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Odissi
Odissi
(Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶୀ Oḍiśī), also referred to as Orissi in older literature, is a major ancient Indian classical dance that originated in the Hindu
Hindu
temples of Odisha
Odisha
– an eastern coastal state of India.[1][2][3] Odissi, in its history, was performed predominantly by women,[1][4] and expressed religious stories and spiritual ideas, particularly of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
( Vishnu
Vishnu
as Jagannath). Odissi
Odissi
performances have also expressed ideas of other traditions such as those related to Hindu
Hindu
gods Shiva
Shiva
and Surya, as well as Hindu goddesses (Shaktism).[5]

Modern Odissi
Odissi
is performed by children and adults, in solo or as group. Above is the Tribhanga posture of Odissi.[6]

The theoretical foundations of Odissi
Odissi
trace to the ancient Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, its existence in antiquity evidenced by the dance poses in the sculptures of Odissi
Odissi
Hindu
Hindu
temples,[1][7] and archeological sites related to Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.[8][9] The Odissi
Odissi
dance tradition declined during the Islamic rule era,[10] and was suppressed under the British Rule.[11][12] The suppression was protested by the Indians, followed by its revival, reconstruction and expansion since India
India
gained independence from the colonial rule.[9] Odissi
Odissi
is traditionally a dance-drama genre of performance art, where the artist(s) and musicians play out a mythical story, a spiritual message or devotional poem from the Hindu
Hindu
texts, using symbolic costumes,[13] body movement, abhinaya (expressions) and mudras (gestures and sign language) set out in ancient Sanskrit literature.[14] Odissi
Odissi
is learnt and performed as a composite of basic dance motif called the Bhangas (symmetric body bends, stance). It involves lower (footwork), mid (torso) and upper (hand and head) as three sources of perfecting expression and audience engagement with geometric symmetry and rhythmic musical resonance.[15][16] An Odissi performance repertoire includes invocation, nritta (pure dance), nritya (expressive dance), natya (dance drama) and moksha (dance climax connoting freedom of the soul and spiritual release).[6][17] Traditional Odissi
Odissi
exists in two major styles, the first perfected by women and focussed on solemn, spiritual temple dance (maharis); the second perfected by boys dressed as girls (gotipuas[18]) which diversified to include athletic and acrobatic moves, and were performed from festive occasions in temples to general folksy entertainment.[7] Modern Odissi
Odissi
productions by Indian artists have presented a diverse range of experimental ideas, culture fusion, themes and plays.[19]

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v t e

Contents

1 History

1.1 Medieval era 1.2 Mughal and British rule period 1.3 Post-independence

2 Repertoire

2.1 Sequence 2.2 Basic moves and mudras 2.3 Costumes 2.4 Music and instruments 2.5 Styles

3 Schools, training and recognition

3.1 Odissi
Odissi
maestros and performers 3.2 IIT Bhubaneswar 3.3 In Guinness World records 3.4 Odissi
Odissi
Centre at Oxford University

4 See also 5 References

5.1 Bibliography

6 External links

History[edit]

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v t e

The foundations of Odissi
Odissi
are found in Natya Shastra, the ancient Hindu
Hindu
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text of performance arts.[20][21] The basic dance units described in Natyashastra, all 108 of them, are identical to those in Odissi.[21] Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[22][23] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE.[24] The most studied version of the Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters.[22][25] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances.[22][26] Dance
Dance
and performance arts, states this ancient text,[27] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures.[28] The Natya Shastra refers to four vrittis (methods of expressive delivery) in vogue – Avanti, Dakshinatya, Panchali and Odra-Magadhi; of these, the Odra refers to Odisha.[29] More direct historical evidence of dance and music as an ancient performance art are found in archaeological sites such as caves and in temple carvings of Bhubaneswar, Konarak and Puri.[21][30] The Manchapuri cave in Udayagiri shows carvings of dance and musicians, and this has been dated to the time of Jain king Kharavela
Kharavela
in the first or second century BCE. The Hathigumpha inscriptions, also dated to the same ruler, mention music and dance:[29][31]

(he [the king]) versed in the science of the Gandharvas (i.e., music), entertains the capital with the exhibition of dapa, dancing, singing and instrumental music and by causing to be held festivities and assemblies (samajas)... — Hathigumpha inscription, Line 5, ~ 2nd-1st century BCE[32][33]

