Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language
, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050.
There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High German is an umbrella term for the group of continental West Germanic dialects which underwent the set of consonantal changes
called the Second Sound Shift
At the start of this period, the main dialect areas belonged to largely independent tribal kingdoms, but by 788 the conquests of Charlemagne
had brought all OHG dialect areas into a single polity. The period also saw the development of a stable linguistic border between French
The surviving OHG texts were all written in monastic scriptoria
and, as a result, the overwhelming majority of them are religious in nature or, when secular, belong to the Latin
ate literary culture of Christianity
. The earliest written texts in Old High German, glosses
and interlinear translations
for Latin texts, appear in the latter half of the 8th century. The importance of the church in the production of texts and the extensive missionary activity of the period have left their mark on the OHG vocabulary, with many new loans
and new coinages to represent the Latin vocabulary of the church.
OHG largely preserves the synthetic inflection
al system inherited from Germanic, but the end of the period is marked by sound changes which disrupt these patterns of inflection, leading to the more analytic
grammar of Middle High German
. In syntax, the most important change was the development of new periphrastic tenses
to express the future
Old High German is generally dated, following Willhelm Scherer, from around 750 to around 1050. The start of this period sees the beginning of the OHG written tradition, at first with only glosses, but with substantial translations and original compositions by the 9th century. However the fact that the defining feature of Old High German, the Second Sound Shift, may have started as early as the 6th century and is complete by 750, means that some take the 6th century to be the start of the period. Alternatively, terms such as ("pre-OHG") or ("pre-literary OHG") are sometimes used for the period before 750. Regardless of terminology, all recognize a distinction between a pre-literary period and the start of a continuous tradition of written texts around the middle of the 8th century.
Differing approaches are taken, too, to the position of Langobardic
. Langobardic is an Elbe Germanic
and thus Upper German
dialect, and it shows early evidence for the Second Sound Shift. For this reason, some scholars treat Langobardic as part of Old High German, but with no surviving texts — just individual words and names in Latin texts — and the speakers starting to abandon the language by the 8th century, others exclude Langobardic from discussion of OHG. As Heidermanns observes, this exclusion is based solely on the external circumstances of preservation and not on the internal features of the language.
The end of the period is less controversial. The sound changes reflected in spelling during the 11th century lead to the remodelling of the entire system of noun and adjective declension
s. There is also a hundred-year "dearth of continuous texts" after the death of Notker Labeo
in 1022. The mid-11th century is widely accepted as marking the transition to Middle High German
During the Migration Period
, the High German
-speaking tribes settled in what became Alamannia
, the Duchy of Bavaria
and the Kingdom of the Lombards
. At the same time the Franconian
-speaking tribes settled the area between those two rivers before crossing the Rhine to conquer Northern Gaul, where, under the Merovingians
, they created the Frankish kingdom, Francia
, which eventually stretched down to the Loire
Old High German comprises the dialects of these groups which underwent the Second Sound Shift during the 6th Century, namely all of Elbe Germanic and most of the Weser-Rhine Germanic dialects.
The Franks in the western part of Francia
and western Austrasia
) gradually adopted Gallo-Romance
by the beginning of the OHG period, with the linguistic boundary later stabilised approximately along the course of the Meuse
in the east, and the northern boundary probably a little further south than the current boundary between French
. North of this line, the Franks retained their language, but it was not affected by the Second Sound Shift
, which thus separated their Low Franconian variety
(the ancestor of Dutch
) from the more easterly Franconian dialects which formed part of Old High German.
and the Frisians
along the shores of North Sea
were likewise not affected by the Second Sound Shift and a bundle of isogloss
es in a similar location to the modern Benrath line
marked the Northern limit of the sound shift and separated the dialect of the Franks from Old Saxon
In the south, the Lombards
, who had settled in Northern Italy
, maintained their dialect until their conquest by Charlemagne
in 774. After this the Germanic-speaking population, who were by then almost certainly bilingual, gradually switched to the Romance language of the native population
, so that Langobardic had died out by the end of the OHG period.
