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The Ohio
Ohio
River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the United States. At the confluence, the Ohio
Ohio
is considerably bigger than the Mississippi
Mississippi
( Ohio
Ohio
at Cairo: 281,500 cu ft/s (7,960 m3/s);[2] Mississippi
Mississippi
at Thebes: 208,200 cu ft/s (5,897 m3/s)[3]) and, thus, is hydrologically the main stream of the whole river system. The 981-mile (1,579 km) river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U.S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people.[4] It is named in Iroquoian or Seneca: Ohi:yó, lit. "Good River"[5] or Shawnee: Pelewathiipi and Spelewathiipi.[6] The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans
Americans
used the river as a major transportation and trading route. Its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio
Ohio
Valley, such as Angel Mounds
Angel Mounds
near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi
Mississippi
Valley and the Southeast. The Osage, Omaha, Ponca
Ponca
and Kaw lived in the Ohio
Ohio
Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois
Iroquois
to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to Missouri, Arkansas
Arkansas
and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
in the 17th century. In 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
led a French expedition to the Ohio
Ohio
River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American
European-American
settlement, the river served as a border between present-day Kentucky
Kentucky
and Indian Territories. It was a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U.S. In his Notes on the State of Virginia
Notes on the State of Virginia
published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
stated: "The Ohio
Ohio
is the most beautiful river on earth. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted."[7] During the 19th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from Maryland, and thus part of the border between free and slave territory, and between the Northern and Southern United States
United States
or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
resistance movement. The Ohio
Ohio
River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates. In winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
but rarely farther south toward Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round. Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio.

Contents

1 Gallery 2 Geography and hydrography

2.1 Drainage basin

3 Geology

3.1 Upper Ohio
Ohio
River 3.2 Middle Ohio
Ohio
River

4 History 5 Pollution 6 River depth 7 Cities and towns along the river 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Gallery[edit]

The Allegheny River, left, and Monongahela River
Monongahela River
join to form the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the largest metropolitan area on the river.

Built between 1849 and 1851, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge
Wheeling Suspension Bridge
was the first bridge across the river.

Louisville, Kentucky, The deepest point of the Ohio
Ohio
River is a scour hole just below Cannelton locks and dam (river mile 720.7). The widest point of the river is at the confluence of the Ohio
Ohio
and the Mississippi
Mississippi
rivers.

A barge hauls coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only artificial portion of the Ohio
Ohio
River.

The Tall Stacks
Tall Stacks
festival celebrates the riverboats of Cincinnati, Ohio, every three or four years.

Geography and hydrography[edit]

Natural-color satellite image of the Wabash- Ohio
Ohio
confluence.

The Ohio
Ohio
River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park
Point State Park
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. From there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio– Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
triple-state line (near East Liverpool, Ohio; Chester, West Virginia; and Midland, Pennsylvania). From there, it forms the border between West Virginia
West Virginia
and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia. The river then follows a roughly southwest and then west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the northern borders of West Virginia
Virginia
and Kentucky; and the southern borders of Ohio, Indiana
Indiana
and Illinois, until it joins the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
near the city of Cairo, Illinois. Major tributaries of the river, indicated by the location of the mouths, include:

Allegheny River
Allegheny River
– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Monongahela River
Monongahela River
– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Saw Mill Run
Saw Mill Run
– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Chartiers Creek
Chartiers Creek
– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Montour Run – Coraopolis, Pennsylvania Beaver River – Rochester, Pennsylvania Breezewood Creek – Beaver, Pennsylvania Raccoon Creek – Center Township Little Beaver Creek
Little Beaver Creek
– East Liverpool, Ohio Wheeling Creek – Wheeling, West Virginia Middle Island Creek
Middle Island Creek
– St. Marys, West Virginia Little Muskingum River
Little Muskingum River
– Ohio Duck Creek – Marietta, Ohio Muskingum River
Muskingum River
– Marietta, Ohio Little Kanawha River
Little Kanawha River
– Parkersburg, West Virginia Hocking River
Hocking River
– Hockingport, Ohio Kanawha River
Kanawha River
– Point Pleasant, West Virginia Guyandotte River
Guyandotte River
– Huntington, West Virginia Big Sandy River – Kentucky- West Virginia
West Virginia
border Little Sandy River – Greenup, Kentucky Little Scioto River
Scioto River
– Sciotoville, Ohio Scioto River
Scioto River
– Portsmouth, Ohio Kinniconick Creek – Vanceburg, Kentucky Little Miami River
Little Miami River
– Cincinnati, Ohio Licking River – Newport-Covington, Kentucky Mill Creek – Cincinnati, Ohio Great Miami River
Great Miami River
– Ohio- Indiana
Indiana
border Kentucky
Kentucky
River – Carrollton, Kentucky Salt River – West Point, Kentucky Green River – near Henderson, Kentucky Wabash River
Wabash River
– Indiana-Illinois- Kentucky
Kentucky
border Saline River – Illinois Cumberland River
Cumberland River
– Smithland, Kentucky Tennessee River
Tennessee River
– Paducah, Kentucky Cache River – Illinois