The musical tradition of Odisha
Odisha
also has ancient roots. Archeologists have reported the discovery of 20-key, carefully shaped polished basalt lithophone in Sankarjang, the highlands of Odisha, which is dated to about 1000 BCE.[34][35] Medieval era[edit]

Odissi
Odissi
dancer

The Buddhist, Jain and Hindu
Hindu
archaeological sites in Odisha
Odisha
state, particularly the Assia range of hills show inscriptions and carvings of dances that are dated to the 6th to 9th century CE. Important sites include the Ranigumpha in Udaygiri, and various caves and temples at Lalitgiri, Ratnagiri and Alatgiri sites. The Buddhist icons, for example, are depicted as dancing gods and goddesses, with Haruka, Vajravarahi, and Marichi in Odissi-like postures.[36][37] Historical evidence, states Alexandra Carter, shows that Odissi
Odissi
Maharis (Hindu temple dancers) and dance halls architecture (nata-mandap) were in vogue at least by the 9th century CE.[38] According to Kapila
Kapila
Vatsyayan, the Kalpasutra of Jainism, in its manuscripts discovered in Gujarat, includes classical Indian dance poses – such as the Samapada, the Tribhangi and the Chuaka of Odissi. This, states Vatsyayan, suggests that Odissi
Odissi
was admired or at least well known in distant parts of India, far from Odisha
Odisha
in the medieval era, to be included in the margins of an important Jain text.[39] However, the Jain manuscripts use the dance poses as decorative art in the margins and cover, but do not describe or discuss the dance. Hindu
Hindu
dance texts such as the Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Chandrika and Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Darpana provide a detailed description of the movements of the feet, hands, the standing postures, the movement and the dance repertoire.[40] It includes illustrations of the Karanãs mentioned in NãtyaShãstra.[41] Similarly, the illustrated Hindu
Hindu
text on temple architecture from Odisha, the Shilpaprakãsha, deals with Odia architecture and sculpture, and includes Odissi
Odissi
postures.[42]

Musician and dancer relief at the Konark Sun temple.

Actual sculptures that have survived into the modern era and panel reliefs in Odia temples, dated to be from the 10th to 14th century, show Odissi
Odissi
dance. This is evidenced in Jagannath
Jagannath
temple in Puri, as well as other temples of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism
Shaktism
and Vedic deities such as Surya
Surya
(Sun) in Odisha.[5] There are several sculptures of dancers and musicians in Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
and Brahmeswara Temple in Bhubaneswar.[1][7] The composition of the poetic texts by 8th century Shankaracharya and particularly of divine love inspired Gitagovinda by 12th century Jayadeva
Jayadeva
influenced the focus and growth of modern Odissi.[43] Odissi was performed in the temples by the dancers called Maharis, who played out these spiritual poems and underlying religious plays, after training and perfecting their art of dance starting from an early age, and who were revered as auspicious to religious services.[5][43] Mughal and British rule period[edit] After 12th-century, Odia temples, monasteries and nearby institutions such as the Nalanda
Nalanda
in eastern Indian subcontinent came under waves of attacks and ransacking by Muslim armies, a turmoil that impacted all arts and eroded the freedoms previously enjoyed by performance artists.[12] The official records of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq's invasion in Odisha
Odisha
(1360-1361 CE), for example, describe the destruction of the Jagannath
Jagannath
temple as well as numerous other temples, defacing of dancing statues, and ruining of dance halls.[44] This led to a broad decline in Odissi
Odissi
and other religious arts, but there were some benevolent rulers in this period who supported arts particularly through performances at courts.[12] During the Sultanate and Mughal era of India, the temple dancers were moved to entertain the Sultan's family and courts.[45] They became associated with concubinage to the nobility.[citation needed]

