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OLD ENGLISH (_Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc_) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language , spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English .

Old English
Old English
developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles
Angles
, Saxons , and Jutes
Jutes
. As the Anglo- Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain : Common Brittonic , a Celtic language , and Latin
Latin
, brought to Britain by Roman invasion . Old English
Old English
had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms : Mercian , Northumbrian , Kentish and West Saxon . It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the later Old English
Old English
period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop mainly from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England
England
was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century.

Old English
Old English
is one of the West Germanic languages , and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon . Like other old Germanic languages, it is very different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is quite similar to that of modern German : nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, and word order is much freer. The oldest Old English
Old English
inscriptions were written using a runic system , but from about the 9th century
9th century
this was replaced by a version of the Latin
Latin
alphabet .

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 Dialects * 4 Influence of other languages

* 5 Phonology

* 5.1 Sound changes

* 6 Grammar

* 6.1 Morphology * 6.2 Syntax
Syntax

* 7 Orthography

* 8 Literature

* 8.1 _Beowulf_ * 8.2 The Lord\'s Prayer * 8.3 Charter of Cnut

* 9 Revivals * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

TERMINOLOGY

_Englisc_, which the term _English_ is derived from , means 'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from _Angles_ (the Germanic tribe who conquered the island in the 5th century). During the 9th century
9th century
, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as _Englisc_. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland (now mainland Denmark
Denmark
) resembled a fishhook . Proto-Germanic _*anguz_ also had the meaning of 'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast. That word ultimately goes back to Proto-Indo-European _*h₂enǵʰ-_, also meaning 'narrow'.

Another theory is that the derivation of 'narrow' is the more likely connection to angling (as in fishing ), which itself stems from a PIE root meaning _bend, angle_. The semantic link is the fishing hook, which is curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles
Angles
may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were originally descended from such, and therefore England
England
would mean 'land of the fishermen ', and English would be 'the fishermen's language'.

HISTORY

Further information: History of the English language The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1: North Germanic NORTH SEA GERMANIC , or INGVAEONIC Weser-Rhine Germanic , or Istvaeonic Elbe Germanic
Elbe Germanic
, or Irminonic East Germanic

Old English
Old English
was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English
Old English
from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language . Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary.

Old English
Old English
is a West Germanic language , developing out of Ingvaeonic (also known as North Sea Germanic) dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England
England
. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland
Scotland
, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria . Other parts of the island – Wales
Wales
and most of Scotland
Scotland
– continued to use Celtic languages , except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech also remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall
Cornwall
and in adjacent parts of Devon
Devon
, while Cumbric survived perhaps to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria
Cumbria
, and Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border . Norse was also widely spoken in the parts of England
England
which fell under Danish law .

Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century. The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is _Cædmon\'s Hymn _, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts (notably the Franks Casket ) date to the 8th century. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
statue in Winchester
Winchester
, Hampshire
Hampshire
. The 9th-century English King proposed that primary education be taught in English, with those wishing to advance to holy orders to continue their studies in Latin.

With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (outside the Danelaw ) by Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
in the later 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect (Early West Saxon). Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, and had many works translated into the English language; some of them, such as Pope Gregory I 's treatise _Pastoral Care _, appear to have been translated by Alfred himself. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
(871 to 901) chiefly inspired the growth of prose.

A later literary standard, dating from the later 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester
Winchester
, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham
Ælfric of Eynsham
("the Grammarian"). This form of the language is known as the "Winchester standard", or more commonly as Late West Saxon. It is considered to represent the "classical" form of Old English. It retained its position of prestige until the time of the Norman Conquest, after which English ceased for a time to be of importance as a literary language.

The history of Old English
Old English
can be subdivided into:

* Prehistoric Old English
Old English
(c. 450 to 650); for this period, Old English is mostly a reconstructed language as no literary witnesses survive (with the exception of limited epigraphic evidence ). This language, or bloc of languages, spoken by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, and pre-dating documented Old English
Old English
or Anglo-Saxon, has also been called Primitive Old English. * Early Old English
Old English
(c. 650 to 900), the period of the oldest manuscript traditions, with authors such as Cædmon , Bede
Bede
, Cynewulf and Aldhelm . * Late Old English
Old English
(c. 900 to 1066), the final stage of the language leading up to the Norman conquest of England
England
and the subsequent transition to Early Middle English .

The Old English
Old English
period is followed by Middle English (12th to 15th century), Early Modern English
Early Modern English
(c. 1480 to 1650) and finally Modern English (after 1650).

DIALECTS

"Her swutelað seo gecwydrædnes ðe" Old English
Old English
inscription over the arch of the south porticus in the 10th-century St Mary\'s parish church, Breamore , Hampshire
Hampshire

Old English
Old English
should not be regarded as a single monolithic entity, just as Modern English is also not monolithic. It emerged over time out of the many dialects and languages of the colonising tribes, and it is perhaps only towards the later Anglo-Saxon period that these can be considered to have constituted a single national language. Even then, Old English
Old English
continued to exhibit much local and regional variation, remnants of which remain in Modern English dialects .

The four main dialectal forms of Old English
Old English
were Mercian , Northumbrian , Kentish , and West Saxon . Mercian and Northumbrian are together referred to as _Anglian_. In terms of geography the Northumbrian region lay north of the Humber River; the Mercian lay north of the Thames and South of the Humber River; West Saxon lay south and southwest of the Thames; and the smallest, Kentish region lay southeast of the Thames, a small corner of England. The Kentish region, settled by the Jutes
Jutes
from Jutland, has the scantiest literary remains.

Each of these four dialects was associated with an independent kingdom on the island. Of these, Northumbria south of the Tyne , and most of Mercia
Mercia
, were overrun by the Vikings
Vikings
during the 9th century. The portion of Mercia
Mercia
that was successfully defended, and all of Kent , were then integrated into Wessex under Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
. From that time on, the West Saxon dialect (then in the form now known as Early West Saxon) became standardised as the language of government, and as the basis for the many works of literature and religious materials produced or translated from Latin
Latin
in that period.

The later literary standard known as Late West Saxon (see History , above), although centred in the same region of the country, appears not to have been directly descended from Alfred's Early West Saxon. For example, the former diphthong /iy/ tended to become monophthongised to /i/ in EWS, but to /y/ in LWS.

Due to the centralisation of power and the Viking invasions, there is relatively little written record of the non-Wessex dialects after Alfred's unification. Some Mercian texts continued to be written, however, and the influence of Mercian is apparent in some of the translations produced under Alfred's programme, many of which were produced by Mercian scholars. Other dialects certainly continued to be spoken, as is evidenced by the continued variation between their successors in Middle and Modern English. In fact, what would become the standard forms of Middle English and of Modern English are descended from Mercian rather than West Saxon, while Scots developed from the Northumbrian dialect. It was once claimed that, owing to its position at the heart of the Kingdom of Wessex, the relics of Anglo-Saxon accent, idiom and vocabulary were best preserved in the dialect of Somerset .

