The Info List - Old Aramaic

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OLD ARAMAIC (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language , considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
in 224 CE).

Emerging as the language of the city-states of the Arameans
in the Levant
in the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
, Old Aramaic was adopted as a lingua franca (besides the Assyrian dialect of Akkadian
) in the Neo-Assyrian Empire , and in this role was inherited for official use by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
during classical antiquity . After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, local vernaculars became increasingly prominent, fanning the divergence of an Aramaic dialect continuum and the development of differing written standards.


* 1 Ancient Aramaic * 2 Imperial Aramaic * 3 Post-Achaemenid Aramaic * 4 Late Old Eastern Aramaic * 5 Late Old Western Aramaic * 6 References * 7 Bibliography


"Ancient Aramaic" refers to the earliest known period of the language, from its origin until it becomes the lingua franca of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
and Bahrain
. It was the language of the Aramaean city-states of Damascus
, Hamath and Arpad . Silver ingot of Bar-Rakib, son of Panammuwa II, King of Sam‘al (now called Zincirli Höyük).

There are inscriptions that evidence the earliest use of the language, dating from the 10th century BCE. The inscriptions are mostly diplomatic documents between Aramaean city-states. The alphabet of Aramaic then seems to be based on the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
, and there is a unity in the written language. It seems that in time, a more refined alphabet, suited to the needs of the language, began to develop from this in the eastern regions of Aram. The dominance of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
under Tiglath-Pileser III over Aram- Damascus
in the middle of the 8th century led to the establishment of Aramaic as a lingua franca of the empire, rather than it being eclipsed by Akkadian. Distinctive royal inscriptions at Sam\'al have led to some scholars suggesting a distinctive "Sam'alian" or "Ya'udic" variant of Old Aramaic.

From 700 BCE, the language began to spread in all directions but lost much of its homogeneity . Different dialects emerged in Assyria
, Babylonia
, the Levant
and Egypt
. However, the Akkadian-influenced Aramaic of Assyria, and then Babylon
, started to come to the fore. As described in 2 Kings 18:26, Hezekiah
, king of Judah , negotiates with Assyrian ambassadors in Aramaic so that the common people would not understand. Around 600 BCE, Adon, a Canaanite king, used Aramaic to write to the Egyptian Pharaoh

"Chaldee" or "Chaldean Aramaic" used to be common terms for the Aramaic of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
. It was used to describe Biblical Aramaic , which was, however, written in a later style. It is not to be confused with the modern language Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic

The first old Aramaic inscription to be found in Europe was the Carpentras stele, published by Rigord in 1704.



Official Aramaic

REGION Ancient Near East

ERA 700–300 BCE


* Semitic

* Central

* Aramaic


EARLY FORM Old Aramaic


ISO 639-2 arc

ISO 639-3 arc


After 539 BC, following the Achaemenid conquest of Mesopotamia
under Darius I
Darius I
, the Achaemenids adopted the local use of Aramaic.

When the Achaemenids extended their rule westward, they adopted this language as the vehicle for written communication between the various regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages. The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did.

In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language. Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought.

Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect, and the inevitable influence of Persian gave the language a new clarity and robust flexibility. For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(in 331 BCE), Imperial Aramaic or a similar dialect would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages
Iranian languages
. Aramaic script and, as ideograms, Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi scripts .

One of the largest collections of Imperial Aramaic texts is that of the Persepolis
fortification tablets, which number about five hundred. Many of the extant documents witnessing to this form of Aramaic come from Egypt
, Elephantine
in particular (see: Elephantine
papyri ). Of them, the best known is the Wisdom of Ahiqar , a book of instructive aphorisms quite similar in style to the biblical Book of Proverbs
Book of Proverbs

Achaemenid Aramaic is sufficiently uniform that it is often difficult to know where any particular example of the language was written. Only careful examination reveals the occasional loanword from a local language.