A male Odissi
Odissi
dancer

The Odissi
Odissi
dance likely expanded in the 17th century, states Alexandra Carter, under King Ramachandradeva's patronage.[46] This expansion integrated martial arts (akhanda) and athletics into Odissi
Odissi
dance, by engaging boys and youth called Gotipuas, as a means to physically train the young for the military and to resist foreign invasions.[46] According to Ragini Devi, historical evidence suggests that the Gotipuas tradition was known and nurtured in the 14th century, by Raja of Khurda.[47] During the British Raj, the officials of the colonial government ridiculed the temple traditions, while Christian missionaries launched a sustained attack on the moral outrage of sensuousness of Odissi
Odissi
and other Hindu temple
Hindu temple
dance arts.[12][48][49] In 1872, a British civil servant named William Hunter watched a performance at the Jagannath temple in Puri, then wrote, "Indecent ceremonies disgraced the ritual, and dancing girls with rolling eyes put the modest worshipper to the blush...", and then attacked them as idol-worshipping prostitutes who expressed their devotion with "airy gyrations".[50] Christian missionaries launched the "anti-dance movement" in 1892, to ban all such dance forms.[48] The dancers were dehumanized and stigmatized as prostitutes during the British period.[51][52] In 1910, the British colonial government in India
India
banned temple dancing,[53] and the dance artists were reduced to abject poverty from the lack of any financial support for performance arts, combined with stereotyping stigma.[46] Post-independence[edit] The temple dance ban and the cultural discrimination during the colonial rule marshaled a movement by Hindus to question the stereotypes and to revive the regional arts of India, including Odissi.[48][49][50] Due to these efforts, the classical Indian dances witnessed a period of renaissance and reconstruction, which gained momentum particularly after Indians gained their freedom from colonialism.[54] Odissi, along with several other major Indian dances gained recognition after efforts by many scholars and performers in the 1950s, particularly by Kavichandra Kalicharan Pattanayak, an Oriya poet, dramatist and researcher. Pattanayak is also credited with naming the dance form as "Odissi".[12][55] Repertoire[edit]

An Odissi
Odissi
dancer in nritya (expressive) stage of the dance.

Odissi, in the classical and medieval period has been, a team dance founded on Hindu
Hindu
texts.[7] This drama-dance involved women (Maharis) enacting a spiritual poem or a religious story either in the inner sanctum of a Hindu
Hindu
temple, or in the Natamandira attached to the temple.[56] The Odissi
Odissi
performing Maharis combined pure dance with expression, to play out and communicate the underlying text through abhinaya (gestures).[56][57] The performance art evolved to include another aspect, wherein teams of boys – dressed as girls – called Gotipuas expanded the Odissi
Odissi
repertoire, such as by adding acrobatics and athletic moves, and they performed both near the temples and open fairs for general folksy entertainment.[7][46] In the Indian tradition, many of the accomplished gotipuas became the gurus (teachers) in their adulthood.[46] Modern Odissi
Odissi
is a diversified performance art, men have joined the women, and its reconstruction since the 1950s have added new plays and aspects of other Indian dances. Love is a universal theme and one of the paradigmatic values in Indian religions. This theme is expressed through sensuous love poems and metaphors of sexual union in Krishna-related literature, and as longing eros (Shringara) in its dance arts such as in Odissi, from the early times.[46][58] Hinduism, states Judith Hanna, encourages the artist to "strive to suggest, reveal or re-create the infinite, divine self", and art is considered as "the supreme means of realizing the Universal Being".[59] Physical intimacy is not something considered as a reason for shame, rather considered a form of celebration and worship, where the saint is the lover and the lover is the saint.[60] This aspect of Odissi
Odissi
dancing has been subdued in the modern post-colonial reconstructions, states Alexandra Carter, and the emphasis has expanded to "expressions of personal artistic excellence as ritualized spiritual articulations".[46] The traditional Odissi
Odissi
repertoire, like all classical Indian dances, includes Nritta (pure dance, solo), Nritya (dance with emotions, solo) and Natya (dramatic dance, group).[61][62] These three performance aspects of Odissi
Odissi
are described and illustrated in the foundational Hindu
Hindu
texts, particularly the Natya Shastra, Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Darpana and the 16th-century Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Chandrika by Maheshwar Mahapatra of Odisha.[61][62]