For details of the sound differences between the dialects, see Phonological history of Old English (dialects) .

INFLUENCE OF OTHER LANGUAGES

Further information: Celtic influence in English , Latin
Latin
influence in English , and Scandinavian influence in English

The language of the Anglo-Saxon settlers appears not to have been significantly affected by the native British Celtic languages which it largely displaced. The number of Celtic loanwords introduced into the language is very small. However, various suggestions have been made concerning possible influence that Celtic may have had on developments in English syntax in the post- Old English
Old English
period, such as the regular progressive construction and analytic word order , as well as the eventual development of the periphrastic auxiliary verb "do."

Old English
Old English
contained a certain number of loanwords from Latin
Latin
, which was the scholarly and diplomatic _lingua franca _ of Western Europe. It is sometimes possible to give approximate dates for the borrowing of individual Latin
Latin
words based on which patterns of sound change they have undergone. Some Latin
Latin
words had already been borrowed into the Germanic languages before the ancestral Angles
Angles
and Saxons left continental Europe for Britain. More entered the language when the Anglo- Saxons were converted to Christianity and Latin-speaking priests became influential. It was also through Irish Christian missionaries that the Latin
Latin
alphabet was introduced and adapted for the writing of Old English
Old English
, replacing the earlier runic system. Nonetheless, the largest transfer of Latin-based (mainly Old French ) words into English occurred after the Norman Conquest of 1066, and thus in the Middle English rather than the Old English
Old English
period.

Another source of loanwords was Old Norse , which came into contact with Old English
Old English
via the Scandinavian rulers and settlers in the Danelaw from the late 9th century, and during the rule of Cnut and other Danish kings in the early 11th century. Many place-names in eastern and northern England
England
are of Scandinavian origin. Norse borrowings are relatively rare in Old English
Old English
literature, being mostly terms relating to government and administration. The literary standard, however, was based on the West Saxon dialect , away from the main area of Scandinavian influence; the impact of Norse may have been greater in the eastern and northern dialects. Certainly in Middle English texts, which are more often based on eastern dialects, a strong Norse influence becomes apparent. Modern English contains a great many, often everyday, words that were borrowed from Old Norse, and the grammatical simplification that occurred after the Old English period is also often attributed to Norse influence.

The influence of Old Norse certainly helped move English from a synthetic language along the continuum to a more analytic word order , and Old Norse most likely made a greater impact on the English language than any other language. The eagerness of Vikings
Vikings
in the Danelaw to communicate with their southern Anglo-Saxon neighbours produced a friction that led to the erosion of the complicated inflectional word-endings. Simeon Potter notes: “No less far-reaching was the influence of Scandinavian upon the inflexional endings of English in hastening that wearing away and leveling of grammatical forms which gradually spread from north to south. It was, after all, a salutary influence. The gain was greater than the loss. There was a gain in directness, in clarity, and in strength.”

The strength of the Viking influence on Old English
Old English
appears from the fact that the indispensable elements of the language - pronouns, modals, comparatives, pronominal adverbs (like "hence" and "together"), conjunctions and prepositions - show the most marked Danish influence; the best evidence of Scandinavian influence appears in the extensive word borrowings for, as Jespersen indicates, no texts exist in either Scandinavia or in Northern England
England
from this time to give certain evidence of an influence on syntax. The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, pervasive, and of a democratic character. Old Norse and Old English
Old English
resembled each other closely like cousins and with some words in common, they roughly understood each other; in time the inflections melted away and the analytic pattern emerged. It is most “important to recognize that in many words the English and Scandinavian language differed chiefly in their inflectional elements. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding. In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to much confusion, tending gradually to become obscured and finally lost.” This blending of peoples and languages resulted in “simplifying English grammar.”

PHONOLOGY

Main article: Old English phonology

The inventory of classical Old English
Old English
( Late West Saxon ) surface phones , as usually reconstructed, is as follows.

Consonants

LABIAL DENTAL ALVEOLAR Post- alveolar PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL m

(n̥ ) n

(ŋ )

STOP p b

t d

k ɡ

AFFRICATE

tʃ (dʒ )

FRICATIVE f (v ) θ (ð ) s (z ) ʃ (ç ) (x ɣ ) h

APPROXIMANT

(l̥ ) l

j (ʍ ) w

TRILL

(r̥ ) r

The sounds enclosed in parentheses in the chart above are not considered to be phonemes :

* is an allophone of /j/ occurring after /n/ and when geminated (doubled). * is an allophone of /n/ occurring before /k/ and /ɡ/. * are voiced allophones of /f, θ, s/ respectively, occurring between vowels or voiced consonants . * are allophones of /h/ occurring in coda position after front and back vowels respectively. * is an allophone of /ɡ/ occurring after a vowel, and, at an earlier stage of the language, in the syllable onset. * the voiceless sonorants are analysed as realizing the sequences /hw, hl, hn, hr/.

The above system is largely similar to that of Modern English , except that (and for most speakers ) have generally been lost, while the voiced affricate and fricatives (now also including /ʒ/) have become independent phonemes, as has /ŋ/.

Vowels – monophthongs

FRONT BACK

UNROUNDED ROUNDED UNROUNDED ROUNDED

CLOSE i iː y yː

u uː

MID e eː (ø øː)

o oː

OPEN æ æː

ɑ ɑː

The mid front rounded vowels /ø(ː)/ had merged into unrounded /e(ː)/ before the Late West Saxon period. During the 11th century such vowels arose again, as monophthongisations of the diphthongs /e(ː)o/, but quickly merged again with /e(ː)/ in most dialects.

Diphthongs First element Short (monomoraic ) Long (bimoraic)

CLOSE iy/ie iːy/iːe

MID eo eːo

OPEN æɑ æːɑ

The exact pronunciation of the West Saxon close diphthongs, spelt ⟨ie⟩, is disputed; it may have been /i(ː)y/ or /i(ː)e/. Other dialects may have had different systems of diphthongs; for example, Anglian dialects retained /i(ː)u/, which had merged with /e(ː)o/ in West Saxon.

For more on dialectal differences, see Phonological history of Old English (dialects) .