A group of thirty Aramaic documents from Bactria
has been discovered, and an analysis was published in November 2006. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC Achaemenid administration of Bactria
and Sogdia

Old Aramaic and Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
both form part of the group of Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, and during antiquity, there may still have been substantial mutual intelligibility. In the Pesahim , Tractate 87b, Hanina bar Hama
said that God sent the exiled Jews to Babylon
because " language is akin to the Leshon Hakodesh
Leshon Hakodesh


Coin of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
bearing an Aramaic language inscription Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by Ashoka , 3rd century BC at Kandahar
, Afghanistan

The conquest by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
did not destroy the unity of Aramaic language
Aramaic language
and literature immediately. Aramaic that bears a relatively close resemblance to that of the 5th century BC can be found right up to the early 2nd century BCE. The Seleucids imposed Greek in the administration of Syria
and Mesopotamia
from the start of their rule. In the 3rd century BCE, Greek overtook Aramaic as the common language in Egypt
and Syria. However, a post-Achaemenid Aramaic continued to flourish from Judaea , Assyria, Mesopotamia, through the Syrian Desert and into northern Arabia and Parthia

Biblical Aramaic is the term for the Aramaic passages interspersed in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
. These passages make for a small fraction of the entire text (of the order of 1%), and most of it is due to the Aramaic parts of the Book of Daniel
Book of Daniel

* Genesis 31:47 – translation of a Hebrew place-name. * Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26 – documents from the Achaemenid period (5th century BCE) concerning the restoration of the temple in Jerusalem. * Jeremiah 10:11 – a single sentence in the middle of a Hebrew text denouncing idolatry. * Daniel 2:4b–7:28 – five subversive tales and an apocalyptic vision.

Biblical Aramaic is a somewhat hybrid dialect. It is theorized that some Biblical Aramaic material originated in both Babylonia
and Judaea before the fall of the Achaemenid dynasty. According to historical criticism , defiant Jewish propaganda shaped the Aramaic Book of Daniel during Seleucid rule. These stories might have existed as oral traditions at their earliest stage. This might be one factor that led to differing collections of Daniel in the Greek Septuagint
and the Masoretic Text
Masoretic Text
, which presents a lightly Hebrew -influenced Aramaic.

Under the category of post-Achaemenid is Hasmonaean Aramaic, the official language of the Hasmonean dynasty
Hasmonean dynasty
of Judaea (142–37 BCE). It influenced the Biblical Aramaic of the Qumran
texts, and was the main language of non-biblical theological texts of that community. The major Targums , translations of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
into Aramaic, were originally composed in Hasmonaean. Hasmonaean also appears in quotations in the Mishnah
and Tosefta
, although smoothed into its later context. It is written quite differently from Achaemenid Aramaic; there is an emphasis on writing as words are pronounced rather than using etymological forms.

Babylonian Targumic is the later post-Achaemenid dialect found in the Targum
Onqelos and Targum
Jonathan , the "official" targums . The original, Hasmonaean targums had reached Babylon
sometime in the 2nd or 3rd century CE. They were then reworked according to the contemporary dialect of Babylon
to create the language of the standard targums. This combination formed the basis of Babylonian Jewish literature for centuries to follow.

Galilean Targumic is similar to Babylonian Targumic. It is the mixing of literary Hasmonaean with the dialect of Galilee
. The Hasmonaean targums reached Galilee
in the 2nd century, and were reworked into this Galilean dialect for local use. The Galilean Targum
was not considered an authoritative work by other communities, and documentary evidence shows that its text was amended. From the 11th century onwards, once the Babylonian Targum
had become normative, the Galilean version became heavily influenced by it.

Babylonian Documentary Aramaic is a dialect in use from the 3rd century onwards. It is the dialect of Babylonian private documents, and, from the 12th century, all Jewish private documents are in Aramaic. It is based on Hasmonaean with very few changes. This was perhaps because many of the documents in BDA are legal documents, the language in them had to be sensible throughout the Jewish community from the start, and Hasmonaean was the old standard.

The Nabataean language was the Western Aramaic variety used by the Nabateans of the Negev
, including the kingdom of Petra
. The kingdom (c. 200 BCE–106 CE) covered the east bank of the Jordan River
Jordan River
, the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
and northern Arabia. Perhaps because of the importance of the caravan trade, the Nabataeans began to use Aramaic in preference to Ancient North Arabian . The dialect is based on Achaemenid with a little influence from Arabic: "l" is often turned into "n", and there are a few Arabic loan words. Some Nabataean Aramaic inscriptions exist from the early days of the kingdom, but most are from the first four centuries CE. The language is written in a cursive script that is the precursor to the modern Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
. The number of Arabic loan words increases through the centuries, until, in the 4th century, Nabataean merges seamlessly with Arabic.

Palmyrene Aramaic is the dialect that was in use in the city state of Palmyra
in the Syrian Desert from 44 BC to 274 CE. It was written in a rounded script, which later gave way to cursive Estrangela . Like Nabataean, Palmyrene was influenced by Arabic, but to a much lesser degree.