At the beginning of the period, no Germanic language was spoken east of a line from Kieler Förde
to the rivers Elbe
, earlier Germanic speakers in the Northern part of the area having been displaced by the Slavs
. This area did not become German-speaking again until the German eastward expansion
("Ostkolonisation") of the early 12th century, though there was some attempt at conquest and missionary work under the Ottonians
The Alemannic polity was conquered by Clovis I
in 496, and in the last twenty years of the 8th century Charlemagne subdued the Saxons, the Frisians, the Bavarians, and the Lombards, bringing all continental Germanic-speaking peoples
under Frankish rule. While this led to some degree of Frankish linguistic influence
, the language of both the administration and the Church was Latin, and this unification did not therefore lead to any development of a supra-regional variety of Frankish nor a standardized Old High German; the individual dialects retained their identity.
There was no standard or supra-regional variety of Old High German—every text is written in a particular dialect, or in some cases a mixture of dialects. Broadly speaking, the main dialect divisions of Old High German seem to have been similar to those of later periods—they are based on established territorial groupings and the effects of the Second Sound Shift, which have remained influential until the present day. But because the direct evidence for Old High German consists solely of manuscript
s produced in a few major ecclesiastical centres, there is no isogloss
information of the sort on which modern dialect maps are based. For this reason the dialects may be termed "monastery dialects" (German ''Klosterdialekte'').
The main dialects, with their bishoprics
* Central German
** East Franconian
** Middle Franconian
** Rhine Franconian
** South Rhine Franconian
* Upper German
, Sankt Gallen
In addition, there are two poorly attested dialects:
is attested only in four runic inscriptions and some possible glosses.
was the dialect of the Lombards
who invaded Northern Italy
in the 6th century, and little evidence of it remains apart from names and individual words in Latin
texts, and a few runic inscriptions. It declined after the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom
by the Franks in 774. It is classified as Upper German on the basis of evidence of the Second Sound Shift.
The continued existence of a West Frankish
dialect in the Western, Romanized part of Francia is uncertain. Claims that this might have been the language of the Carolingian court or that it is attested in the Ludwigslied
, whose presence in a French manuscript suggests bilingualism
, are controversial.
Old High German literacy is a product of the monasteries, notably at St. Gallen
, Reichenau Island
. Its origins lie in the establishment of the German church by Saint Boniface
in the mid 8th century, and it was further encouraged during the Carolingian Renaissance
in the 9th.
The dedication to the preservation of Old High German epic poetry among the scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance was significantly greater than could be suspected from the meagre survivals we have today (less than 200 lines in total between the ''Hildebrandslied
'' and the ''Muspilli
tells how Charlemagne himself ordered that the epic lays should be collected for posterity.
[''Vita Karoli Magni'', 29: "He also had the old rude songs that celebrate the deeds and wars of the ancient kings written out for transmission to posterity."]
It was the neglect or religious zeal of later generations that led to the loss of these records. Thus, it was Charlemagne's weak successor, Louis the Pious
, who destroyed his father's collection of epic poetry on account of its pagan content.
, a student of Alcuin
's and abbot at Fulda from 822, was an important advocate of the cultivation of German literacy. Among his students were Walafrid Strabo
and Otfrid of Weissenburg
Towards the end of the Old High German period, Notker Labeo
(d. 1022) was among the greatest stylists in the language, and developed a systematic orthography.
While there are a few runic inscriptions
from the pre-OHG period, all other OHG texts are written with the Latin alphabet
, which, however, was ill-suited for representing some of the sounds of OHG. This led to considerable variations in spelling conventions, as individual scribes and scriptoria had to develop their own solutions to these problems. Otfrid von Weissenburg
, in one of the prefaces to his ''Evangelienbuch'', offers comments on and examples of some of the issues which arise in adapting the Latin alphabet for German: "" ("...so also, in many expressions, spelling is difficult because of the piling up of letters or their unfamiliar sound.") The careful orthographies of the OHG ''Isidor
'' or Notker show a similar awareness.
The charts show the vowel and consonant systems of the East Franconian dialect in the 9th century. This is the dialect of the monastery of Fulda
, and specifically of the Old High German ''Tatian
''. Dictionaries and grammars of OHG often use the spellings of the Tatian as a substitute for genuine standardised spellings, and these have the advantage of being recognizably close to the Middle High German
forms of words, particularly with respect to the consonants.
Old High German had six phonemic short vowels and five phonemic long vowels. Both occurred in stressed and unstressed syllables. In addition, there were six diphthongs.
# Vowel length was indicated in the manuscripts inconsistently (though modern handbooks are consistent). Vowel letter doubling, a circumflex
, or an acute accent
was generally used to indicate a long vowel.
# The short high and mid vowels may have been articulated lower than their long counterparts as in Modern German. This cannot be established from written sources.
