose texts are translations of Latin
Latin
originals. Even secular works such as the Hildebrandslied are often preserved only because they were written on spare sheets in religious codices .

The earliest Old High German
Old High German
text is generally taken to be the Abrogans , a Latin– Old High German
Old High German
glossary variously dated between 750 and 780, probably from Reichenau . The 8th century Merseburg Incantations are the only remnant of pre-Christian German literature. The earliest texts not dependent on Latin
Latin
originals would seem to be the Hildebrandslied and the Wessobrunn Prayer
Wessobrunn Prayer
, both recorded in manuscripts of the early 9th century, though the texts are assumed to derive from earlier copies.

The Bavarian Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Other important works are the Evangelienbuch (Gospel harmony ) of Otfrid von Weissenburg , the short but splendid Ludwigslied
Ludwigslied
and the 9th century Georgslied . The boundary to Early Middle High German (from c. 1050) is not clear-cut.

An example of Early Middle High German literature is the Annolied .

EXAMPLE TEXTS

The Lord\'s Prayer is given in four Old High German
Old High German
dialects below. Because these are translations of a liturgical text, they are best not regarded as examples of idiomatic language, but they do show dialect variation very clearly.

LORD\'S PRAYER Latin
Latin
version (From Tatian) Alemannic, 8th century The St Gall Paternoster South Rhine Franconian, 9th century Weissenburg Catechism
Catechism
East Franconian, c. 830 Old High German
Old High German
Tatian Bavarian, early 9th century Freisinger Paternoster

Pater noster, qui in caelis es, sanctificetur nomen tuum, adveniat regnum tuum, fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra, panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris, et ne inducas nos in temptationem, sed libera nos a malo.

Fater unseer, thu pist in himile, uuihi namun dinan, qhueme rihhi diin, uuerde uuillo diin, so in himile sosa in erdu. prooth unseer emezzihic kip uns hiutu, oblaz uns sculdi unsero, so uuir oblazem uns skuldikem, enti ni unsih firleiti in khorunka, uzzer losi unsih fona ubile.

Fater unsēr, thu in himilom bist, giuuīhit sī namo thīn. quaeme rīchi thīn. uuerdhe uuilleo thīn, sama sō in himile endi in erthu. Brooth unseraz emezzīgaz gib uns hiutu. endi farlāz uns sculdhi unsero, sama sō uuir farlāzzēm scolōm unserēm. endi ni gileidi unsih in costunga. auh arlōsi unsih fona ubile.

Fater unser, thū thār bist in himile, sī geheilagōt thīn namo, queme thīn rīhhi, sī thīn uuillo, sō her in himile ist, sō sī her in erdu, unsar brōt tagalīhhaz gib uns hiutu, inti furlāz uns unsara sculdi sō uuir furlāzemēs unsarēn sculdīgōn, inti ni gileitēst unsih in costunga, ūzouh arlōsi unsih fon ubile.

Fater unser, du pist in himilum. Kauuihit si namo din. Piqhueme rihhi din, Uuesa din uuillo, sama so in himile est, sama in erdu. Pilipi unsraz emizzigaz kip uns eogauuanna. Enti flaz uns unsro sculdi, sama so uuir flazzames unsrem scolom. Enti ni princ unsih in chorunka. Uzzan kaneri unsih fona allem sunton.

SEE ALSO

* Medieval German Literature * Middle High German * Old High German declension

NOTES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Old High German". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Wells 1987 , p. 49. * ^ Wells 1987 , p. 43. Fn. 26 * ^ Hutterer 1999 , p. 338. * ^ Peters 1985 , p. 1211. * ^ Vita Karoli Magni
Vita Karoli Magni
, 29: "He also had the old rude songs that celebrate the deeds and wars of the ancient kings written out for transmission to posterity." * ^ Parra Membrives 2002 . * ^ von Raumer 1851 , pp. 194–272. * ^ Wells 1987 , pp. 44,50-53. * ^ A B Sonderegger 1980 , p. 571. * ^ A B Wells 1987 , p. 432. * ^ Hutterer 1999 , pp. 336-341. * ^ Wright 1906 , p. 2. * ^ Schrodt 2004 , pp. 9-18. * ^ Kuroda 1979 , p. 90. * ^ Kuroda 1979 , p. 52. * ^ Sonderegger 1979 , p. 269. * ^ Moser, Wellmann, Wolf 1981 , pp. 82–84. * ^ Morris 1991 , pp. 161–167. * ^ Sonderegger 1979 , p. 271. * ^ A B Braune 1994 , p. 56. * ^ Braune 1994 , p. 11. * ^ A B Braune 1994 , p. 34.

SOURCES

* Althaus, Hans Peter; Henne, Helmut; Weigand, Herbert Ernst, eds. (1980). Lexikon der Germanistischen Linguistik (2nd rev. ed.). Tübingen. ISBN 3-484-10396-5 . * Braune, W.; Helm, K.; Ebbinghaus, E. A., eds. (1994). Althochdeutsches Lesebuch (17th ed.). Tübingen. ISBN 3-484-10707-3 . * Bostock, J. Knight (1976). King, K. C.; McLintock, D. R., eds. A Handbook on Old High German
Old High German
Literature (2nd ed.). Oxford. ISBN 0-19-815392-9 . * Hutterer, Claus Jürgen (1999). Die germanischen Sprachen. Ihre Geschichte in Grundzügen. Wiesbaden: Albus. pp. 336–341. ISBN 3-928127-57-8 . * Keller, R. E. (1978). The German Language. London. ISBN 0-571-11159-9 . * Kuroda, Susumu (1999). Die historische Entwicklung der Perfektkonstruktionen im Deutschen. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. ISBN 3-87548-189-5 . * Parra Membrives, Eva (2002). Literatura medieval alemana. Madrid: Síntesis. ISBN 9788477389972 . * Morris RL (1991). "The Rise of Periphrastic Tenses in German: The Case Against Latin
Latin
Influence". In Antonsen EH, Hock HH. Stæfcraft. Studies in Germanic Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins. ISBN 90-272-3576-7 . * Moser, Hans; Wellmann, Hans; Wolf, Norbert Richard (1981). Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. 1: Althochdeutsch — Mittelhochdeutsch. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer. ISBN 3-494-02133-3 . * Peters R (1985). "Soziokulturelle Voraussetzungen und Sprachraum des Mittleniederdeutschen". In Besch W, Reichmann O, Sonderegger S. Sprachgeschichte. Ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und ihrer Erforschung (in German). 2.2. Berlin, New York: Walter De Gruyter. pp. 1211–1220. ISBN 3-11-009590-4 . * von Raumer, Rudolf (1851). Einwirkung des Christenthums auf die Althochdeutsche Sprache. Berlin. * Sonderegger, S. (1974). Althochdeutsche Sprache und Literatur. de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-004559-1 . * Sonderegger, Stefan (1979). Grundzüge deutscher Sprachgeschichte. I. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-003570-7 . * Sonderegger S (1980). "Althochdeutsch". In Althaus HP, Henne H, Weigand HE. Lexikon der Germanistischen Linguistik (in German). III (2 ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer. p. 571. ISBN 3-484-10391-4 . * Wells, C. J. (1987). German: A Linguistic History to 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815809-2 .

GRAMMARS

* Braune, Wilhelm; Reiffenstein, Ingo (2004). Althochdeutsche Grammatik I: Laut- und Formenlehre (15th ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-10861-5 . * Schrodt, Richard (2004). Althochdeutsche Grammatik II: Syntax (15th ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-10862-2 . * Wright, Joseph (1906). An Old High German