The use of written Aramaic in the Achaemenid bureaucracy also precipitated the adoption of Aramaic(-derived) scripts to render a number of Middle Iranian languages. Moreover, many common words, including even pronouns, particles, numerals, and auxiliaries, continued to written as Aramaic "words" even when writing Middle Iranian languages. In time, in Iranian usage, these Aramaic "words" became disassociated from the Aramaic language
Aramaic language
and came to be understood as signs (i.e. logograms ), much like the sign ⟨"> Mandaic magical "demon trap"

The dialects mentioned in the last section were all descended from Achaemenid Imperial Aramaic. However, the diverse regional dialects of Late Ancient Aramaic continued alongside them, often as simple, spoken languages. Early evidence for these spoken dialects is known only through their influence on words and names in a more standard dialect. However, the regional dialects became written languages in the 2nd century BCE and reflect a stream of Aramaic that is not dependent on Imperial Aramaic. They show a clear division between the regions of Mesopotamia, Babylon
and the east, and Judah, Syria, and the west.

In the East, the dialects of Palmyrene and Arsacid Aramaic merged with the regional languages to create languages with a foot in Imperial and a foot in regional Aramaic. The written form of Mandaic , the language of the Mandaean religion, was descended from the Arsacid chancery script.

In the kingdom of Osroene
, centred on Edessa and founded in 132 BCE, the regional dialect became the official language: Old Syriac . On the upper reaches of the Tigris
, East Mesopotamian Aramaic flourished, with evidence from Hatra
, Assur
and the Tur Abdin
Tur Abdin
. Tatian , the author of the gospel harmony known as the Diatessaron
, came from the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and perhaps wrote his work (172 CE) in East Mesopotamian rather than Syriac or Greek. In Babylonia, the regional dialect was used by the Jewish community, Jewish Old Babylonian (c. 70 CE). The everyday language increasingly came under the influence of Biblical Aramaic and Babylonian Targumic.


Further information: Language of Jesus
Language of Jesus
and Syriac language
Syriac language

The western regional dialects of Aramaic followed a similar course to those of the east. They are quite distinct from the eastern dialects and Imperial Aramaic. Aramaic came to coexist with Canaanite dialects, eventually completely displacing Phoenician in the 1st century BC and Hebrew around the turn of the 4th century CE.

The form of Late Old Western Aramaic used by the Jewish community is best attested, and is usually referred to as Jewish Old Palestinian. Its oldest form is Old East Jordanian, which probably comes from the region of Caesarea Philippi . This is the dialect of the oldest manuscript of the Book of Enoch (c. 170 BCE). The next distinct phase of the language is called Old Judaean into the 2nd century CE. Old Judaean literature can be found in various inscriptions and personal letters, preserved quotations in the Talmud
and receipts from Qumran
. Josephus
' first, non-extant edition of his The Jewish War
The Jewish War
was written in Old Judaean.

The Old East Jordanian dialect continued to be used into the 1st century CE by pagan communities living to the east of the Jordan. Their dialect is often then called Pagan Old Palestinian, and it was written in a cursive script somewhat similar to that used for Old Syriac. A Christian Old Palestinian dialect may have arisen from the pagan one, and this dialect may be behind some of the Western Aramaic tendencies found in the otherwise eastern Old Syriac gospels (see Peshitta

In the 1st century CE, Jews in Roman Judaea primarily spoke Aramaic (besides Koine Greek
Koine Greek
as the international language of the Roman administration and trade). In addition to the formal, literary dialects of Aramaic based on Hasmonaean and Babylonian there were a number of colloquial Aramaic dialects. Seven dialects of Western Aramaic were spoken in the vicinity of Judaea in Jesus
' time. They were probably distinctive yet mutually intelligible. Old Judaean was the prominent dialect of Jerusalem
and Judaea. The region of Ein Gedi had the Southeastern Judaean dialect. Samaria
had its distinctive Samaritan Aramaic, where the consonants he , heth and ayin all became pronounced the same as aleph , presumably a glottal stop . Galilean Aramaic, the dialect of Jesus' home region, is only known from a few place names, the influences on Galilean Targumic, some rabbinic literature and a few private letters. It seems to have a number of distinctive features: diphthongs are never simplified into monophthongs. East of the Jordan, the various dialects of East Jordanian were spoken. In the region of Damascus
and the Anti-Lebanon Mountains