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Oecusse also known as: Oecusse-Ambeno, Portuguese: ''Oé-Cusse Ambeno,''
Tetum Tetum ( pt, Tetum ,; tet, Tetun ) is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign sta ...
: ''Oecussi Ambeno,'' officially the Special Administrative Region Oecusse-Ambeno (Região Administrativa Especial Oé-Cusse Ambeno). Also variously ''Oecussi'', ''Ocussi'', ''Oekussi'', ''Oekusi'', ''Okusi'', ''Oé-Cusse'', and formerly just Ambeno, is both a
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...
and a Special Administrative Region, and was formerly a
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of ...
, of
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It c ...
. A coastal
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...
in the western part of the island of
Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the ...
, Oecusse is separated from the rest of East Timor by
West Timor West Timor ( id, Timor Barat) is an area covering the western part of Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor ...
, which is part of the province of
Nusa Tenggara Timur
Nusa Tenggara Timur
,
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
, and which surrounds Oecusse in all directions except the north, where it borders the Savu Sea. The capital of Oecusse is
Pante Macassar Pante Macassar (also known as Pante Makasar) is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730 (Stand 2006). It is the capital of the Oe ...
, also called ''Oecussi Town'', or formerly, in Portuguese Timor, ''Vila Taveiro''. Originally ''Ambeno'' was the name of the former district and ''Oecussi'' its capital.


Geography


Overview

Oecusse has an area of .


Climate

Oecusse has a
tropical savanna climate Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ...
( Köppen ''Aw'') with a hot, humid and uncomfortable
wet season The wet season (sometimes called the rainy season) is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall Rain is liquid water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, t ...
from December to April and a hot, less humid
dry season The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropi ...
from May to November.