# All back vowels likely had front-vowel allophones
as a result of Umlaut
. The front-vowel allophones likely became full phonemes in Middle High German. In the Old High German period, there existed (possibly a mid-close vowel) from the Umlaut of and but it probably wasn't phonemicized until the end of the period. Manuscripts occasionally distinguish two sounds. Generally, modern grammars and dictionaries use for the mid vowel and for the mid-close vowel.
Reduction of unstressed vowels
By the mid 11th century the many different vowels found in unstressed syllables had almost all been reduced
(The Modern German forms of these words are broadly the same as in Middle High German.)
The main difference between Old High German and the West Germanic dialects
from which it developed is that it underwent the Second Sound Shift
. The result of this sound change is that the consonantal system
remains different from all other West Germanic languages, including English
and Low German
# There is wide variation in the consonant systems of the Old High German dialects arising mainly from the differing extent to which they are affected by the High German Sound Shift
. Precise information about the articulation of consonants is impossible to establish.
#In the plosive and fricative series, where there are two consonants in a cell, the first is fortis
the second lenis
. The voicing of lenis consonants varied between dialects.
#Old High German distinguished long and short consonants. Double-consonant spellings don't indicate a preceding short vowel as in Modern German but true consonant gemination
. Double consonants found in Old High German include ''pp, bb, tt, dd, ck'' (for ), ''gg, ff, ss, hh, zz, mm, nn, ll, rr.''
# changes to in all dialects during the 9th century. The status in the Old High German ''Tatian'' (c. 830), reflected in modern Old High German dictionaries and glossaries, is that ''th'' is found in initial position, ''d'' in other positions.
# It is not clear whether Old High German had already acquired a palatalized allophone following front vowels as in Modern German.
#A curly-tailed ''z''
'') is sometimes used in modern grammars and dictionaries to indicate the alveolar fricative which arose from Common Germanic
''t'' in the High German consonant shift
, to distinguish it from the alveolar affricate, represented as ''z''. This distinction has no counterpart in the original manuscripts, except in the OHG ''Isidor'', which uses ''tz'' for the affricate.
# The original Germanic fricative ''s'' was in writing usually clearly distinguished from the younger fricative ''z'' that evolved from the High German consonant shift - the sounds of these two graphs seem not to have merged before the 13th century. Now seeing that ''s'' later came to be pronounced before other consonants (as in ''Stein'' , ''Speer'' , ''Schmerz'' (original ''smerz'') or the southwestern pronunciation of words like ''Ast'' ), it seems safe to assume that the actual pronunciation of Germanic ''s'' was somewhere between and , most likely about , in all Old High German up to late Middle High German. A word like ''swaz'', "whatever", would thus never have been but rather , later (13th century) , .
Here are enumerated the sound changes that transformed Common West Germanic
into Old High German, not including the Late OHG changes which affected Middle High German
* , > , in all positions ( > already took place in West Germanic). Most but not all High German areas are subject to this change.
** PG *''sibi'' "sieve" > OHG ''sib'' (cf. Old English ''sife''), PG *''gestra'' "yesterday" > OHG ''gestaron'' (cf. OE ''ġeostran'', ''ġ'' being a fricative )
* High German consonant shift
: Inherited voiceless plosives are lenited
into fricatives and affricates, while voiced fricatives are hardened into plosives and in some cases devoiced.
** Ungeminated post-vocalic , , spirantize intervocalically to , , and elsewhere to , , . Cluster is exempt from this. Compare Old English ''slǣpan'' to Old High German ''slāfan''.
** Word-initially, after a resonant and when geminated, the same consonants affricatized to , and , OE ''tam'': OHG ''zam''.
*** Spread of > is geographically very limited and is not reflected in Modern Standard German.
** , and are devoiced.
*** In Standard German, this applies to in all positions, but to and only when geminated. PG *brugjo > *bruggo > ''brucca'', but *leugan > ''leggen''.
* (*''ē²'') and are diphthongized into and respectively.
* Proto-Germanic became , except before , , and word finally, where it monophthongizes into ê ( which is also the reflex of unstressed ).
** Similarly > before , and all dentals, otherwise > . PG *''dauþaz'' "death" > OHG ''tôd'', but *''haubudą'' "head" > ''houbit''.
*** refers here only to inherited from PIE *k, and not to the result of the consonant shift , which is sometimes written as h.