SOUND CHANGES

Main article: Phonological history of Old English

Some of the principal sound changes occurring in the pre-history and history of Old English
Old English
were the following:

* Fronting of to except when nasalised or followed by a nasal consonant ("Anglo-Frisian brightening"), partly reversed in certain positions by later "a-restoration" or retraction. * Monophthongisation of the diphthong , and modification of remaining diphthongs to the height-harmonic type. * Diphthongisation of long and short front vowels in certain positions ("breaking"). * Palatalisation of velars , , , to , , , in certain front-vowel environments. * The process known as i-mutation (which for example led to modern _mice_ as the plural of _mouse_). * Loss of certain weak vowels in word-final and medial positions, and of medial ; reduction of remaining unstressed vowels. * Diphthongisation of certain vowels before certain consonants when preceding a back vowel ("back mutation"). * Loss of /h/ between vowels or between a voiced consonant and a vowel, with lengthening of the preceding vowel. * Collapse of two consecutive vowels into a single vowel. * "Palatal umlaut", which has given forms such as _six_ (compare German _sechs_).

For more details of these processes, see the main article, linked above. For sound changes before and after the Old English
Old English
period, see Phonological history of English .

GRAMMAR

Main article: Old English grammar

MORPHOLOGY

Nouns decline for 5 cases : nominative , accusative , genitive , dative , instrumental ; 3 genders : masculine, feminine, neuter; 2 numbers : singular, and plural; and are strong, or weak. The instrumental is vestigial and only used with the masculine and neuter singular and often replaced by the dative . Only pronouns and strong adjectives retain separate instrumental forms. There is also sparse early Northumbrian evidence of a sixth case; the locative . Adjectives agree with nouns in case , gender , number , and strong, or weak forms. Pronouns and sometimes participles agree in case , gender , and number . First and second person personal-pronouns occasionally distinguish dual-number forms. The definite article _sē_ and its inflections serve as a definite article ("the"), a demonstrative adjective ("that"), and demonstrative pronoun . Other demonstratives are _þes_ ("this"), and _ġeon_ ("yon"). These words inflect for gender , number and case . Adjectives have both strong and weak sets of endings, weak ones being used when a definite or possessive determiner is also present.

Verbs conjugate for 3 persons : first, second, third; 2 numbers : singular, plural; 2 tenses : present, and past; 3 moods : indicative , subjunctive , and imperative ; and are strong(exhibiting ablaut) or weak(exhibiting a dental suffix). Verbs have 2 infinitive forms: bare, and bound; and 2 participles : present, and past. The subjunctive has past, and present forms. Finite verbs agree with subjects in person , and number . The future tense , passive voice , and other aspects are formed with compounds. Adpositions are mostly before but often after their object. If the object of an adposition is marked in the dative case, an adposition may conceivably be located anywhere in the sentence.

Remnants of the Old English
Old English
case system in Modern English are in the forms of a few pronouns (such as _I/me/mine_, _she/her_, _who/whom/whose_ ) and in the possessive ending _-'s_, which derives from the masculine and neuter genitive ending _-es_. The modern English plural ending _-(e)s_ derives from the Old English
Old English
_-as_, but the latter applied only to "strong" masculine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases; different plural endings were used in other instances. Old English
Old English
nouns had grammatical gender , while modern English has only natural gender. Pronoun usage could reflect either natural or grammatical gender when those conflicted, as in the case of _wīf_, a neuter noun referring to a female person.

In Old English's verbal compound constructions are the beginnings of the compound tenses of Modern English . Old English
Old English
verbs include strong verbs , which form the past tense by altering the root vowel, and weak verbs , which use a suffix such as _-de_. As in Modern English, and peculiar to the Germanic languages, the verbs formed two great classes: weak (regular), and strong (irregular). Like today, Old English had fewer strong verbs, and many of these have over time decayed into weak forms. Then, as now, dental suffixes indicated the past tense of the weak verbs, as in _work_ and _worked_.

SYNTAX

Old English
Old English
syntax is similar to that of modern English . Some differences are consequences of the greater level of nominal and verbal inflection, allowing freer word order .

* Default word order is verb-second in main clauses , and verb-final in subordinate clauses , being more like modern German than modern English. * No _do_-support in questions and negatives. Questions were usually formed by inverting subject and finite verb , and negatives by placing _ne_ before the finite verb, regardless what verb. * Multiple negatives can stack up in a sentence intensifying each other (negative concord ). * Sentences with subordinate clauses of the type "when X, Y" (e.g. "When I got home, I ate dinner") don't use a _wh-_type conjunction, but rather a _th-_type correlative conjunction such as _þā_, otherwise meaning "then" (e.g. _þā X, þā Y_ in place of "when X, Y"). The _wh-_words are used only as interrogatives and as indefinite pronouns . * Similarly, _wh-_ forms were not used as relative pronouns . Instead, the indeclinable word _þe_ is used, often preceded by (or replaced by) the appropriate form of the article/demonstrative _se_.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Main articles: Anglo-Saxon runes and Old English Latin alphabet The runic alphabet used to write Old English
Old English
before the introduction of the Latin
Latin
alphabet .

Old English
Old English
was first written in runes , using the futhorc – a rune set derived from the Germanic 24-character elder futhark , extended by five more runes used to represent Anglo-Saxon vowel sounds, and sometimes by several more additional characters. From around the 9th century, the runic system came to be supplanted by a (minuscule) half-uncial script of the Latin
Latin
alphabet introduced by Irish Christian missionaries. This was replaced by insular script , a cursive and pointed version of the half-uncial script. This was used until the end of the 12th century when continental Carolingian minuscule (also known as _Caroline_) replaced the insular.

The Latin
Latin
alphabet of the time still lacked the letters ⟨j⟩ and ⟨w⟩, and there was no ⟨v⟩ as distinct from ⟨u⟩; moreover native Old English
Old English
spellings did not use ⟨k⟩, ⟨q⟩ or ⟨z⟩. The remaining 20 Latin
Latin
letters were supplemented by four more: ⟨æ ⟩ (_æsc_, modern _ash_) and ⟨ð⟩ (_ðæt_, now called eth or edh), which were modified Latin
Latin
letters, and thorn ⟨þ⟩ and wynn ⟨ƿ⟩, which are borrowings from the futhorc. A few letter pairs were used as digraphs , representing a single sound. Also used was the Tironian note ⟨⁊⟩ (a character similar to the digit 7) for the conjunction _and_, and a thorn with a crossbar through the ascender for the pronoun _þæt_. Macrons over vowels were originally used not to mark long vowels (as in modern editions), but to indicate stress, or as abbreviations for a following _m_ or _n_.

