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OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States . Ohio is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States . The state's capital and largest city is Columbus .

The state takes its name from the Ohio River . The name originated from the Seneca language word ohiːyo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory , the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance ) on March 1, 1803. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor ; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly ; and the judicial branch, which is led by the state Supreme Court . Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives . Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 2.1.1 Records

* 2.2 Earthquakes

* 3 Major cities

* 4 History

* 4.1 Native Americans * 4.2 Colonial and Revolutionary eras * 4.3 Northwest Territory: 1787–1803 * 4.4 Statehood: 1803–present

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Population * 5.2 Birth data * 5.3 Ancestry * 5.4 Languages * 5.5 Religion

* 6 Economy

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Ground travel * 7.2 Air travel * 7.3 Transportation lists

* 8 Law and government

* 8.1 Executive branch * 8.2 Judicial branch * 8.3 Legislative branch * 8.4 National politics

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Colleges and universities * 9.2 Libraries

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Arts

* 10.2 Sports

* 10.2.1 Professional sports teams * 10.2.2 Individual sports * 10.2.3 College sports

* 11 State symbols * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Ohio derives from Seneca (an Iroquois language) as their name for the Ohio River/ Alleghany River, Ohi:yo. This is pronounced "Oh-hee-yoh," with the i sound being held an extra second. Folk etymology claims that this translates as "Beautiful River," however it appears that the word can be broken down as "O-" (pronoun prefix. Translates as "it" & implies that whatever is about to follow it is considered a permanent condition of the item), "Hih" (verb. to spill) & "Gihedenyo" (noun. creek, stream). That being said, the most sensible translation ought to be "Continuously-spilling Creek," or "Continuously-giving creek." The word for creek is used instead of river, since it still flows into a larger river, the Mississippi.

The common accent of Ohio shifts regularly, so there are multiple different accepted ways of saying Ohio that have been common throughout the last century, such as "Oh-hai-yuh," "Uh-hai-yoh," ">

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: List of Ohio counties , List of cities in Ohio , List of villages in Ohio , List of Ohio townships , Ohio public lands , and List of lakes in Ohio

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline, which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River , on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan , running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. The Ohio coast of Lake Erie .

Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War , to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.

Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains , with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp . This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau , and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau . Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests . Physical geography of Ohio.

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.) Map of Ohio.

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River , Great Miami River , Maumee River , Muskingum River , and Scioto River . The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River , and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi .

The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood , the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton . As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2), was the largest artificial lake in the world. It should be noted that Ohio\'s canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types in Ohio

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley . Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie , which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt .

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak , Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate , several plants such as the Southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle , and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo ; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard , one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio LOCATION JULY (°F) JULY (°C) JANUARY (°F) JANUARY (°C)

Columbus 85/65 29/18 36/22 2/–5

Cleveland 82/64 28/18 34/21 1/–5

Cincinnati 86/66 30/19 39/23 3/–5

Toledo 84/62 29/17 32/18 0/–7

Akron 82/62 28/16 33/19 0/–7

Dayton 87/67 31/19 36/22 2/–5

Canton 82/62 28/16 33/19 1/–7

Records

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C ), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934. The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F (−39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899 .

EARTHQUAKES

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.

The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on December 31, 2011, at 3:05pm EST . It had a magnitude of 4.0, and its epicenter was located approximately 4 kilometres northwest of Youngstown (41°7′19.1994″N 80°41′2.3994″W / 41.121999833°N 80.683999833°W / 41.121999833; -80.683999833 ), near the Trumbull /Mahoning county border.

The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.

MAJOR CITIES

See also: List of cities in Ohio

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Ohio Source:

RANK NAME COUNTY POP.

Columbus

Cleveland 1 Columbus Franklin 860,090

Cincinnati

Toledo

2 Cleveland Cuyahoga 385,809

3 Cincinnati Hamilton 298,800

4 Toledo Lucas 278,508

5 Akron Summit 197,542

6 Dayton Montgomery 140,599

7 Parma Cuyahoga 79,425

8 Canton Stark 71,885

9 Youngstown Mahoning 64,312

10 Lorain Lorain 63,647

Columbus (home of The Ohio State University , Franklin University , Capital University , and Ohio Dominican University ) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.

Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include:

* Akron (home of University of Akron , Akron Art Museum , and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company ) * Canton (home of Pro Football Hall of Fame , Malone University , and The Timken Company ) * Cincinnati (home of University of Cincinnati , Xavier University , Cincinnati Museum Center , Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra , Procter white-space:nowrap;"> Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. As Ohio historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington 's estate located near Chillicothe ". The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash , sunflowers , and perhaps corn . Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages. The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound , located in Adams County, Ohio . Iroquois conquests during the Beaver Wars (mid-1600s), which largely depopulated the upper and mid- Ohio River valley.

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people, who were named for the farm owned by Captain M. C. Hopewell, where evidence of their unique culture was discovered. Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta , Newark , and Circleville . They were also a powerful trading society, managing to knit together a network that passed goods throughout a third of the continent. The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio Valley in about 600 AD. Little is known about the people who replaced them, although many Siouan-speaking peoples from the Plains & East Coast claim them as ancestors & say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approx. the 13th century. It is possible that the rise of the Mississippian Culture was the downfall of the Hopewell, as they began to rise to prominence on the Mississippi River around the same time that the Hopewell Culture died out.

Researchers have identified three additional, distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient people, the Whittlesey Focus people & the Monongahela Culture . All three cultures apparently disappeared in the 17th century, perhaps decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. The Native Americans had no immunity to common European diseases. No one has ever definitively concluded which historically known peoples they may have been analogous to. That being said, it is generally believed that the Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people. It's also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during by the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to, contemporaneous with, and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.

American Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation , based in central and western New York. After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian . Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn , sunflowers, beans , etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade .

The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Iroquoian Petun (known for their Tobacco plantations), Erie (thought to have been from Northeast Ohio & western Pennsylvania, but may have come from Canada), Chonnonton (Conquered their way down from Canada during Beaver Wars before being defeated by the Iroquois Confederacy & their allies), Wyandot (a group of Petun who became isolated around Cleveland after the Beaver Wars. Commonly mistaken for the Huron, whom most surviving Petun later joined), the Mingo Seneca (split off from the Iroquois Confederacy & moved to Ohio in 18th century. Remained approx. 100 years.) & the Iroquois Confederacy (conquered most of Ohio at the bequest of the English in the 1660s. Pushed back to Pennsylvania by French in 1701.), The Algonquian Miami (Mostly from Indiana.), Mascouten (close sister tribe to Miamis. Scattered during Beaver Wars. Mostly relocated to Kentucky) Lenape (Arrived around the turn of the 18th century from east coast), Shawnee (Seceded from Powhatan Confederacy. Eventually came to Ohio River & most likely merged with several other lesser known people in the region) & Odawa (part of a Confederacy that surrounded Lake Superior. Relocated to Michigan & Northwest Ohio around the American Revolution.) "> Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance outside Federal Hall National Memorial in New York

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates , which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the " Symmes Purchase ") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio .

The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country . As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula .

Under the Northwest Ordinance , areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state. Furthermore, in regards to the Leni Lenape Native Americans living in the region, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".

STATEHOOD: 1803–PRESENT

James A. Garfield , President of the United States from Ohio

On February 19, 1803, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana 's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe , the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.

Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville , and Columbus . Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise, in order to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, in order to have it near the geographic center of the state, where it would be more accessible to most citizens.

Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. Shawnee leader Tecumseh led an American Indian confederacy in Tecumseh\'s Rebellion , from 1811 to 1813. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson , the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War , a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula , in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state. Ohio state welcome sign, in an older (1990s) style Newer state sign, (US 52 )

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War . The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh , a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan\'s Raid . While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana. Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded. By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals– Ulysses S. Grant , William Tecumseh Sherman , and Philip Sheridan –were all from Ohio.