The Nritta performance is abstract, fast and rhythmic aspect of the dance.[63][62] The viewer is presented with pure movement in Nritta, wherein the emphasis is the beauty in motion, form, speed, range and pattern. This part of the repertoire has no interpretative aspect, no telling of story. It is a technical performance, and aims to engage the senses (prakriti) of the audience.[64] The Nritya is slower and expressive aspect of the dance that attempts to communicate feelings, storyline particularly with spiritual themes in Hindu
Hindu
dance traditions.[63][62] In a nritya, the dance-acting expands to include silent expression of words through the sign language of gestures and body motion set to musical notes. This part of a repertoire is more than sensory enjoyment, it aims to engage the emotions and mind of the viewer.[64] The Natyam is a play, typically a team performance, but can be acted out by a solo performer where the dancer uses certain standardized body movements to indicate a new character in the underlying story. A Natya incorporates the elements of a Nritya.[61][62] The Mokshya is a climatic pure dance of Odissi, aiming to highlight the liberation of soul and serenity in the spiritual.[17]

Odissi
Odissi
dance can be accompanied by both northern Indian (Hindustani) and southern Indian (Carnatic) music, though mainly, recitals are in Odia and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in the Odissi
Odissi
Music tradition.[61] Sequence[edit] Traditional Odissi
Odissi
repertoire sequence starts with an invocation called Mangalacharana.[6] A shloka (hymn) in praise of a God or Goddess is sung, such as to Jagannath
Jagannath
(an avatar of Vishnu), the meaning of which is expressed through dance.[6] Mangalacharan is followed by Pushpanjali (offering of flowers) and Bhumi Pranam (salutation to mother earth).[6] The invocation also includes Trikhandi Pranam or the three-fold salutation – to the Devas (gods), to the Gurus (teachers) and to the Lokas or Rasikas (fellow dancers and audience).[65]

Odissi
Odissi
Dance
Dance
Drama

The next sequential step in an Odissi
Odissi
performance is Batu, also known as Battu Nrutya or Sthayee Nrutya or Batuka Bhairava.[6][66] It is a fast pace, pure dance (nritta) performed in the honor of Shiva. There is no song or recitation accompanying this part of the dance, just rhythmic music. This pure dance sequence in Odissi
Odissi
builds up to a Pallavi which is often slow, graceful & lyrical movements of the eyes, neck, torso & feet & slowly builds in a crescendo to climax in a fast tempo at the end.[6][66] The nritya follows next, and consists of Abhinaya, or an expressional dance which is an enactment of a song or poetry.[6][66] The dancer(s) communicate the story in a sign language, using mudras (hand gestures), bhavas (enacting mood, emotions), eye and body movement.[67] The dance is fluid, graceful and sensual. Abhinaya
Abhinaya
in Odissi
Odissi
is performed to verses recited in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or Odia language.[68] Most common are Abhinayas on Oriya songs or Sanskrit Ashthapadis or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
stutis like Dasavatar Stotram (depicting the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu) or Ardhanari
Ardhanari
Stotram (half man, half woman form of the divine).[citation needed] Many regionally performed Abhinaya
Abhinaya
compositions are based on the Radha- Krishna
Krishna
theme.[43] The Astapadis of the Radha- Krishna
Krishna
love poem Gita Govinda
Gita Govinda
written by Jayadeva
Jayadeva
are usually performed in Odisha, as part of the dance repertoire.[6][69] The natya part, or dance drama, is next in sequence. Usually Hindu mythologies, epics and legendary dramas are chosen as themes.[70] A distinctive part of the Odissi
Odissi
tradition is the inclusion of Moksha (or Mokshya[17]) finale in the performance sequence. This the concluding item of a recital.[6] Moksha
Moksha
in Hindu
Hindu
traditions means “spiritual liberation”. This dance movement traditionally attempts to convey a sense of spiritual release and soul liberation, soaring into the realm of pure aesthetics.[17] Movement and pose merge in a fast pace pure dance climax.[6] Basic moves and mudras[edit]

Odissi
Odissi
pose at Konark Sun Temple

The basic unit of Odissi
Odissi
are called bhangas. These are made up of eight belis, or body positions and movements, combined in many varieties.[41] Motion is uthas (rising or up), baithas (sitting or down) or sthankas (standing).[41] The gaits or movement on the dance floor is called chaalis, with movement tempo linked to emotions according to the classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts. Thus, for example, burhas or quick pace suggest excitement, while a slow confused pace suggests dejection. For aesthetics, movement is centered on a core, a point in space or floor, and each dancer has her imaginary square of space, with spins and expression held within it.[41] The foot movement or pada bhedas too have basic dance units, and Odissi
Odissi
has six of these, in contrast to four found in most classical Indian dances.[41] The three primary dance positions in Odissi
Odissi
are:[6]