Drainage basin[edit] The Ohio's drainage basin covers 189,422 square miles (490,600 km2), encompassing the easternmost regions of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Basin. The Ohio
Ohio
drains parts of 15 states in four regions.

Northeast

New York: a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania: a corridor from the southwestern corner to north central border.

Mid-Atlantic/Upper South

Maryland: a small corridor along the Youghiogheny River
Youghiogheny River
on the western border. West Virginia: all but the Eastern Panhandle. Kentucky: all but a small part in the extreme west drained directly by the Mississippi. Tennessee: all but a small part in the extreme west drained directly by the Mississippi, and a very small area in the southeastern corner which is drained by the Conasauga River. Virginia: most of southwest Virginia. North Carolina: the western quarter.

Midwest

Ohio: the southern two-thirds Indiana: all but the northern area. Illinois: the southeast quarter.

Deep South

Georgia: the far northwest corner. Alabama: the northern portion. Mississippi: the northeast corner. South Carolina: less than 1 square mile in the northwest.

Geology[edit]

Glacial Lake Ohio

From a geological standpoint, the Ohio
Ohio
River is young. The river formed on a piecemeal basis beginning between 2.5 and 3 million years ago. The earliest ice ages occurred at this time and dammed portions of north-flowing rivers. The Teays River
Teays River
was the largest of these rivers. The modern Ohio
Ohio
River flows within segments of the ancient Teays. The ancient rivers were rearranged or consumed by glaciers and lakes. Upper Ohio
Ohio
River[edit] The upper Ohio
Ohio
River formed when one of the glacial lakes overflowed into a south-flowing tributary of the Teays River. Prior to that event, the north-flowing Steubenville River (no longer in existence) ended between New Martinsville and Paden City, West Virginia. Likewise, the south-flowing Marietta River (no longer in existence) ended between the present-day cities. The overflowing lake carved through the separating hill and connected the rivers. The resulting floodwaters enlarged the small Marietta valley to a size more typical of a large river. The new large river subsequently drained glacial lakes and melting glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. The valley grew during and following the ice age. Many small rivers were altered or abandoned after the upper Ohio
Ohio
River formed. Valleys of some abandoned rivers can still be seen on satellite and aerial images of the hills of Ohio
Ohio
and West Virginia between Marietta, Ohio, and Huntington, West Virginia. As testimony to the major changes that occurred, such valleys are found on hilltops.[clarification needed] Middle Ohio
Ohio
River[edit] The middle Ohio
Ohio
River formed in a manner similar to formation of the upper Ohio
Ohio
River. A north-flowing river was temporarily dammed southwest of present-day Louisville, creating a large lake until the dam burst. A new route was carved to the Mississippi. Eventually the upper and middle sections combined to form what is essentially the modern Ohio
Ohio
River. History[edit]

Steamboat "Morning Star", a Louisville and Evansville mail packet, in 1858.