Modern editions of Old English
Old English
manuscripts generally introduce some additional conventions. The modern forms of Latin
Latin
letters are used, including ⟨g⟩ in place of the insular G , ⟨s⟩ for long S , and others which may differ considerably from the insular script, notably ⟨e⟩, ⟨f⟩ and ⟨r⟩. Macrons are used to indicate long vowels, where usually no distinction was made between long and short vowels in the originals. (In some older editions an acute accent mark was used for consistency with Old Norse conventions.) Additionally, modern editions often distinguish between velar and palatal ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ by placing dots above the palatals: ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩. The letter wynn ⟨ƿ⟩ is usually replaced with ⟨w⟩, but _æsc_, eth and thorn are normally retained (except when eth is replaced by thorn).

In contrast with Modern English orthography , that of Old English
Old English
was reasonably regular , with a mostly predictable correspondence between letters and phonemes . There were not usually any silent letters – in the word _cniht_, for example, both the ⟨c⟩ and ⟨h⟩ were pronounced, unlike the ⟨k⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ in the modern _knight_. The following table lists the Old English
Old English
letters and digraphs together with the phonemes they represent, using the same notation as in the Phonology section above.

CHARACTER IPA
IPA
TRANSCRIPTION DESCRIPTION AND NOTES

A /ɑ/, /ɑː/ Spelling variations like ⟨land⟩ ~ ⟨lond⟩ ("land") suggest the short vowel may have had a rounded allophone before in some cases.

ā /ɑː/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /ɑ/.

æ /æ/, /æː/ Formerly the digraph ⟨ae⟩ was used; ⟨æ⟩ became more common during the 8th century, and was standard after 800. In 9th-century Kentish manuscripts, a form of ⟨æ⟩ that was missing the upper hook of the ⟨a⟩ part was used; it is not clear whether this represented /æ/ or /e/. See also ę.

ǣ /æː/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /æ/.

B /b/

(an allophone of /f/) Used in this way in early texts (before 800). For example, the word "sheaves" is spelled _scēabas_ in an early text, but later (and more commonly) as _scēafas_.

C /k/

/tʃ/ The /tʃ/ pronunciation is sometimes written with a diacritic by modern editors: most commonly ⟨ċ⟩, sometimes ⟨č⟩ or ⟨ç⟩. Before a consonant letter the pronunciation is always /k/; word-finally after ⟨i⟩ it is always /tʃ/. Otherwise, a knowledge of the history of the word is needed to predict the pronunciation. (For details, see Phonological history of Old English § Palatalization .) See also the digraphs CG, SC.

CG (the phonetic realization of geminate /jj/)

/ɡɡ/ (occasionally)

D /d/ In the earliest texts it also represented /θ/ (see þ).

ð /θ/, including its allophone Called _ðæt_ in Old English; now called eth or edh. Derived from the insular form of ⟨d⟩ with the addition of a cross-bar. See also þ.

E /e/, /eː/

ę

A modern editorial substitution for the modified Kentish form of ⟨æ⟩ (see æ). Compare e caudata , ę .

ē /eː/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /e/.

EA /æɑ/, /æːɑ/ Sometimes stands for /æ/, /æː/ or /ɑ/ after ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩ (see palatal diphthongization ).

ēA /æːɑ/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /æɑ/. Sometimes stands for /æː/ after ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩.

EO /eo/, /eːo/ Sometimes stands for /o/ after ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩ (see palatal diphthongization ).

ēO /eːo/ Used in modern editions, to distinguish from short /eo/.

F /f/, including its allophone (but see B).

G /ɡ/, including its allophone ; or /j/, including its allophone , which occurs after ⟨n⟩. In Old English
Old English
manuscripts, this letter usually took its insular form ⟨ᵹ⟩ (see also: yogh ). The and pronunciations are sometimes written ⟨ġ⟩ in modern editions. Before a consonant letter the pronunciation is always (word-initially) or (after a vowel). Word-finally after ⟨i⟩ it is always . Otherwise a knowledge of the history of the word in question is needed to predict the pronunciation. (For details, see Phonological history of Old English § Palatalization .)

H /h/, including its allophones In the combinations ⟨hl⟩, ⟨hr⟩, ⟨hn⟩, ⟨hw⟩, the realization may have been a devoiced version of the second consonant.

I /i/, /iː/

ī /iː/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /i/.

IE /iy/, /iːy/

/e/, /eː/ Only occurs sometimes in this sense and appears after ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩ (see palatal diphthongization ).

īE /iːy/ Used in modern editions, to distinguish from short /iy/. Sometimes stands for /eː/ after ⟨ċ⟩, ⟨ġ⟩ .

IO /iu/, /iːu/ Occurs in dialects that had such diphthongs. Not present in Late West Saxon. The long variant may be shown in modern editions as _īo_.

K /k/ Rarely used; this sound is normally represented by ⟨c⟩.

L /l/ Probably velarised (as in Modern English) when in coda position.

M /m/

N /n/, including its allophone (before /k/, /g/).

O /o/, /oː/ See also A.

ō /oː/ Used in modern editions, to distinguish from short /o/.

OE /ø/, /øː/ (in dialects having that sound).

ōE /øː/ Used in modern editions, to distinguish from short /ø/.

P /p/

QU /kw/ A rare spelling of /kw/, which was usually written as ⟨cƿ⟩ (⟨cw⟩ in modern editions).

R /r/ The exact nature of Old English
Old English
/r/ is not known; it may have been an alveolar approximant as in most modern English, an alveolar flap , or an alveolar trill .

S /s/, including its allophone .

SC /ʃ/ or occasionally /sk/.

T /t/

TH Represented /θ/ in the earliest texts (see þ).

þ /θ/, including its allophone Called thorn and derived from the rune of the same name . In the earliest texts ⟨d⟩ or ⟨th⟩ was used for this phoneme, but these were later replaced in this function by eth ⟨ð⟩ and thorn ⟨þ⟩. Eth
Eth
was first attested (in definitely dated materials) in the 7th century, and thorn in the 8th. Eth
Eth
was more common than thorn before Alfred 's time. From then onward, thorn was used increasingly often at the start of words, while eth was normal in the middle and at the end of words, although usage varied in both cases. Some modern editions use only thorn. See also Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩ .

U /u/, /uː/. Also sometimes /w/ (see ƿ, below).

UU Sometimes used for /w/ (see ƿ, below).

ū Used for /uː/ in modern editions, to distinguish from short /u/.

W /w/ A modern substitution for ⟨ƿ⟩.

ƿ /w/ Called wynn and derived from the rune of the same name. In earlier texts by continental scribes, and also later in the north, /w/ was represented by ⟨u⟩ or ⟨uu⟩. In modern editions, wynn is replaced by ⟨w⟩, to prevent confusion with ⟨p⟩.

X /ks/ ( according to some authors).