Samabhanga – the square position, with weight equally placed on the two legs, spine straight, arms raised up with elbows bent. Abhanga – the body weight shifts from side to side, due to deep leg bends, while the feet and knees are turned outwards, and one hip extending sideways. Tribhanga – is an S-shaped three-fold bending of body, with torso deflecting in one direction while the head and hips deflecting in the opposite direction of torso. Further, the hands and legs frame the body into a composite of two squares (rectangle), providing an aesthetic frame of reference. This is described in the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts, and forms of it are found in other Hindu
Hindu
dance arts, but tribhanga postures developed most in and are distinctive to Odissi, and they are found in historic Hindu temple
Hindu temple
reliefs.[6]

Mudras or Hastas are hand gestures which are used to express the meaning of a given act.[71] Like all classical dances of India, the aim of Odissi
Odissi
is in part to convey emotions, mood and inner feelings in the story by appropriate hand and facial gestures. There are 63 Hastas in modern Odissi
Odissi
dance, and these have the same names or structure as those in the pan-Indian Hindu
Hindu
texts, but most closely matching those in the Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Chandrika.[41][71] These are subdivided into three, according to the traditional texts:[71]

Asamyukta Hasta – Single hand Mudras – 28 Prakar (gestures, for instance to communicate a salute, prayer, embrace, energy, bond, swing, carriage, shell, arrow, holding a thing, wheel, and so on.) Samyukta Hasta – Double hand Mudras – 24 Prakar (gestures, for instance to indicate a flag, flower, type of bird or animal, moon, action like grasping, and so on.) Nrutya Hasta – “Pure Dance” Mudras

The Mudra
Mudra
system is derived from the " Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Darpana" by Nandikeshavara and the ancient Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
of Bharata Muni.[71] Costumes[edit]

The Odissi
Odissi
Costume

The Odissi
Odissi
dancers are colorfully dressed with makeup and jewellery. The Saree
Saree
worn by Odissi
Odissi
dancers are brightly coloured, and usually of local silk (Pattasari).[72] It is worn with pleats, or may have a pleat tailor stitched in front, to allow maximum flexibility during the footwork.[73] These sarees have traditional prints of Odisha
Odisha
with regional designs and embellishments, and may be the Sambalpuri Saree and Bomkai
Bomkai
Saree.[citation needed] The jewellery includes silver pieces, a metal favored in regional tradition.[74] The hair is tied up, and typically drawn into an elaborate bun resembling a Hindu temple
Hindu temple
spire, and decorated with Seenthi.[73][75] They hairdo may contain a moon shaped crest of white flowers,[73] or a reed crown called Mukoot with peacock feathers (symbolism for Lord Krishna). The dancers forehead is marked with Tikka, and adorned with various jewelry such as the Allaka (head piece on which the tikka hangs). The eyes are ringed with Kajal
Kajal
(black eyeliner).[76] Ear covers called Kapa or ear rings decorate the sides of the head, while necklace adorns the neck. The dancer wears a pair of armlets also called Bahichudi or Bajuband, on the upper arm. The wrist is covered with Kankana (bangles).[76] At the waist they wear an elaborate belt which ties down one end of the Sari. The ankles are decorated with a leather piece on top of which are bells (ghungroo).[74] The dancer's palms and soles may be painted with red coloured dye called the Alta.[76] Modern Odissi
Odissi
male performers wear dhoti – a broadcloth tied around waist, pleated for movement, and tucked between legs; usually extends to knee or lower. Upper body is bare chested, and a long thin folded translucent sheet wrapping over one shoulder and usually tucked below a wide belt.[73] Music and instruments[edit] Main article: Odissi
Odissi
music Odissi
Odissi
dance is accompanied by Odissi
Odissi
music. The primary Odissi
Odissi
ragas are Kalyana, Nata, Shree Gowda, Baradi, Panchama, Dhanashri, Karnata, Bhairavee and Shokabaradi.[77] Odissi
Odissi
dance, states Ragini Devi, is a form of "visualized music", wherein the Ragas and Raginis, respectively the primary and secondary musical modes, are integrated by the musicians and interpreted through the dancer.[78] Each note is a means, has a purpose and with a mood in classical Indian music, which Odissi
Odissi
accompanies to express sentiments in a song through Parija.[78] This is true whether the performance is formal, or less formal as in Nartana and Natangi used during festive occasions and the folksy celebration of life.[78] A distinctive feature of Odissi
Odissi
is that it includes both North and South Indian Ragas, which in 20th-century scholarship has been grouped as the Hindustani and the Carnatic music.[6] According to Alessandra Royo, Odissi music
Odissi music
integrates the music styles of the two major Indian music concert traditions, and does not have a separate systematic classification like those found in the North and South Indian traditions.[79] According to Emmie Nijenhuis, Odissi music
Odissi music
suggests performance arts and ideas were exchanged between the North and South India
India
during the medieval era, and Odissi
Odissi
accepted both as a creative crucible of styles and ideas.[80] Guru
Guru
Ramahari Das, an eminent researcher and performer in Odissi
Odissi
music counters this incorrect assumption. He states, " Odissi music
Odissi music
is a lot more lyrical as compared to Hindustani or Carnatic. Just like these two forms, it has its typical feel, its unique identity."[81] Pandit Damodar Hota also explicitly states the uniqueness of Odissi
Odissi
music thus, "Like the Saraswati
Saraswati
River that formed the “triveni” along with the Ganga and the Yamuna, Odissi
Odissi
was a distinct stream of music like the Carnatic and Hindustani. It evolved from the ritualistic music of the Jagannath
Jagannath
temple of Puri, and the 12th century saint-poet Jayadeva
Jayadeva
was a prominent practitioner of it." Multiple scholars have systematically countered the notion of Odissi
Odissi
being simply a mixture of two other styles that themselves were named in the twentieth century. Guru
Guru
Dheeraj Mahapatra in his paper The Unique Features of Odissi
Odissi
Music: An Overview mentions the characteristics due to which a music can be called 'classical' and how Odissi music
Odissi music
satisfies those criteria while establishing its distinctive nature. An Odissi
Odissi
troupe comes with musicians and musical instruments. The orchestra consists of various regional musical instruments, such as the Mardala (barrel drum), harmonium, flute, sitar, violin, cymbals held in fingers and others.[6]