Pre-Columbian inhabitants of eastern North America considered the Ohio part of a single river continuing on through the lower Mississippi. The river's name comes from the Seneca (Iroquoian) Ohiːyo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, meaning "good river".[8] The combined Allegheny- Ohio
Ohio
river is 1,310 miles (2,110 km) long and carries the largest volume of water of any tributary of the Mississippi. The Indians and early explorers and settlers of the region also often considered the Allegheny to be part of the Ohio. The forks (the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at what is now Pittsburgh) was considered a strategic military location. French fur traders operated in the area, and France built forts along the Allegheny River. In 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, led an expedition of French traders who became the first Europeans to see the river. He traveled from Canada
Canada
and entered the headwaters of the Ohio, traveling as far as the Falls of Ohio
Ohio
at present-day Louisville before turning back. He returned to explore the river again in other expeditions. An Italian cartographer traveling with him created the first map of the Ohio
Ohio
River. La Salle claimed the Ohio
Ohio
Valley for France. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio
Ohio
Company to settle and trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks by British colonials from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Virginia
Virginia
– both of which claimed the territory – led to conflict with the French. In 1763, following the Seven Years' War, France ceded the area to Britain.[9] The 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
opened Kentucky
Kentucky
to colonial settlement and established the Ohio
Ohio
River as a southern boundary for American Indian territory.[10] In 1774, the Quebec Act
Quebec Act
restored the land east of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and north of the Ohio
Ohio
River to Quebec, in effect making the Ohio
Ohio
the southern boundary of Canada. This appeased the Canadien
Canadien
British subjects but angered the Thirteen Colonies. Lord Dunmore's War south of the Ohio
Ohio
river also contributed to giving the land north to Quebec to stop further encroachment of the British colonials on native land. During the American Revolution, in 1776 the British military engineer John Montrésor created a map of the river showing the strategic location of Fort Pitt, including specific navigational information about the Ohio
Ohio
River's rapids and tributaries in that area.[11] However, the Treaty of Paris (1783)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
gave the entire Ohio
Ohio
Valley to the United States. The economic connection of the Ohio
Ohio
Country to the East was significantly increased in 1818 when the National Road
National Road
being built westward from Cumberland, Maryland
Maryland
reached Wheeling, Virginia
Virginia
(now West Virginia), providing an easier overland connection from the Potomac River
Potomac River
to the Ohio
Ohio
River.[12] Louisville was founded at the only major natural navigational barrier on the river, the Falls of the Ohio. The Falls were a series of rapids where the river dropped 26 feet (7.9 m) in a stretch of about 2 miles (3.2 km). In this area, the river flowed over hard, fossil-rich beds of limestone. The first locks on the river – the Louisville and Portland Canal
Louisville and Portland Canal
– were built to circumnavigate the falls between 1825 and 1830. Fears that Louisville's transshipment industry would collapse proved ill-founded: the increasing size of steamships and barges on the river meant that the outdated locks could only service the smallest vessels until well after the Civil War. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
improvements were expanded again in the 1960s, forming the present-day McAlpine Locks and Dam. Because the Ohio
Ohio
River flowed westward, it became a convenient means of westward movement by pioneers traveling from western Pennsylvania. After reaching the mouth of the Ohio, settlers would travel north on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to St. Louis, Missouri. There, some continued on up the Missouri
Missouri
River, some up the Mississippi, and some further west over land routes. In the early 19th century, river pirates such as Samuel Mason, operating out of Cave-In-Rock, Illinois, waylaid travelers on their way down the river. They killed travelers, stealing their goods and scuttling their boats. The folktales about Mike Fink recall the keelboats used for commerce in the early days of European settlement. The Ohio
Ohio
River boatmen were the inspiration for performer Dan Emmett, who in 1843 wrote the song "The Boatman's Dance". Trading boats and ships traveled south on the Mississippi
Mississippi
to New Orleans, and sometimes beyond to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
and other ports in the Americas and Europe. This provided a much-needed export route for goods from the west, since the trek east over the Appalachian Mountains was long and arduous. The need for access to the port of New Orleans by settlers in the Ohio
Ohio
Valley led to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Because the river is the southern border of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, it was part of the border between free states and slave states in the years before the American Civil War. The expression "sold down the river" originated as a lament of Upper South
Upper South
slaves, especially from Kentucky, who were shipped via the Ohio
Ohio
and Mississippi
Mississippi
to cotton and sugar plantations in the Deep South.[13][14] Before and during the Civil War, the Ohio
Ohio
River was called the "River Jordan" by slaves crossing it to escape to freedom in the North via the Underground Railroad.[15] More escaping slaves, estimated in the thousands, made their perilous journey north to freedom across the Ohio
Ohio
River than anywhere else across the north-south frontier. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the bestselling novel that fueled abolitionist work, was the best known of the anti-slavery novels that portrayed such escapes across the Ohio. The times have been expressed by 20th-century novelists as well, such as the Nobel Prize-winning Toni Morrison, whose novel Beloved was adapted as a film of the same name. She also composed the libretto for the opera Margaret Garner (2005), based on the life and trial of an enslaved woman who escaped with her family across the river. The Ohio
Ohio
River is considered to separate Midwestern Great Lakes
Great Lakes
states from the Upper South
Upper South
states, which were historically border states in the Civil War. The colonial charter for Virginia
Virginia
defined its territory as extending to the north shore of the Ohio, so that the riverbed was "owned" by Virginia. Where the river serves as a boundary between states today, Congress designated the entire river to belong to the states on the east and south, i.e., West Virginia
West Virginia
and Kentucky
Kentucky
at the time of admission to the Union, that were divided from Virginia. Thus Wheeling Island, the largest inhabited island in the Ohio
Ohio
River, belongs to West Virginia, although it is closer to the Ohio
Ohio
shore than to the West Virginia
West Virginia
shore. Kentucky
Kentucky
brought suit against Indiana
Indiana
in the early 1980s because of the building of the Marble Hill nuclear power plant in Indiana, which would have discharged its waste water into the river. The U.S. Supreme Court held that Kentucky's jurisdiction (and, implicitly, that of West Virginia) extended only to the low-water mark of 1793 (important because the river has been extensively dammed for navigation, so that the present river bank is north of the old low-water mark.) Similarly, in the 1990s, Kentucky
Kentucky
challenged Illinois' right to collect taxes on a riverboat casino docked in Metropolis, citing its own control of the entire river. A private casino riverboat that docked in Evansville, Indiana, on the Ohio
Ohio
River opened about the same time. Although such boats cruised on the Ohio River in an oval pattern up and down, the state of Kentucky
Kentucky
soon protested. Other states had to limit their cruises to going forwards, then reversing and going backwards on the Indiana
Indiana
shore only. Since 2002, Indiana
Indiana
has allowed its riverboat casinos to be permanently docked. In the early 1980s, the Falls of the Ohio
Ohio
National Wildlife Conservation Area was established at Clarksville, Indiana.