Y /y/, /yː/.

ȳ /yː/ Used in modern editions to distinguish from short /y/.

Z /ts/ A rare spelling for /ts/; e.g. _betst_ ("best") is occasionally spelt _bezt_.

Doubled consonants are geminated ; the geminate fricatives ⟨ðð⟩/⟨þþ⟩, ⟨ff⟩ and ⟨ss⟩ cannot be voiced.

LITERATURE

The first page of the Beowulf
Beowulf
manuscript with its opening Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..." Main article: Old English literature

Old English
Old English
literature, though more abundant than literature of the continent before AD 1000, is nonetheless scant. The pagan and Christian streams mingle in Old English, one of the richest and most significant bodies of literature preserved among the early Germanic peoples. In his supplementary article to the 1935 posthumous edition of Bright's _Anglo-Saxon Reader_, Dr. James Hulbert writes:

In such historical conditions, an incalculable amount of the writings of the Anglo-Saxon period perished. What they contained, how important they were for an understanding of literature before the Conquest, we have no means of knowing: the scant catalogues of monastic libraries do not help us, and there are no references in extant works to other compositions....How incomplete our materials are can be illustrated by the well-known fact that, with few and relatively unimportant exceptions, all extant Anglo-Saxon poetry is preserved in four manuscripts.

Some of the most important surviving works of Old English
Old English
literature are _ Beowulf
Beowulf
_, an epic poem ; the _ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle _, a record of early English history; the Franks Casket , an inscribed early whalebone artefact; and Cædmon\'s Hymn , a Christian religious poem. There are also a number of extant prose works, such as sermons and saints' lives, biblical translations, and translated Latin
Latin
works of the early Church Fathers, legal documents, such as laws and wills, and practical works on grammar, medicine, and geography. Still, poetry is considered the heart of Old English
Old English
literature. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous, with a few exceptions, such as Bede
Bede
and Cædmon . Cædmon, the earliest English poet we know by name, served as a lay brother in the monastery at Whitby.

_BEOWULF_

The first example is taken from the opening lines of the folk-epic _ Beowulf
Beowulf
_, a poem of some 3,000 lines and the single greatest work of Old English. This passage describes how Hrothgar 's legendary ancestor Scyld was found as a baby, washed ashore, and adopted by a noble family. The translation is literal and represents the original poetic word order. As such, it is not typical of Old English
Old English
prose. The modern cognates of original words have been used whenever practical to give a close approximation of the feel of the original poem.

The words in brackets are implied in the Old English
Old English
by noun case and the bold words in brackets are explanations of words that have slightly different meanings in a modern context. Notice how _what_ is used by the poet where a word like _lo_ or _behold_ would be expected. This usage is similar to _what-ho!_, both an expression of surprise and a call to attention.

English poetry is based on stress and alliteration. In alliteration, the first consonant in a word alliterates with the same consonant at the beginning of another word, as with _Gār-Dena_ and _ġeār-dagum_. Vowels alliterate with any other vowel, as with _æþelingas_ and _Ellen_. In the text below, the letters that alliterate are bolded.

ORIGINAL TRANSLATION

1 Hƿæt! ƿē Gār-Dena in ġeār-dagum, What! We of Gare-Danes (LIT. SPEAR-DANES) in yore-days,

þēod-cyninga, þrym ġefrūnon, of thede(NATION/PEOPLE)-kings, did thrum (GLORY) frayne (LEARN ABOUT BY ASKING),

hū ðā æþelingas Ellen fremedon. how those athelings (NOBLEMEN) did ellen (FORTITUDE/COURAGE/ZEAL) freme (PROMOTE).

Oft SCyld SCēfing SCeaþena þrēatum, Oft did Scyld Scefing of scather threats (TROOPS),

5 Monegum Mǣġþum, Meodosetla oftēah, of many maegths (CLANS; CF. IRISH COGNATE MAC-), of mead-settees atee (DEPRIVE),

Egsode EOrlas. Syððan ǣrest ƿearð ugg (INDUCE LOATHING IN, TERRIFY; RELATED TO "UGLY") earls. Sith (SINCE, AS OF WHEN) erst (FIRST) worthed (BECAME)

Fēasceaft Funden, hē þæs Frōfre ġebād, fewship (DESTITUTE) found, he of this frover (COMFORT) abode,

ƿēox under ƿolcnum, ƿeorðmyndum þāh, waxed under welkin (FIRMAMENT/CLOUDS), worthmint (HONOUR/WORSHIP) threed (THROVE/PROSPERED)

Oðþæt him ǣġhƿylc þāra Ymbsittendra oth that (UNTIL THAT) him each of those umsitters (THOSE "SITTING" OR DWELLING ROUNDABOUT)

10 ofer Hronrāde Hȳran scolde, over whale-road (_KENNING _ FOR "SEA") hear should,

Gomban Gyldan. Þæt ƿæs Gōd cyning! yeme (HEED/OBEDIENCE; RELATED TO "GORMLESS") yield. That was good king!

A semi-fluent translation in Modern English would be:

Lo! We have heard of majesty of the Spear-Danes, of those nation-kings in the days of yore, and how those noblemen promoted zeal. Scyld Scefing took away mead-benches from bands of enemies, from many tribes; he terrified earls. Since he was first found destitute (he gained consolation for that) he grew under the heavens, prospered in honours, until each of those who lived around him over the sea had to obey him, give him tribute. That was a good king!

THE LORD\'S PRAYER

A recording of how the Lord's Prayer probably sounded in Old English, pronounced slowly

This text of the Lord\'s Prayer is presented in the standardised West Saxon literary dialect, with added macrons for vowel length, markings for probable palatalised consonants, modern punctuation, and the replacement of the letter wynn with w.

LINE ORIGINAL IPA
IPA
TRANSLATION

Fæder ūre þū þe eart on heofonum, /ˈfæ.der ˈuː.re θuː θe æɑrt on ˈheo.vo.num/ Father of ours, thou who art in heavens,

Sī þīn nama ġehālgod. /siː θiːn ˈnɑ.mɑ je.ˈhɑɫ.ɡod/ Be thy name hallowed.

Tōbecume þīn rīċe , /toː.be.ˈku.me θiːn ˈriːt͡ʃe/ Come thy riche (KINGDOM),

ġewurþe þīn willa, on eorðan swā swā on heofonum. /je.ˈwur.ðe θiːn ˈwi.lːɑ on ˈeor.ðan swɑː swɑː on ˈheo.vo.num/ Worth (MANIFEST) thy will, on earth as also in heaven.