History

Oecusse and Ambeno are the names of the two original kingdoms, of which Ambeno existed before the colonial period. Oecusse was among the first parts of the island of
Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the ...
on which the Portuguese established themselves, and is thus usually considered the cradle of East Timor. In about 1556, the Dominican friar António Taveiro, operating from a base on Solor, started missionary work on the north coast of Timor. Shortly after this, in 1569, the village of "Alifao" (Lifau) is mentioned on a European map. It was situated five kilometres to the west of modern
Pante Macassar Pante Macassar (also known as Pante Makasar) is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730 (Stand 2006). It is the capital of the Oe ...
. For the Portuguese traders in sandalwood, Lifau was a convenient place to land since it was situated to the south of their base in the Solor Archipelago. The area was dominated by the Ambeno kingdom, which was sometimes referred as the kingdom of Lifau. In 1641 the Dominican priests baptised the royal families of the Ambeno, Mena and Amanuban kingdoms, which meant that Portuguese influence increased in parts of western Timor. Migration of Topasses, a Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Eurasian population, rose in the 1650s from Larantuka on Flores. After 1664 they were governed by officers belonging to the Hornay and Costa (Topasse), Da Costa families, and were able to dominate most of Timor. The Topass leaders used Lifau as their main stronghold on Timor, but still resided much of their time in Larantuka. In the second half of the seventeenth century they made great profits through the sandalwood trade, attracting merchants from Thailand, Siam, Jakarta, Batavia, Macao, and Goa in India. The precious wood was brought to Lifau and sold to external traders under Topass supervision. In 1702, Lifau became the authorised capital of the colony when it received the first governor from Goa. The following period saw frequent clashes between the governor and the independent-minded Topasses, who had their strongholds in Tulicão west of Lifau, and Animata in the inland. Under their leader Gaspar da Costa they attacked the Dutch colonial post at Kupang in 1749 but were smashingly defeated, and subsequently moved their residence to
Pante Macassar Pante Macassar (also known as Pante Makasar) is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730 (Stand 2006). It is the capital of the Oe ...
(Oecusse) in 1759 due to Dutch military pressure. The capital of the governor was transferred from Lifau to Dili in 1769, because of the frequent attacks from the Topass leader Francisco Hornay III. Most of
West Timor West Timor ( id, Timor Barat) is an area covering the western part of Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor ...
was left to Dutch Empire, Dutch forces, who were conquering what is today
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
. The Eurasian leadership of Oecusse by and by turned into a Timorese kingship, and members of the Hornay and Da Costa families reigned as Liurai (kings) until modern times. They regularly intermarried with the Ambeno royalty. In the 1780s a reconciliation took place between the governor in Dili and the Topasses, who henceforth usually supported the Portuguese government. In 1859, with the Treaty of Lisbon (1859), Treaty of Lisbon, Portugal and the Netherlands divided the island between them.
West Timor West Timor ( id, Timor Barat) is an area covering the western part of Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor ...
became Dutch, with its colonial seat at Kupang, and
East Timor East Timor () or Timor-Leste (; tet, Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste ( pt, República Democrática de Timor-Leste, tet, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It c ...
became Portuguese, with its seat in Dili. This left Oecusse and Noimuti as enclaves surrounded by Dutch territory. In 1912 the Liurai of Ambeno, João da Cruz, staged a revolt against the Portuguese. It was quickly put down, after which the Ambeno kingdom lapsed. The Liurai of Oecusse became dominant in the entire Oecusse exclave. The definitive border was drawn by the Hague in 1916. Apart from Japanese occupation during World War II, the border remained the same until the end of the colonial period. The region was given the status of county ''(conselho)'', named Oecússi, by the Portuguese government in August 1973, the last Timorese area to receive it.
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
n forces invaded Oecusse on 6 June 1975. In October they occupied the western border districts of East Timor's main territory. It was in Pante Macassar that an Indonesian fifth column raised the Flag of Indonesia, Indonesian flag on 29 November 1975, a week before the official Indonesian invasion of East Timor proper. However, even under Indonesian rule, Oecusse was administered as part of the province of East Timor, as it had been as part of Portuguese Timor. Like much of the country, it suffered violent attacks near the 1999 referendum for independence. Over 90 percent of the infrastructure was destroyed. It became part of the independent state of East Timor on 20 May 2002. In the 1970s and 1980s, New Zealander anarchist Bruce Grenville began a hoax, claiming to have founded the sultanate of Occussi-Ambeno. He invented a history for the state of tribes united against the Portuguese, and produced many cinderella stamps for his creation. On 11 November 1999, 600+ Australian troops from 3RAR (Third Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment) deployed from Maliana in East Timor proper to Oecusse to liberate the enclave. They stayed there until late February 2000, being replaced by Jordanian troops.


Politics

Articles 5 and 71 of the 2002 constitution provide that Oecussi Ambeno be governed by a special administrative policy and economic regime. Law 03/2014 of 18 June 2014 created the Special Administrative Region of Oecusse Ambeno (Região Administrativa Especial de Oecusse Ambeno, RAEOA). A national development programme to implement governmental policy, called ZEESM TL (Special Zones of Social Market Economy of Timor-Leste) is in place. The President of RAEOA & ZEESM TL was Mari Alkatiri, a former Prime Minister of East Timor. The East Timor government that established the ZEESM TL programme was hoping that it would bring economic sustainability before the country's oil and gas reserves run out. During a visit to Oecusse in November 2015, the then Prime Minister, Rui Maria de Araújo, claimed that the government's investment in the Region would benefit all people in East Timor, not just those in Oecusse. However, there has been criticism of the programme's lack of transparency and accountability, and its absence of any public cost-benefit or risk analysis, or any significant private investment. Questions have also been raised as to whether the programme is one that is necessarily appropriate for the area, or likely to be in the best interests of its citizens. According to one commentator, many observers of East Timor's strategic investment choices have wondered, "Why is the government of a country [largely] subsistence farmers obsessed with glitzy prestige projects at the expense of more pressing needs such as health and agriculture?" Yet the same commentator has also noted, more recently, that the imposition of the programme generated a plurality of opinions and reactions in Oecusse, mostly eliciting curiosity and the will to cautiously negotiate solutions. Not only did the local population adapt to the programme and endure significant changes in their lifestyles; additionally, some aspects of the programme were modified in some significant detail to accommodate deep and strongly expressed popular sentiments.