Odissi
Odissi
group performance

Styles[edit] The Odissi
Odissi
tradition existed in three schools: Mahari, Nartaki, and Gotipua:

Maharis were Oriya devadasis or temple girls, their name deriving from Maha (great) and Nari (girl), or Mahri (chosen) particularly those at the temple of Jagganath
Jagganath
at Puri. Early Maharis performed Nritta (pure dance) and Abhinaya
Abhinaya
(interpretation of poetry) dedicated to various Hindu
Hindu
gods and goddesses, as well as Puranic mythologies and Vedic legends.[82] Later, Maharis especially performed dance sequences based on the lyrics of Jayadev's Gita Govinda.[82] This style is more sensuous and closer to the classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts on dance, music and performance arts.[82] Gotipuas were boys dressed up as girls and taught the dance by the Maharis. This style included martial arts, athletics and acrobatics. Gotipuas danced to these compositions outside the temples and fairgrounds as folksy entertainment.[82] Nartaki dance took place in the royal courts, where it was prevalent before the British period.[83][84]

Schools, training and recognition[edit] Odissi
Odissi
maestros and performers[edit] Kelucharan Mohapatra, Gangadhar Pradhan, Pankaj Charan Das, Deba Prasad Das and Raghunath Dutta were the four major gurus who revived Odissi
Odissi
in the late forties and early fifties. Sanjukta Panigrahi
Sanjukta Panigrahi
was a leading disciple of Kelucharan Mohapatra
Kelucharan Mohapatra
who popularized Odissi
Odissi
by performing in India
India
and abroad. In the mid-sixties, three other disciples of Kelucharan Mohapatra, Kumkum Mohanty and Sonal Mansingh, were known for their performances in India
India
and abroad. Laximipriya Mohapatra performed a piece of Odissi
Odissi
abhinaya in the Annapurna Theatre in Cuttack in 1948, a show upheld as the first classical Odissi
Odissi
dance performance after its contemporary revival.[85] Guru Mayadhar Raut
Mayadhar Raut
played a pivotal role in giving Odissi
Odissi
dance its classical status. He introduced Mudra
Mudra
Vinyoga in 1955 and Sancharibhava in the Odissi
Odissi
dance items, and portrayed Shringara Rasa in Gita Govinda
Gita Govinda
Ashthapadis. His notable compositions include Pashyati Dishi Dishi and Priya Charu Shile, composed in 1961.[86] IIT Bhubaneswar[edit] Odissi
Odissi
has been included in Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar's BTech syllabus since 2015 as the first Indian national technical institute to introduce any classical dance in syllabus.[87][88][89]

Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
on the largest Odissi
Odissi
dance event.