Ūre ġedæġhwāmlīcan hlāf syle ūs tō dæġ, /ˈuː.re je.ˈdæj.ʍɑːm.ˌliː.kɑn l̥ɑːf ˈsy.le ˈuːs toː.ˈdæj/ Our daily loaf do sell (GIVE) to us today,

and forġyf ūs ūre gyltas, swā swā wē forġyfað ūrum gyltendum. /ɑnd for.ˈjyf uːs ˈuː.re ɡyl.ˈtɑs swɑː swɑː weː for.ˈjy.fɑθ uː.rum ɡyl.ˈten.dum/ And forgive us our guilts as also we forgive our guilters

And ne ġelǣd þū ūs on costnunge, ac ālȳs ūs of yfele. /ɑnd ne je.læːd θuː uːs on kost.ˈnuŋ.ɡe ɑk ɑː.ˈlyːs uːs of y.ˈve.le/ And do not lead thou us into temptation, but alese (RELEASE/DELIVER) us of (FROM) evil.

Sōþlīċe. /ˈsoːð.liː.t͡ʃe/ Soothly (TRULY).

CHARTER OF CNUT

This is a proclamation from King Cnut the Great to his earl Thorkell the Tall and the English people written in AD 1020. Unlike the previous two examples, this text is prose rather than poetry. For ease of reading, the passage has been divided into sentences while the pilcrows represent the original division.

ORIGINAL TRANSLATION

Cnut cyning gret his arcebiscopas and his leod-biscopas and Þurcyl eorl and ealle his eorlas and ealne his þeodscype, twelfhynde and twyhynde, gehadode and læwede, on Englalande freondlice. ¶ Cnut, king, greets his archbishops and his lede'(PEOPLE\'S)\'-bishops and Thorkell, earl, and all his earls and all his _PEOPLE_ship, _GREATER_ (HAVING A 1200 SHILLING WEREGILD ) and _LESSER_ (200 SHILLING WEREGILD), hooded(ORDAINED TO PRIESTHOOD) and lewd(LAY), in England
England
friendly.

And ic cyðe eow, þæt ic wylle beon hold hlaford and unswicende to godes gerihtum and to rihtre woroldlage. And I kithe(MAKE KNOWN/COUTH TO) you, that I will be hold(CIVILISED) lord and unswiking(UNCHEATING) to God's rights(LAWS) and to rights(LAWS) worldly.

¶ Ic nam me to gemynde þa gewritu and þa word, þe se arcebiscop Lyfing me fram þam papan brohte of Rome, þæt ic scolde æghwær godes lof upp aræran and unriht alecgan and full frið wyrcean be ðære mihte, þe me god syllan wolde. ¶ I nam(TOOK) me to mind the writs and the word that the Archbishop Lyfing me from the Pope brought of Rome, that I should ayewhere(EVERYWHERE) God's love(PRAISE) uprear(PROMOTE), and unright(OUTLAW) lies, and full frith(PEACE) work(BRING ABOUT) by the might that me God would(WISHED) sell'(GIVE).

¶ Nu ne wandode ic na minum sceattum, þa hwile þe eow unfrið on handa stod: nu ic mid godes fultume þæt totwæmde mid minum scattum. ¶ Now, ne went(WITHDREW/CHANGED) I not my shot(FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTION, CF. NORSE COGNATE IN SCOT-FREE) the while that you stood(ENDURED) unfrith(TURMOIL) on-hand: now I, mid(WITH) God's _SUPPORT_, that totwemed(SEPARATED/DISPELLED) mid(WITH) my shot(FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTION).

Þa cydde man me, þæt us mara hearm to fundode, þonne us wel licode: and þa for ic me sylf mid þam mannum þe me mid foron into Denmearcon, þe eow mæst hearm of com: and þæt hæbbe mid godes fultume forene forfangen, þæt eow næfre heonon forð þanon nan unfrið to ne cymð, þa hwile þe ge me rihtlice healdað and min lif byð. Tho(THEN) man kithed(MADE KNOWN/COUTH TO) me that us more harm _HAD_ found(COME UPON) than us well liked(EQUALLED): and tho(THEN) fore(TRAVELLED) I, meself, mid(WITH) those men that mid(WITH) me fore(TRAVELLED), into Denmark
Denmark
that you most harm came of(FROM): and that have , mid(WITH) God's _SUPPORT_, afore(PREVIOUSLY) forefangen(FORESTALLED) that to you never henceforth thence none unfrith(BREACH OF PEACE) ne come the while that ye me rightly hold(BEHOLD AS KING) and my life beeth.

REVIVALS

Like other historical languages, Old English
Old English
has been used by scholars and enthusiasts of later periods to create texts either imitating Anglo-Saxon literature or deliberately transferring it to a different cultural context. Examples include Alistair Campbell and J. R. R. Tolkien . A number of websites devoted to Modern Paganism and historical reenactment offer reference material and forums promoting the active use of Old English. There is also an Old English
Old English
version of Wikipedia. However, one investigation found that many Neo-Old English texts published online bear little resemblance to the historical language and have many basic grammatical mistakes.

SEE ALSO

* Anglo-Saxon England
England
portal

* Exeter Book * Go (verb) * History of the Scots language * I-mutation * Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law * List of generic forms in place names in the United Kingdom and Ireland * List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English

NOTES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Old English". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