* merges with under ''i''-umlaut and ''u''-umlaut, but elsewhere is (earlier ). In Upper German
varieties it also becomes before labials and velars.
* fortifies to in all German dialects.
* Initial and before another consonant are dropped.
Germanic had a simple two-tense system, with forms for a present
. These were inherited by Old High German, but in addition OHG developed three periphrastic tenses
: the perfect
The periphrastic past tenses were formed by combining the present or preterite of an auxiliary verb
(''wësan'', ''habēn'') with the past participle. Initially the past participle retained its original function as an adjective and showed case and gender endings - for intransitive verbs the nominative, for transitive verbs the accusative. For example:
''After thie thö argangana warun ahtu taga'' (Tatian, 7,1)
"When eight days had passed", literally "After that then passed (away) were eight days"
Latin: ''Et postquam consummati sunt dies octo'' (Luke 2:21)
''phīgboum habeta sum giflanzotan'' (Tatian 102,2)
"someone had planted a fig tree", literally "fig-tree had certain (''or'' someone) planted"
Latin: ''arborem fici habebat quidam plantatam'' (Luke 13:6)
In time, however, these endings fell out of use and the participle came to be seen no longer as an adjective but as part of the verb, as in Modern German.
This development is generally taken to be the result of a need to translate Latin forms, but parallels in other Germanic languages (particularly Gothic, where the Biblical texts were translated from Greek, not Latin) raise the possibility that it was an independent development.
Germanic also had no future tense, but again OHG created periphrastic forms, using an auxiliary verb ''skulan'' (Modern German ''sollen'') and the infinitive, or ''werden'' and the present participle:
''Thu scalt beran einan alawaltenden'' (Otfrid's Evangelienbuch I, 5,23)
"You will bear an almighty ne
''Inti nu uuirdist thu suigenti (Tatian 2,9)
"And now you will start to fall silent"
Latin: ''Et ecce eris tacens'' (Luke 1:20)
The present tense continued to be used alongside these new forms to indicate future time (as it still is in Modern German).
The following is a sample conjugation
of a strong verb, ''nëman'' "to take".
Any description of OHG syntax faces a fundamental problem: texts translated from or based on a Latin original will be syntactically influenced by their source, while the verse works may show patterns that are determined by the needs of rhyme and metre, or that represent literary archaisms. Nonetheless, the basic word order rules are broadly those of Modern Standard German
Two differences from the modern language are the possibility of omitting a subject pronoun
and lack of definite and indefinite articles
. Both features are exemplified in the start of the 8th century Alemannic creed
from St Gall
: (Modern German, ; English "I believe in God the almighty father").
By the end of the OHG period, however, use of a subject pronoun has become obligatory, while the definite article has developed from the original demonstrative pronoun
() and the numeral ("one") has come into use as an indefinite article. These developments are generally seen as mechanisms to compensate for the loss of morphological distinctions which resulted from the weakening of unstressed vowels in the endings of nouns and verbs (see above).
The early part of the period saw considerable missionary activity, and by 800 the whole of the Frankish Empire
had, in principle, been Christianized. All the manuscripts which contain Old High German texts were written in ecclesiastical scriptoria
s whose main task was writing in Latin rather than German. Consequently, the majority of Old High German texts are religious in nature and show strong influence of ecclesiastical Latin
on the vocabulary. In fact, most surviving prose texts are translations of Latin originals. Even secular works such as the are often preserved only because they were written on spare sheets in religious codices
The earliest Old High German text is generally taken to be the Abrogans
, a Latin–Old High German glossary variously dated between 750 and 780, probably from Reichenau
. The 8th century Merseburg Incantations
are the only remnant of pre-Christian
German literature. The earliest texts not dependent on Latin originals would seem to be the and the Wessobrunn Prayer
, both recorded in manuscripts of the early 9th century, though the texts are assumed to derive from earlier copies.
The Bavarian ''Muspilli
'' is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Other important works are the (Gospel harmony
) of Otfrid von Weissenburg
, the short but splendid and the 9th century . The boundary to Early Middle High German (from ) is not clear-cut.
An example of Early Middle High German literature is the .
The Lord's Prayer
is given in four Old High German dialects below. Because these are translations of a liturgical text, they are best not regarded as examples of idiomatic language, but they do show dialect variation very clearly.
* Old High German literature
* Middle High German
* Old High German declension
- links to a range of online texts
Modern English-Old High German dictionary
Category:Languages attested from the 8th century
Category:Languages of Germany