The confluence of the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Ohio
Ohio
rivers is at Cairo, Illinois.

Carl D. Perkins Bridge
Carl D. Perkins Bridge
in Portsmouth, Ohio
Ohio
with Ohio
Ohio
River and Scioto River tributary on right.

Silver Bridge
Silver Bridge
in Point Pleasant, West Virginia
West Virginia
which collapsed into the Ohio
Ohio
River on December 15, 1967, killing 46 persons.

Mouth of the Ohio, as it feeds into the Mississippi.

Cave-in-rock, view on the Ohio
Ohio
(circa 1832, Cave-In-Rock, Illinois): aquatint by Karl Bodmer
Karl Bodmer
from the book Maximilian, Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, during the years 1832–1834

Pollution[edit] The Ohio
Ohio
River as a whole is ranked as the most polluted river in the US based on 2009 and 2010 data although the more industrial and regional Ohio
Ohio
tributary, Monongahela River, ranked behind 16 other American rivers for pollution at number 17.[16] The Ohio
Ohio
River was polluted with hundreds of thousands of pounds of PFOA by DuPont
DuPont
chemical company, from an outflow pipe, for several decades beginning in the 1950s.[17] River depth[edit]

Lawrenceburg, Indiana, is one of many towns that use the Ohio
Ohio
as a shipping avenue.