* ^ By the 16th century the term _Anglo-Saxon_ came to refer to all things of the early English period, including language, culture, and people. While it remains the normal term for the latter two aspects, the language began to be called Old English
Old English
towards the end of the 19th century, as a result of the increasingly strong anti-Germanic nationalism in English society of the 1890s and early 1900s. However many authors still also use the term Anglo-Saxon to refer to the language. Crystal, David (2003). _The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53033-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ Baugh, Albert (1951). _A History of the English Language_. London: Routledge 110–130 (Scandinavian influence). * ^ Fennell, Barbara 1998. _A history of English. A sociolinguistic approach_. Oxford: Blackwell. * ^ Pyles, Thomas and John Algeo 1993. _Origins and development of the English language_. 4th edition. (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich). * ^ Barber, Charles, Joan C. Beal and Philip A. Shaw 2009. _The English language. A historical introduction_. Second edition of Barber (1993). Cambridge: University Press. * ^ Mugglestone, Lynda (ed.) 2006. _The Oxford History of English._ Oxford: University Press. * ^ Hogg, Richard M. and David Denison (ed.) 2006. _A history of the English language_. Cambridge: University Press. * ^ Baugh, Albert C. and Thomas Cable 1993 _A history of the English language_. 4th edition. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall). * ^ Hogg (1992), p. 83. * ^ Stumpf, John (1970). _An Outline of English Literature; Anglo-Saxon and Middle English Literature_. London: Forum House Publishing Company. p. 7. We do not know what languages the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons spoke, nor even whether they were sufficiently similar to make them mutually intelligible, but it is reasonable to assume that by the end of the sixth century there must have been a language that could be understood by all and this we call Primitive Old English. * ^ Shore, Thomas William (1906), _Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A Study of the Settlement of England
England
and the Tribal Origin of the Old English
Old English
People_ (1st ed.), London, pp. 3, 393 * ^ Origin of the Anglo-Saxon race : a study of the settlement of England
England
and the tribal origin of the Old English
Old English
people; Author: William Thomas Shore; Editors TW and LE Shore; Publisher: Elliot Stock; published 1906 p. 3 * ^ Campbell, Alistair (1959). _ Old English
Old English
Grammar_. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-811943-7 . * ^ Hogg (1992), p. 117; but for a different interpretation of this, see Old English
Old English
diphthongs . * ^ Magennis (2011), pp. 56–60. * ^ The Somersetshire dialect: its pronunciation, 2 papers (1861) Thomas Spencer Baynes, first published 1855 ">(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2011. * ^ Scott, Shay (30 January 2008). _The history of English: a linguistic introduction_. Wardja Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-615-16817-3 . Retrieved 29 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Jespersen, Otto (1919). _Growth and Structure of the English Language_. Leipzig, Germany: B. G. Teubner. pp. 58–82. * ^ BBC World News (27 December 2014). " BBC Documentary English Birth of a Language - 35:00 to 37:20". BBC. Retrieved 4 January 2016. * ^ Crystal, David (1995). _The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 32. * ^ _A_ _B_ McCrum, Robert (1987). _The Story of English_. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 70–71. * ^ Potter, Simeon (1950). _Our Language_. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 33. * ^ Lohmeier, Charlene (28 October 2012). "121028 Charlene Lohmeier "Evolution of the English Language" - 23:40 - 25:00; 30:20 - 30:45; 45:00 - 46:00". _121028 Charlene Lohmeier "Evolution of the English Language"_. Dutch Lichliter. * ^ Blake (1992), pp. 42–43. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Continuum Encyclopedia of British Literature". Continuum. * ^ Mitchell, Bruce; Robinson, Fred C (2002). _A Guide to Old English_. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 109–112. * ^ Crystal, David (1987). _The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language_. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-521-26438-3 . * ^ C.M. Millward, Mary Hayes, _A Biography of the English Language_, Cengage Learning 2011, p. 96. * ^ Stephen Pollington, _First Steps in Old English_, Anglo-Saxon Books 1997, p. 138. * ^ Lit. a participle: "guilting" or " sinning"; cf. Latin
Latin
cognate -ant/-ent. * ^ Christina Neuland and Florian Schleburg. (2014). "A New Old English? The Chances of an Anglo-Saxon Revival on the Internet". In: S. Buschfeld et al. (Eds.), _The Evolution of Englishes. The Dynamic Model and Beyond_ (pp. 486–504). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sources

* Whitelock, Dorothy , ed. (1955). _English Historical Documents_. I: c. 500–1042. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode .

General

* Baker, Peter S (2003). _Introduction to Old English_. Blackwell Publishing . ISBN 0-631-23454-3 . * Baugh, Albert C; & Cable, Thomas. (1993). _A History of the English Language_ (4th ed.). London: Routledge. * Blake, Norman (1992). _The Cambridge History of the English Language: Vol. 2_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Campbell, A. (1959). _ Old English
Old English
Grammar_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Earle, John (2005). _A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon_. Bristol, PA: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-69-8 . (Reissue of one of 4 eds. 1877–1902) * Euler, Wolfram (2013). _Das Westgermanische_ (West Germanic: from its Emergence in the 3rd up until its Dissolution in the 7th Century CE: Analyses and Reconstruction). 244 p., in German with English summary, London/Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-9812110-7-8 . * Hogg, Richard M. (ed.). (1992). _The Cambridge History of the English Language: (Vol 1): the Beginnings to 1066_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Hogg, Richard; & Denison, David (eds.) (2006) _A History of the English Language_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Jespersen, Otto (1909–1949) _A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles_. 7 vols. Heidelberg: C. Winter & Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard * Lass, Roger (1987) _The Shape of English: structure and history_. London: J. M. Dent & Sons * Lass, Roger (1994). _Old English: A historical linguistic companion_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. ISBN 0-521-43087-9 . * Magennis, Hugh (2011). _The Cambridge Introduction to Anglo-Saxon Literature_. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. * Millward, Celia (1996). _A Biography of the English Language_. Harcourt Brace . ISBN 0-15-501645-8 . * Mitchell, Bruce; Robinson, Fred C (2001). _A Guide to Old English_ (6th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22636-2 . * Quirk, Randolph; & Wrenn, CL (1957). _An Old English
Old English
Grammar_ (2nd ed.) London: Methuen. * Ringe, Donald R and Taylor, Ann (2014). _The Development of Old English - A Linguistic History of English, vol. II_, 632p. ISBN 978-0199207848 . Oxford. * Strang, Barbara M. H. (1970) _A History of English_. London: Methuen.

External history

* Robinson, Orrin W. (1992). _ Old English
Old English
and Its Closest Relatives_. Stanford University Press . ISBN 0-8047-2221-8 . * Bremmer Jr, Rolf H. (2009). _An Introduction to Old Frisian. History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary_. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. * Stenton, FM (1971). _Anglo-Saxon England_ (3rd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Orthography/Palaeography

* Bourcier, Georges. (1978). _L'orthographie de l'anglais: Histoire et situation actuelle_. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. * Elliott, Ralph WV (1959). _Runes: An introduction_. Manchester: Manchester University Press. * Keller, Wolfgang. (1906). _Angelsächsische Paleographie, I: Einleitung_. Berlin: Mayer with supplement prepared by Neil Ker originally published in _Anglo-Saxon England_; 5, 1957. Oxford: Clarendon Press ISBN 0-19-811251-3 * Page, RI (1973). _An Introduction to English Runes_. London: Methuen. * Scragg, Donald G (1974). _A History of English Spelling_. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Phonology