In Guinness World records[edit] Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
has acknowledged the feat of the largest congregation of Odissi
Odissi
dancers in a single event. 555 Odissi
Odissi
dancers performed at the event hosted on 23 December 2011, in the Kalinga stadium, Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The dancers performed the Mangalacharan, Battu, Pallavi, Abhinay and Mokshya dance items from the Odissi repertoire.[90][91] More than 1000 Odissi
Odissi
dancers performed at the World Cultural Festival[92][93] March 12, 2016. This is till date the largest congregation of Odissi
Odissi
dancers in a single event. Odissi
Odissi
Centre at Oxford University[edit]

Baisali Mohanty
Baisali Mohanty
announcing the Oxford Odissi
Odissi
Centre.

An Odissi
Odissi
dance centre has been opened from January, 2016, at the University of Oxford.[94] Known as Oxford Odissi
Odissi
Centre, it is an initiative of the Odissi
Odissi
dancer and choreographer Baisali Mohanty
Baisali Mohanty
who is also a post-graduate scholar at the University of Oxford.[95] Beside holding regular Odissi
Odissi
dance classes at its institution, the Oxford Odissi Centre
Oxford Odissi Centre
also conducts Odissi
Odissi
dance workshops at other academic institutions in the United Kingdom.[96][97] See also[edit]

Indian classical dance Ghungroo Odissi
Odissi
music Gotipua

References[edit]

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Odissi
Encyclopædia Britannica (2013) ^ Williams 2004, pp. 83-84, the other major classical Indian dances are: Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Manipuri, Cchau, Satriya, Yaksagana and Bhagavata Mela. ^ http://ccrtindia.gov.in/classicaldances.php Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT); "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  Guidelines for Sangeet Natak Akademi Ratna and Akademi Puraskar ^ Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ a b c Sunil Kothari; Avinash Pasricha (1990). Odissi, Indian classical dance art. Marg Publications. pp. 4–6, 41. ISBN 978-81-85026-13-8. , Quote: "There are other temples too in Orissa
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where the maharis used to dance. Besides the temple of Lord Jagannatha, maharis were employed in temples dedicated to Shiva and Shakti." ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bruno Nettl; Ruth M. Stone; James Porter; et al. (1998). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia : the Indian subcontinent. Routledge. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c d e James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 484–485. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.  ^ Richard Schechner (2010). Between Theater and Anthropology. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-8122-0092-6.  ^ a b Evangelos Kyriakidis (2007). The archaeology of ritual. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California Press. pp. 155–158. ISBN 978-1-931745-48-2.  ^ Sunil Kothari; Avinash Pasricha (1990). Odissi, Indian classical dance art. Marg Publications. pp. 9–10, 12. ISBN 978-81-85026-13-8. , Quote: The art of dance and music suffered on account of political instability, the Muslim invasion, the desecration of the temples and the loss of independence, the lack of patronage to both the maharis and the gotipua dancers..." ^ Ragini Devi
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Bibliography[edit]

Odissi : What, Why and How… Evolution, Revival and Technique, by Madhumita Raut. Published by B. R. Rhythms, Delhi, 2007. ISBN 81-88827-10-X. Odissi
Odissi
Yaatra: The Journey of Guru
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Mayadhar Raut, by Aadya Kaktikar (ed. Madhumita Raut). Published by B. R. Rhythms, Delhi, 2010. ISBN 978-81-88827-21-3. Odissi
Odissi
Dance, by Dhirendranath Patnaik. Published by Orissa
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Sangeet Natak Akademi, 1971. Odissi
Odissi
– The Dance
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Divine, by Ranjana Gauhar and Dushyant Parasher. Published by Niyogi Books, 2007. ISBN 81-89738-17-8. Odissi, Indian Classical Dance
Dance
Art: Odisi Nritya, by Sunil Kothari, Avinash Pasricha. Marg Publications, 1990. ISBN 81-85026-13-0. Perspectives on Odissi
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Theatre, by Ramesh Prasad Panigrahi, Orissa Sangeet Natak Akademi. Published by Orissa
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Sangeet Natak Akademi, 1998. Abhinaya-chandrika and Odissi
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Vatsyayan (1977). Classical Indian dance in literature and the arts. Sangeet Natak Akademi. OCLC 233639306. , Table of Contents Kapila
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Vatsyayan (1974), Indian classical dance, Sangeet Natak Akademi, OCLC 2238067  Kapila
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Vatsyayan (2008). Aesthetic theories and forms in Indian tradition. Munshiram Manoharlal. ISBN 978-8187586357. OCLC 286469807.  Kapila
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odissi.