The Ohio
Ohio
River is a naturally shallow river that was artificially deepened by a series of dams. The natural depth of the river varied from about 3 to 20 feet (0.91 to 6.10 m). The dams raise the water level and have turned the river largely into a series of reservoirs, eliminating shallow stretches and allowing for commercial navigation. From its origin to Cincinnati, the average depth is approximately 15 feet (5 m). The largest immediate drop in water level is below the McAlpine Locks and Dam
McAlpine Locks and Dam
at the Falls of the Ohio
Ohio
at Louisville, Kentucky, where flood stage is reached when the water reaches 23 feet (7 m) on the lower gauge. However, the river's deepest point is 168 feet (51 m) on the western side of Louisville, Kentucky. From Louisville, the river loses depth very gradually until its confluence with the Mississippi
Mississippi
at Cairo, Illinois, where it has an approximate depth of 19 feet (6 m). Water levels for the Ohio
Ohio
River from Smithland Lock and Dam
Dam
upstream to Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
are predicted daily by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Ohio
Ohio
River Forecast Center.[18] The water depth predictions are relative to each local flood plain based upon predicted rainfall in the Ohio
Ohio
River basin in five reports as follows:

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Hannibal Locks and Dam, Ohio
Ohio
(including the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers) Willow Island Locks and Dam, Ohio, to Greenup Lock and Dam, Kentucky (including the Kanawha River) Portsmouth, Ohio, to Markland Locks and Dam, Kentucky McAlpine Locks and Dam, Kentucky, to Cannelton Locks and Dam, Indiana Newburgh Lock and Dam, Indiana, to Golconda, Illinois

The water levels for the Ohio
Ohio
River from Smithland Lock and Dam
Dam
to Cairo, Illinois, are predicted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Forecast Center.[19]

Smithland Lock and Dam, Illinois, to Cairo, Illinois

Panorama of the Ohio
Ohio
at its widest point, just west of downtown Louisville, Kentucky

Cities and towns along the river[edit]

Metro Area Population

Pittsburgh 2.4 million

Cincinnati 2.2 million

Louisville 1.9 million

Huntington-Ashland 365,419

Evansville 358,000

Parkersburg 160,000

Wheeling 145,000

Weirton-Steubenville 132,000

Owensboro 112,000

Cities along the Ohio
Ohio
River include:

Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh Sewickley McKees Rocks Coraopolis South Heights Ambridge Aliquippa Rochester Monaca Beaver Shippingport Midland Freedom Rochester Conway Neville Island Baden Bellevue Edgeworth Leetsdale

Ohio

East Liverpool Steubenville Martins Ferry Bellaire Marietta Belpre Pomeroy Gallipolis Ironton Portsmouth New Boston Manchester Aberdeen Ripley New Richmond Cincinnati

West Virginia

Chester Weirton Wheeling Moundsville New Martinsville Paden City Sistersville St. Marys Parkersburg Ravenswood Point Pleasant Huntington Kenova

Kentucky

Big Bone Rabbit Hash Constance Hamilton Petersburg Belleview Henderson Uniontown Ashland Vanceburg Maysville Augusta Fort Thomas Newport Covington Ludlow Louisville Hawesville Lewisport Owensboro Paducah Smithland Warsaw Ghent Carrollton Brandenburg Bellevue Dayton Concord

Indiana

Lawrenceburg Aurora Rising Sun Vevay Madison Jeffersonville Clarksville New Albany Cannelton Tell City Troy Rockport Newburgh Evansville Mount Vernon

Illinois

Old Shawneetown Cave-In-Rock Elizabethtown Rosiclare Golconda Brookport Metropolis Mound City Cairo

See also[edit]

Geography of the United States Islands of the Midwest List of crossings of the Ohio
Ohio
River List of islands of West Virginia
West Virginia
(including islands on Ohio
Ohio
River) List of locks and dams of the Ohio
Ohio
River List of rivers of Indiana List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Ohio List of rivers of Pennsylvania List of variant names of the Ohio
Ohio
River Ohio
Ohio
and Erie Canal Ohio
Ohio
River Bridges Project Ohio
Ohio
River flood of 1937 Watersheds of Illinois List of longest rivers of the United States
United States
(by main stem) Ohio
Ohio
River Valley AVA Ohio
Ohio
Valley in Kentucky Ohio
Ohio
River Trail Ohio
Ohio
River Water Trail

Notes[edit]