* Anderson, John M; E. L. Deuschle (transl.). (Oudgermaansche Handboeken; No. 4). Haarlem: Tjeenk Willink. * Halle, Morris; & Keyser, Samuel J. (1971). _English Stress: its form, its growth, and its role in verse_. New York: Harper & Row. * Hockett, Charles F (1959). "The stressed syllabics of Old English". _Language_. 35 (4): 575–597. JSTOR 410597 . doi :10.2307/410597 . * Hogg, Richard M. (1992). _A Grammar of Old English, I: Phonology_. Oxford: Blackwell. * Kuhn, Sherman M (1961). "On the Syllabic Phonemes of Old English". _Language_. 37 (4): 522–538. JSTOR 411354 . doi :10.2307/411354 . * Kuhn, Sherman M. (1970). "On the consonantal phonemes of Old English". In: J. L. Rosier (ed.) _Philological Essays: studies in Old and Middle English language and literature in honour of Herbert Dean Merritt_ (pp. 16–49). The Hague: Mouton. * Lass, Roger; No. 14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Luick, Karl. (1914–1940). _Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache_. Stuttgart: Bernhard Tauchnitz . * Maling, J (1971). "Sentence stress in Old English". _Linguistic Inquiry_. 2 (3): 379–400. JSTOR 4177642 . * McCully, CB; Hogg, Richard M (1990). "An account of Old English stress". _Journal of Linguistics_. 26 (2): 315–339. doi :10.1017/S0022226700014699 . * Moulton, WG (1972). "The Proto-Germanic non-syllabics (consonants)". In: F van Coetsem & HL Kufner (Eds.), _Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic_ (pp. 141–173). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. * Sievers, Eduard (1893). _Altgermanische Metrik_. Halle: Max Niemeyer. * Wagner, Karl Heinz (1969). _Generative Grammatical Studies in the Old English
Old English
language_. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Morphology

* Brunner, Karl. (1965). _Altenglische Grammatik (nach der angelsächsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers neubearbeitet)_ (3rd ed.). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. * Campbell, A. (1959). _ Old English
Old English
grammar_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Wagner, Karl Heinz. (1969). _Generative grammatical studies in the Old English
Old English
language_. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Syntax
Syntax

* Brunner, Karl. (1962). _Die englische Sprache: ihre geschichtliche Entwicklung_ (Vol. II). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. * Kemenade, Ans van. (1982). _Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English_. Dordrecht: Foris. * MacLaughlin, John C. (1983). _ Old English
Old English
Syntax: a handbook_. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.

* Mitchell, Bruce. (1985). _ Old English
Old English
Syntax_ (Vols. 1–2). Oxford: Clarendon Press (no more published)

* Vol.1: Concord, the parts of speech and the sentence * Vol.2: Subordination, independent elements, and element order

* Mitchell, Bruce. (1990) _A Critical Bibliography of Old English Syntax
Syntax
to the end of 1984, including addenda and corrigenda to "Old English Syntax"_ . Oxford: Blackwell * Timofeeva, Olga. (2010) _Non-finite Constructions in Old English, with Special
Special
Reference to Syntactic Borrowing from Latin_, PhD dissertation, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki, vol. LXXX, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique. * Traugott, Elizabeth Closs. (1972). _A History of English Syntax: a transformational approach to the history of English sentence structure_. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Toller, T. Northcote. (1898). _ An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary _. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Based on Bosworth's 1838 dictionary, his papers ">BRIGHT\\'S ANGLO-SAXON READER/AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR

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* Old English
Old English
Lessons (free online through the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin) * Old English/ Modern English Translator * The Electronic Introduction to Old English * Learn Old English
Old English
with Leofwin * Old English
Old English
(Anglo-Saxon) alphabet * Bosworth and Toller, _An Anglo-Saxon dictionary_ * Downloadable Bosworth and Toller, _An Anglo-Saxon dictionary Application_ * _ Old English
Old English
Made Easy_ * Old English
Old English
Modern English dictionary * Old English
Old English
Glossary * Old English
Old English
Letters * Shakespeare\'s English vs Old English * Downloadable Old English
Old English
keyboard for Windows and Mac * Another downloadable keyboard for Windows computers * Guide to using Old English
Old English
computer characters (Unicode, HTML entities, etc.) * The Germanic Lexicon Project * An overview of the grammar of Old English * The Lord\'s Prayer in Old English
Old English
from the 11th century (video link) * Dictionary of Old English

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History of English

* Proto-Indo-European * Proto-Germanic * Proto-West-Germanic * Anglo-Frisian languages * Old English * Anglo-Norman language * Middle English * Early Modern English
Early Modern English
* Modern English

PHONOLOGICAL HISTORY

GENERAL

* Old English
Old English

VOWELS

* Great Vowel
Vowel
Shift * low unrounded vowels * low back vowels * high back vowels * high front vowels * diphthongs * changes before historic /l/ * changes before historic /r/ * trisyllabic laxing * Northern Cities Vowel
Vowel
Shift

CONSONANTS

* rhoticity * flapping * _t_-glottalization * _l_-vocalization * consonant clusters * _h_-dropping * _wh_ * _th_ * _th_-fronting * ð (eth) * _þ_ (thorn) * _th_-stopping

* v * t * e

Germanic languages and philology

LANGUAGE SUBGROUPS

* North * West * East

* _North_ * _East_ * _Elbe _ * _Weser-Rhine _ * _North Sea _

RECONSTRUCTED

* Proto-Germanic * Proto-Germanic grammar * Germanic parent language

HISTORICAL LANGUAGES

NORTH

* Proto-Norse * Old Norse * Old Swedish * Old Gutnish * Norn * Greenlandic Norse * Old Norwegian * Middle Norwegian

EAST

* Gothic * Crimean Gothic * Vandalic * Burgundian

WEST

* Old Saxon * Middle Low German * Old High German * Middle High German * Frankish * Old Dutch * Middle Dutch
Middle Dutch
* Old Frisian * Middle Frisian * Old English * Middle English * Early Scots * Middle Scots * Lombardic * Forth and Bargy * Fingallian

MODERN LANGUAGES

* Afrikaans * Alemannic * Cimbrian * Danish * Dutch * English * Faroese * German * Gutnish * Icelandic * Limburgish * Low German * Mòcheno * Mennonite Low German * Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
* North Frisian * Norwegian * Saterland Frisian * Scots * Swedish * Wymysiöeryś * West Frisian * Yiddish

DIACHRONIC FEATURES

* Grimm\'s law * Verner\'s law * Holtzmann\'s law * Sievers\' law * Kluge\'s law * Germanic substrate hypothesis
Germanic substrate hypothesis
* West Germanic gemination * High German consonant shift * Germanic a-mutation * Germanic umlaut * Germanic spirant law * Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law * Great Vowel
Vowel
Shift

SYNCHRONIC FEATURES

* Germanic verb * Germanic strong verb * Germanic weak verb * Preterite-present verb * Grammatischer Wechsel * Indo-European ablaut

LANGUAGE HISTORIES

* English (phonology ) * Scots (phonology ) * German * Dutch * Danish * Icelandic * Swedish

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4112501-0 * SUDOC : 027269434 * NDL : 00560256

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