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Oghul Qaimish (died 1251) was the principal wife of Güyük Khan
Güyük Khan
and ruled as regent over the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant of the Mergid tribe. However, H.H. Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.[1] Life[edit] She was given as wife to Güyük after Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
put down the rebellion of her clan in 1216–19. Oghul Qaimish bore Güyük two sons, Khoja and Naqu. When her husband died in Qum-Sengir in Turkestan, she brought his ordo in the Ögedeids' appanage in Emil-Qobaq region in 1248. Güyük's chief officials, Chinqai, Qadaq and Bala, helped Oghul to serve as regent. She spent her time with the Mongol
Mongol
shamans and lacked her mother-in-law Töregene's political skills. While her sons, Naqu and Khoja, and Shiremun, the grandson of Ögedei, attempted to secure their claims on the throne, Chagatayid Khan and Yesü Möngke primarily supported Oghul Qaimish. Before or during the regency of Oghul, her husband's general Eljigidei sent an embassy to Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France
to offer an alliance against the Muslims. Louis sent his men headed by André de Longjumeau
André de Longjumeau
in reply, but after she received them at her ordo on Emil, Oghul Qaimish sent them back with presents and letters announcing the Mongol
Mongol
demand for submission.[2] In 1249, Batu arranged a kurultai where Möngke
Möngke
was chosen as Khagan at Ala Qamaq in the Ulus of Jochi. Oghul declined Batu's invitation and sent Bala to that assembly with a demand that Shiremun or one of the Ögedeids be elected khan.[3] When the Toluids and the Golden Horde organized a second kurultai on the Kherlen River
Kherlen River
in 1251, which officially proclaimed Möngke
Möngke
Khan, Oghul Qaimish refused, with her son Khoja, to come. Most of the Ögedeid and Chagataid princes supported her. After her opponent, Möngke, was elected in 1251, Oghul Qaimish's sons and Shiremun attempted to overthrow Möngke. When the plot was discovered, Khoja was exiled to the South China front and Shiremun was executed. Oghul Qaimish and Shiremun's mother Qadaqach were summoned to court and arrested. When Oghul Qaimish was stripped naked, she was angry with Sorghaghtani
Sorghaghtani
and other imperial women who questioned her in closed ger.[4] After torture she was executed by being wrapped in felt and flung into a river.[5] References[edit]

^ René Grousset The Empire of the Steppes, p.272 ^ David Morgan The Mongols, p.159 ^ Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb, Wheeler McIntosh Thackston Rashiduddin Fazlullah's Jamiʻuʼt-tawarikh, p.408 ^ Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb, Wheeler McIntosh Thackston Rashiduddin Fazlullah's Jamiʻuʼt-tawarikh, p.500 ^ James D. Ryan, " Mongol
Mongol
Khatuns" Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: an Encyclopedia, ed. John Block Frieman and Kristen Mossler Figg (Garland, 2000), p. 407.

Jack Weatherford
Jack Weatherford
The Secret History of the Mongol
Mongol
Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Rescued His Empire's Crown 2010

Oghul Qaimish House of Merkit
Merkit
(1248-1251)

Regnal titles

Preceded by Güyük Khan Regent
Regent
of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire 1248–1251 Succeeded by Möngke
Möngke
Khan

v t e

Khagans of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire

Early Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
Khan (as Regent) Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Töregene Khatun (as Regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) Möngke
Möngke
Khan Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
/ Ariq Böke

Yuan (Kublaid) Great Khans

Kublai Khan Temür Khan Külüg Khan Buyantu Khan Gegeen Khan Yesün Temür Khan Ragibagh Khan Jayaatu Khan Khutughtu Khan Rinchinbal Khan Ukhaantu Khan

v t e

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

Terminology

Titles

Khagan Khan Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan

Political Military

Jarlig Örtöö Orda Pax Mongolica Yassa Kurultai Paiza / Gerege Manghit / Mangudai Tümen Kheshig

Politics Organization Life

Topics

Administrative divisions and vassals Banner (Bunchuk) Invasions and conquests Destructiveness Imperial Seal Military tactics and organization Organization under Genghis Khan Religion Society and economy

House of Borjigin House of Ögedei Mongol
Mongol
Armenia Byzantine– Mongol
Mongol
alliance Franco- Mongol
Mongol
alliance List of Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar raids against Rus' Mongol
Mongol
and Tatar states in Europe

Khanates

Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate

House of Ögedei

Golden Horde

Wings

Ilkhanate

Major cities

Almalik Avarga Azov
Azov
(Azaq) Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu/Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan

Campaigns Battles

Asia

Central

Siberia (1207) Qara Khitai (1216–18) Khwarezmia (1218–1221)

East

Western Xia (1205 / 1207 / 1209–10 / 1225–27) Northern China and Manchuria (1211–34) Southern China (1235–79) Kingdom of Dali (1253–56) Tibet (1236 / 1240 / 1252) Korea (1231–60) Japan (1274 / 1281) Sakhalin (1264–1308)

Southeast

Burma (1277 / 1283 / 1287) Java (1293) Vietnam (1257 / 1284–88) Burma (1300–02)

South

India (1221–1327)

Europe

Georgia (1220–22 / 1226–31 / 1237–64) Chechnya (1237–1300s) Volga Bulgaria (1229–36) Rus' (1223 / 1236–40) Poland and Bohemia (1240–41) Hungary (1241-42) Serbia (1242) Bulgaria (1242) Latin Empire (1242) Lithuania (1258-59) Poland (1259–60) Thrace (1264-65) Hungary (1285–86) Poland (1287–88) Serbia (1291) Poland (1340-1341)

Middle East

Anatolia (1241–43) Iraq (1258) Syria (1260–1323) Palestine (1260 / 1301)

Civil wars

Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–64) Berke–Hulagu war
Berke–Hulagu war
(1262) Kaidu–Kublai war
Kaidu–Kublai war
(1268–1301) Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
(1314–1318)

People

Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
(regent) Ögedei
Ögedei
Khan Töregene Khatun (regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (regent) Möngke
Möngke
Khan Kublai Khan (Khagans of the Yuan)

Khans

Jochi Batu Khan Sartaq Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Öz Beg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulagu Abaqa Arghun Ghazan

Military

Subutai Jebe Muqali Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhula Jelme Chilaun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Boroldai Nogai Khan

Timeline of

.