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Dance
- Manglacharan Ganesh Vandana Pushkar 2014 Odissi
Odissi
links at the Open Directory Odissi
Odissi
schools, Classical Indian Dance
Dance
Portal The annotated Odissi
Odissi
Dance
Dance
Archive on Pad.ma History of Odissi
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and Geeta Govinda JN Dhar, Orissa
Orissa
Review

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Dance
Dance
in India

Classical

Bharata Natyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya

Divine forms

Nataraja Tandava Rasa lila Lasya

Folk (list)

Bihu Bagurumba Bhangra Chang Cheraw Chhau Dollu Kunitha Giddha Garba Dandiya Raas Ghoomar Ghumura Kachhi Ghodi Karma Lavani Saang Sword dance Tippani Yakshagana

Contemporary

Bollywood song and dance Hindi dance songs Nautch

Literature

Natya Shastra Abhinavabharati Mudras

By state

Andhra Pradesh Assam Himachal Pradesh Odisha Punjab Tamil Nadu

Accessories

Ghungroo

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Culture of Odisha

Dance forms

Classical Dance

Gotipua Mahari Odissi

Folk dance

Baagh Naach Chadheia Chaiti ghoda Chhau Chutkuchuta Dalkhai Danda nata Dasakathia Dhan Koela Dhanu Jatra Dhuduki Ghumura Harikatha Jhumar Jodi sankha Karma Kandhei nacha Kathi Kandhei Keisabadi Nachni Naga nrutya Pala Rasarkeli Paika Ranapa Sambalpuri Samprada Laudi nata Lankapodi Lila Tamasa Pasu nrutya Patua Rabana chaya Sakhi kandhei
Sakhi kandhei
(Sakhi nata) Suanga Sankirtana

Tribal dance

Desia Gadaba Kandha Koya Onra Paraja Saura

Music

Odissi
Odissi
music Khanjani bhajana Kendara gita Dhumpa

Handlooms and Handicrafts

Handloom

Baleswari Bandha Brahmapuri Ikat Khandua Pasapali Sambalpuri Sonepuri

Handicrafts

Pattachitra Chandua Terracotta Jhoti chita Saura painting Clay Stoneworks Wooden crafts Bronze & Bell metal works Dhokra

Observations and Festivals

Bali Jatra Badabadua Puja Dhanu Jatra Dola jatra Nuakhai Gamha Purnima Kumar Purnima Makar Sankranti Manabasa Gurubara Odia Hindu
Hindu
wedding Pana Sankranti Prathamastami Ratha yatra Raja Samba Dashami Savitri Brata Snana jatra

Category

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Dance

Did you know? Today's article Today's biography Today's picture

Participation

Solo Partner Group

Circle Line Round Square

Social context

Ceremonial Competitive Concert Erotic Fad Folk Participation Sacred Social Street War

Major present-day genres

Acro Ballet Ballroom Belly Breaking Contemporary Country-western Hip-hop Jazz Latin Modern Postmodern Swing Tap

Technique

Ballet
Ballet
technique Choreography Connection Dance
Dance
theory Graham Lead and follow Pole dance Moves (glossary) Musicality Pointe Sequence dance Spotting Turnout Turns

Regional traditions

Arab Africa Assyrian Cambodia China Cuba Denmark Europe Georgian India Indonesia Israel Ireland Japan Korea Kurdish Middle Eastern Netherlands Persian Philippines Poland Romani Russia Thailand Ukraine United States

African-American

Venezuela

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Portal

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Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

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