The Info List - Oels

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OLEśNICA (German : Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship , in south-western Poland
. From 1975–1998 it was in former Wrocław Voivodeship . It is the administrative seat of Oleśnica County
Oleśnica County
and also of the rural district of Gmina
Oleśnica , although it is not part of the territory of the latter, the town being an urban gmina in its own right.

The town is famed for its large 16th-century castle , which has previously been the seat of dukes and lords. The castle's inner courtyard arcades , a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture , are iconic in the region.


* 1 Name * 2 Geography * 3 History * 4 Notable people * 5 Twin towns * 6 References * 7 External links


The town's name comes from Polish olsza (" Alder
"); Olcha is an Old Slavic word for this common plant and tree. On 22 February 1255 the Silesian duke Henry III the White , son of the Polish High Duke Henry II the Pious , vested civitas nostra Olsnicz ("our town Oleśnica") with town privileges .


The town is situated in the Silesian Lowlands east of the Trzebnickie Hills , part of the historical region of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
. Located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northeast of the Silesian capital Wrocław
, it has been a stop on an important trade route to the Greater Poland region, Kalisz
, Łódź
and Warsaw
; it had close ties with Kraków via Namysłów in the east. It was the site of an important printing press and gymnasium . From the 13th century, it had a coin mint .

The town quarters are Centrum, Serbinów, Lucień, Lucień Osiedle, Wądoły, Rataje (Stare, Nowe) and Zielone Ogrody.


The Piast castle with a nearby abbey and trading settlement was first mentioned in an 1189 deed. From the 13th century onwards, the area was largely settled by Germans in the course of the Ostsiedlung . From 1320/21 the former castellany served as the residence of the Piast duke Konrad I of Oleśnica ; his son Duke Konrad II the Gray also inherited Koźle . The Duchy of Oleśnica , a Bohemian fief since 1327, was ruled from the town until the 1492 death of Duke Konrad X the White , last of the local Piasts. Oleśnica Castle , courtyard Town hall

The duchy was sold to Duke Henry I of Münsterberg , son of the Bohemian king George of Poděbrady . His grandson Duke John of Münsterberg-Oels established a gymnasium at Oels in 1530. When the Podiebrad family became extinct in 1647, town and duchy were inherited by the Swabian dukes of Württemberg , and in 1792 by the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg .

As Oels, the town was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1742 during the First Silesian War and administered within the Province of Silesia
. Following administrative reform in 1807 during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Oels became the seat of Landkreis Oels . The city became part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany

After World War I
World War I
, Oels was included within the Province of Lower Silesia
. It was heavily damaged by the Red Army
Red Army
in 1945 during World War II , having approximately 60-80% of its buildings destroyed. The city was placed in Poland's borders after the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and its official name became Oleśnica. The remaining German-speaking population was subsequently expelled and resettled with Poles many of whom were expelled from Eastern Poland
annexed in 1945 by the Soviet Union . Several monuments of the former residence have been rebuilt since the 1960s.


* Joachim of Münsterberg-Oels (1503–1562), Duke of Münsterberg and from 1536 to 1542 also Duke of Oels * Hedwig of Münsterberg-Oels (1508–1531), Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach * John, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (1509–1565), Duke of the Münsterberg from 1542 to 1565, Duke of Oels from 1548 to 1565 and Duke of Bernstadt from 1548 to 1565 * George II, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (1512–1553), Duke of Münsterberg 1536-1542 and Duke of Oels * Henry III, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (1542–1587), Duke of Münsterberg from 1565 to 1574 and Duke of Bernstadt * Karl II, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (1545–1617), Duke of Oels from 1565 to 1617 and Duke of Bernstadt from 1604 to 1617 * Karl Christoph, Duke of Münsterberg (1545–1569), Duke of Münsterberg from 1565 to 1569 * Henry Wenceslaus, Duke of Oels-Bernstadt (1592–1639) * Abraham von Franckenberg (1593–1652), mystic, born in nearby Bystre * Karl Friedrich I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (1593–1647), Duke of Oels from 1617 to 1647 and Duke of Bernstadt from 1639 to 1647 * Elisabeth Marie, Duchess of Oels (1625–1686), German noblewoman * Christian Ulrich I, Duke of Württemberg-Oels (1652–1704), German nobleman, Duke of Württemberg-Bernstadt from 1669 to 1697 and Duke of Oels-Württemberg from 1697 until his death * Julius Siegmund, Duke of Württemberg-Juliusburg (1653–1684), was Duke of Württemberg-Juliusburg * Eugen of Württemberg (1788-1857), general * Carl Heinrich Zöllner (1792–1836), German composer * Julius Hübner (1806–1882), painter * Gustav Becker
Gustav Becker
(1819-1885), clockmaker * Willy Hellpach
Willy Hellpach
(1877-1955), physicist and politician * Antoni Cieszyński (1882–1941), surgeon * Werner Krolikowski (born 1928), East German political * Otto Laske (born 1936, composer, lyric poet, visual artist; fled Olesnica in 1945 to Bremen, Germany; emigrated to Boston, USA, in 1966, as a Fulbright student; American citizen since 1997; founded the Interdevelopmental Institute (IDM) in 1999) * Sigmar Polke (1941–2010), artist * Piotr Czech (born 1986), kicker for Pittsburgh Steelers * Wojciech Bartnik (born 1967), boxer, Olympic bronze medallist * Kasia Glowicka (born 1977), composer * Jerzy Rogalski (born 1948), film and theatre actor


Oleśnica is twinned with:

* Chrudim ( Czech Republic
Czech Republic
) * Warendorf ( Germany
) * Jaunay-Clan ( France


* ^ www.poradniajezykowa.us.edu.pl * ^ www.olesnica.pl * ^ http://alo.uibk.ac.at/webinterface/library/ALO-BOOK_V01?objid=19012 page 333 * ^ Eberl, Immo (1993). Immo Eberl, Ministry for Internal Affairs, Baden-Württemberg ( Germany
), eds. Flucht, Vertreibung, Eingliederung (in German). Thorbecke. p. 26. ISBN 3-7995-2500-9 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link )


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