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era . It introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

Eight US Presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia . It is also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents", in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven Presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes , in North Bend, Ohio . The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant , Rutherford B. Hayes , James A. Garfield , Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley , William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding .

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1800 45,365

1810 230,760

408.7%

1820 581,434

152.0%

1830 937,903

61.3%

1840 1,519,467

62.0%

1850 1,980,329

30.3%

1860 2,339,511

18.1%

1870 2,665,260

13.9%

1880 3,198,062

20.0%

1890 3,672,329

14.8%

1900 4,157,545

13.2%

1910 4,767,121

14.7%

1920 5,759,394

20.8%

1930 6,646,697

15.4%

1940 6,907,612

3.9%

1950 7,946,627

15.0%

1960 9,706,397

22.1%

1970 10,652,017

9.7%

1980 10,797,630

1.4%

1990 10,847,115

0.5%

2000 11,353,140

4.7%

2010 11,536,504

1.6%

EST. 2017 11,658,609

1.1%

Source: 1910–2010 2015 Estimate

POPULATION

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census , which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Growth then slowed for the next four decades. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Ohio was 11,613,423 on July 1, 2015, a 0.67% increase since the 2010 United States Census . Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. As of 2000 , Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County , in the county seat of Mount Gilead . This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990. Graph of Ohio's population growth from 1800 to 2000.

As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.

6.2% of Ohio's population is under 5 years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.

BIRTH DATA

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother RACE 2013 2014 2015

White 109,749 (79.0%) 110,003 (78.9%) 109,566 (78.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 104,059 (74.9%) 104,102 (74.6%) 103,586 (74.4%)

Black 24,952 (18.0%) 24,931 (17.9%) 25,078 (18.0%)

Asian 3,915 (2.8%) 4,232 (3.0%) 4,367 (3.1%)

Native 320 (0.2%) 301 (0.2%) 253 (0.2%)

Hispanic (of any race) 6,504 (4.7%) 6,884 (4.9%) 6,974 (5.0%)

TOTAL OHIO 138,936 (100%) 139,467 (100%) 139,264 (100%)

ANCESTRY

According to the 2010 United States Census , the racial composition of Ohio was the following:

* White American : 82.7% ( Non-Hispanic Whites : 81.1%) * Black or African American : 12.2% * Native American : 0.2% * Asian : 1.7% (0.6% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.1% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese) * Pacific Islander : 0.03% * Two or more races : 2.1% * Some other race: 1.1% * Hispanic or Latinos (of any race) make up 3.1% (1.5% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Guatemalan, 0.1% Cuban)

OHIO RACIAL BREAKDOWN OF POPULATION RACIAL COMPOSITION 1990 2000 2010

White 87.8% 85.0% 82.7%

African American 10.6% 11.5% 12.2%

Asian 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%

Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%

Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – –

Other race 0.5% 0.8% 1.1%

Two or more races – 1.4% 2.1%

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not. The largest groups were: Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.

The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:

* 26.5% German * 14.1% Irish * 9.0% English * 6.4% Italian * 3.8% Polish * 2.5% French * 1.9% Scottish * 1.7% Hungarian * 1.6% Dutch * 1.5% Mexican * 1.2% Slovak * 1.1% Welsh * 1.1% Scotch-Irish

Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African , Puerto Rican , Swiss , Swedish , Arab , Greek , Norwegian , Romanian , Austrian , Lithuanian , Finnish , West Indian , Portuguese and Slovene . Ohio population density map.

LANGUAGES

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and over reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages. Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English , 239,229 Spanish , 55,970 German , 38,990 Chinese , 33,125 Arabic , and 32,019 French . In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 Census. Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers , second largest of Slovak speakers , second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers , and the third largest of Serbian speakers .

RELIGION

Amish children on the way to school.

According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian. Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant , 22% as Mainline Protestant , and 21% as Catholic. 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. 1.3% (148,380) were Jewish . There are also small minorities of Jehovah\'s Witnesses (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (

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