Administrative posts

Oecusse is divided into four administrative posts (formerly sub-districts): * Nitibe Administrative Post, Nitibe * Oesilo Administrative Post, Oesilo * Pante Macassar Administrative Post, Pante Macassar (with capital
Pante Macassar Pante Macassar (also known as Pante Makasar) is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730 (Stand 2006). It is the capital of the Oe ...
) * Passabe Administrative Post, Passabe The administrative posts are divided into 18 sucos ("villages") in total.


Demographics


Population

According to the 2015 Census, Oecusse has a population of 68,913 people, divided into 14,345 households. The Atoni Pah Meto (typically just referred to as the Meto) are the dominant ethnic group, and Meto is the only indigenous language spoken. The Meto people also dominate the population of Indonesian
West Timor West Timor ( id, Timor Barat) is an area covering the western part of Timor Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, in the north of the Timor Sea. The island is divided between the sovereign states of East Timor ...
.


Languages

The native language of most residents is Uab Meto (Meto), often referred to by outsiders as Baikeno. Portuguese is used in education and government, although despite its status as an official language there are few fluent speakers. Although Indonesian language, Indonesian was used as a lingua franca until 1999, since then it has been almost completely replaced in this role by Tetum which is the primary language of government, education and public life and is spoken and understood in all but very remote areas of the SAR.


Religion

99.3% of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic and 0.6% Protestant. There were 36 Hindus, 21 Muslims, 10 Animists and one Buddhist in the 2010 census. As is common throughout Timor-Leste most Catholics practise a syncretic variety of the religion and continue to pay homage to sacred sites and ancestral spirits, a suite of practices usually referred to using the Indonesian loanword, 'adat'.


Transport


Air

The new Oecusse or Rota do Sandalo International Airport was inaugurated by East Timorese President Francisco Guterres on 18 June 2019 and serves as the main gateway to Oecusse. The airport was previously an airstrip located at the edge of
Pante Macassar Pante Macassar (also known as Pante Makasar) is a city in Pante Macassar Subdistrict on the north coast of East Timor, 152 km to the west of Dili, the nation's capital. It has a population of 4,730 (Stand 2006). It is the capital of the Oe ...
and was refurbished at a cost of US$119 million. Previously, there were six return flights a week to and from the East Timor capital Dili.


Road

Main roads link Pante Macassar to Sakato, East Timor, Sakato 15 km (10 miles) to the east, and Bobometo to the south-east, both of which are on the East Timor-Indonesia border and are official border controls, border crossings into
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of more than List of islands ...

Indonesia
. The integrated border post at Sakato (also spelled Sacato) is the major crossing for Oecusse as it is on the shortest land route between Oecusse and East Timor proper via the border crossing at Mota'ain/Batugade. The Indonesian checkpoint across the border from Sakato is Wini, Indonesia, Wini. The Bobometo border crossing (with Napan on the Indonesian side) in on the road to Kefamenanu. A network of minor roads link other areas within Oecusse Municipality with Pante Macassar and the capitals of administrative posts. On 12 June 2017 a bridge over the Tono River was inaugurated by the president of Timor-Leste, Francisco Guterres. The Noefefan Bridge connects the isolated regions to the west of the Tono River to Pante Macassar, providing them permanent access to markets, the ferry and airport, even during the rainy season (November to April). Roads also lead to minor border crossings in Passabe (with Haumeniana also in North Central Timor Regency) and Citrana (with Oepoli in Kupang Regency), mostly catering to crossings by residents of border villages.


Sea

The ferry ''Berlin Nakroma'' connects Oecusse to Dili, arriving twice a week on a journey which takes 12 hours.


References

*


External links


Union of Capital Cities of the Portuguese Language (in Portuguese)Association of Soldiers of Oecusse (in Portuguese)
*La'o Hamutuk
''Special Economic Zone in Oecusse''
(in English & Tetum)
Oecusse Enclave
*Official Timor-Leste Regional Governmental Website: for RAEOA and ZEESM TL
www.zeesm.tl
{{Authority control Municipalities of East Timor Enclaves and exclaves East Timor–Indonesia border Oecusse Municipality,