^ Leeden, Frits van der; Troise, Fred L.; Todd, David Keith (1990). The Water Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. p. 126. ISBN 0-87371-120-3.  ^ Frits van der Leeden, Fred L. Troise, David Keith Todd: The Water Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, p. 126, Chelsea, Mich. (Lewis Publishers), 1990, ISBN 0-87371-120-3 (long term mean discharge) ^ USGS stream gage 07022000 Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at Thebes, IL (long term mean discharge) ^ " Ohio
Ohio
River Facts".  ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. p. 344. ISBN 9780806135984. OHIO River ō hī′ ō. From Seneca (Iroquoian) ohi:yo’, a proper name derived from ohi:yo:h 'good river'.  ^ "Shawnees Webpage". Shawnee's Reservation. 1997. Retrieved April 26, 2013.  ^ Jefferson, Thomas, 1743–1826. Notes on the State of Virginia Archived August 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.; the single instance refers to the former rapids near Louisville. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4. Retrieved April 11, 2011.  ^ "History of Seneca County: Containing a Detailed Narrative of the Principal Events That Have Occurred Since Its First Settlement Down to the Present Time; a History of the Indians That Formerly Resided Within Its Limits; Geographical Descriptions, Early Customs, Biographical Sketches, &c., &c., With an Introd., Containing a Brief History of the State, From the Discovery of the Mississippi River Down to the Year 1817, to the Whole of Which Is Added an Appendix, Containing Tabular Views, &c". Mocavo.  ^ *Taylor, Alan (2006). The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 44, see map on 39. ISBN 0-679-45471-3.  ^ Montrésor, John (1776). "Map of the Ohio
Ohio
River from Fort Pitt". World Digital Library. Pennsylvania. Retrieved July 1, 2013.  ^ Fowler, Thaddeus Mortimer (1906). "Bird's Eye View of Cumberland, Maryland
Maryland
1906". World Digital Library. Retrieved July 22, 2013.  ^ mginter. "KET's Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
– Behind the Scenes – Guy Mendes".  ^ "Put in Master's Pocket: Interstate Slave Trading and the Black Appalachian Diaspora" Archived August 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ mginter. "KET's Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad
– Community Research".  ^ "Report: Ohio
Ohio
River most polluted in U.S." Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Business Times. March 23, 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2012.  ^ Rich, Nathaniel (January 6, 2016). "The Lawyer Who Became DuPont's Worst Nightmare". New York Times.  ^ " Ohio
Ohio
RFC". US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service. Retrieved March 10, 2017.  ^ "Lower Mississippi
Mississippi
RFC". US Department of Commerce, NOAA, National Weather Service. Retrieved March 10, 2017. 

References[edit]

Hay, Jerry (2010). Ohio
Ohio
River Guidebook, 1st Edition

Further reading[edit]

Dunn, J. P. (December 1912). "Names of the Ohio
Ohio
River". The Indiana Quarterly Magazine of History. 8 (4): 166–70. doi:10.2307/27785389 (inactive 2017-03-10). JSTOR 27785389. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ohio
Ohio
River.

Ohio
Ohio
River Flows and Forecasts U.S. Geological Survey: PA stream gauging stations Ohio
Ohio
River Forecast Center, which issues official river forecasts for the Ohio
Ohio
River and its tributaries from Smithland Lock and Dam upstream Lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Forecast Center, which issues official river forecasts for the Ohio
Ohio
River and its tributaries downstream of Smithland Lock and Dam Texts on Wikisource:

" Ohio
Ohio
River". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). 1911.  " Ohio
Ohio
River". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.  " Ohio
Ohio
River". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.  "Ohio, a river of the United States". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.  "Ohio, a river of the United States". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. 

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Local government Parties

Democratic Republican Third parties

Red states and blue states

Purple America

Scandals State government

governor state legislature state court

Uncle Sam

Economy

By sector

Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation

Companies

by state

Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street

Society

Culture

Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages

American English Indigenous languages ASL

Black American Sign Language

HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish

Literature Media

Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television

Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art

Social class

Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth

Issues

Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime

incarceration

Criticism of government Discrimination

affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage

Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care

abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking

Human rights Immigration

illegal

International rankings National security

Mass surveillance Terrorism

Separation of church and state

Outline Index

Bo

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