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The Oder
Oder
(/ˈoʊdər/; Czech, Lower Sorbian and Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra)[1] is a river in Central Europe. It rises in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and flows (generally north- and northwest-ward) through western Poland, later forming 187 kilometres (116 mi) of the border between Poland
Poland
and Germany, part of the Oder–Neisse line. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon
Szczecin Lagoon
north of Szczecin and then into three branches (the Dziwna, Świna
Świna
and Peene) that empty into the Gulf of Pomerania
Pomerania
of the Baltic Sea.

Contents

1 Names 2 Geography 3 Navigation 4 History 5 Cities 6 Eastern tributaries 7 Western tributaries 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External links

Names[edit] The Oder
Oder
is known by several names in different languages, but the modern ones are very similar: English and German: Oder; Czech, Polish, and Lower Sorbian: Odra, Upper Sorbian: Wódra; Kashubian: Òdra (pronounced [ˈwɛdra]); Medieval Latin: Od(d)era; Renaissance Latin: Viadrus (invented in 1534). Ptolemy
Ptolemy
knew the modern Oder
Oder
as the Συήβος (Suebos; Latin Suevus), a name apparently derived from the Suebi, a Germanic people. While he also refers to an outlet in the area as the Οὐιαδούα Ouiadoua (or Οὐιλδούα Ouildoua; Latin
Latin
Viadua or Vildua), this was apparently the modern Wieprz, as it was said to be a third of the distance between the Suebos and Vistula.[2][3] The name Suebos may be preserved in the modern name of the Świna
Świna
river (German Swine), an outlet from the Szczecin Lagoon
Szczecin Lagoon
to the Baltic. In the Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
language, the name of the river is Vjodr.[4] Geography[edit] The Oder
Oder
is 854 kilometres (531 miles) long: 112 km (70 miles) in the Czech Republic, 742 km (461 miles) in Poland
Poland
(including 187 km (116 miles) on the border between Germany
Germany
and Poland) and is the second longest river in Poland
Poland
(after the Vistula). It drains a basin of 118,861 square kilometres (45,892 sq mi), 106,056 km2 (40,948 sq mi) of which are in Poland (89%), 7,217 km2 (2,786 sq mi) in the Czech Republic (6%), and 5,587 km2 (2,157 sq mi)in Germany
Germany
(5%). Channels connect it to the Havel, Spree, Vistula
Vistula
system and Kłodnica. It flows through Silesian, Opole, Lower Silesian, Lubusz, and West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland
Poland
and the states of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
in Germany. The main branch empties into the Szczecin Lagoon
Szczecin Lagoon
near Police, Poland. The Szczecin Lagoon
Szczecin Lagoon
is bordered on the north by the islands of Usedom (west) and Wolin
Wolin
(east). Between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel (Świna) going to the Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea. The largest city on the Oder
Oder
is Wrocław, in Lower Silesia. Navigation[edit] The Oder
Oder
is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as the town of Koźle, where the river connects to the Gliwice Canal. The upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges (up to CEMT Class IV) to navigate between the industrial sites around the Wrocław
Wrocław
area. Further downstream the river is free flowing, passing the towns of Eisenhüttenstadt
Eisenhüttenstadt
(where the Oder– Spree
Spree
Canal connects the river to the Spree
Spree
in Berlin) and Frankfurt upon Oder. Downstream of Frankfurt the river Warta
Warta
forms a navigable connection with Poznań
Poznań
and Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
for smaller vessels. At Hohensaaten
Hohensaaten
the Oder– Havel
Havel
Canal connects with the Berlin waterways again. Near its mouth the Oder
Oder
reaches the city of Szczecin, a major maritime port. The river finally reaches the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
through the Szczecin Lagoon and the river mouth at Świnoujście.[5] History[edit]

This article or section appears to contradict itself. Please see the talk page for more information. (May 2016)

The river in Germania
Germania
Magna was known to the Romans as the Viadrus or Viadua in Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the Amber Road
Amber Road
from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(see via). In German language
German language
it was and is called the Oder, written in older records as Odera or Oddera in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
documents. It was mentioned in the Dagome iudex, which described territory of the Duchy of Poland
Poland
under Mieszko I of Poland
Poland
ca. 990, as a part of duchy's western frontier. Before Slavs
Slavs
settled along its banks, the Oder
Oder
was an important trade route and towns in Germania
Germania
were documented along with many tribes living between the rivers Albis (aka Elbe), Oder, and Vistula. Centuries later, after Germanic tribes were long gone, the Bavarian Geographer (ca. 845) specifies the following West Slavic peoples: Sleenzane, Dadosesani, Opoloni, Lupiglaa, and Golensizi in Silesia
Silesia
and Wolinians and Pyrzycans in Western Pomerania. A document of the Bishopric of Prague
Prague
(1086) mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane, Poborane, and Dedositze in Silesia. In the 13th century, the first dams were built to protect agricultural lands. The Finow Canal, first built in 1605, connects the Oder
Oder
and Havel. After completion of the more straight Oder– Havel
Havel
Canal in 1914, its economic relevance decreased. The earliest important undertaking with a view to improving the waterway was initiated by Frederick the Great, who recommended diverting the river into a new and straight channel in the swampy tract known as Oderbruch
Oderbruch
near Küstrin. The work was carried out in the years 1746–53, a large tract of marshland being brought under cultivation, a considerable detour cut off and the main stream successfully confined to a canal. In the late 19th century, three additional alterations were made to the waterway:

The canalization of the main stream at Breslau, and from the confluence of the Glatzer Neisse
Glatzer Neisse
to the mouth of the Klodnitz Canal, a distance of over 50 miles (80 km). These engineering works were completed in 1896. During 1887–91 the Oder– Spree
Spree
Canal was made to connect the two rivers. The deepening and regulation of the mouth and lower course of the stream.

By the Treaty of Versailles, navigation on the Oder
Oder
became subject to International Commission of the Oder.[6] Following the articles 363 and 364 of the Treaty Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was entitled to lease in Stettin (now Szczecin) its own section in the harbour, then called Tschechoslowakische Zone im Hafen Stettin.[7] The contract of lease between Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Germany, and supervised by the United Kingdom, was signed on February 16, 1929, and would end in 2028, however, after 1945 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
did not regain this legal position, de facto abolished in 1938–39. At the 1943 Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
the allies decided that the new Eastern border of Germany
Germany
would run along the Oder[8] but after World War II, the Oder
Oder
and the Lusatian Neisse
Lusatian Neisse
formed the Oder–Neisse line, which was designated by the victorious allies at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
as the new border between Poland
Poland
and Germany. A significant percentage of the German populations east of these two rivers were evacuated by the Nazis or fled before the approaching Red Army. After the war, the remaining population was forcibly expelled in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement.[9] East Germany
Germany
confirmed the border with Poland
Poland
in 1950, then West Germany, after a period of refusal, finally accepted the border in 1970. In 1990 newly reunified Germany
Germany
and the Republic of Poland
Poland
signed a treaty recognizing it as their border. Cities[edit]

Oder
Oder
in Police, Poland

Main section:

Ostrava
Ostrava
Bohumín
Bohumín
Racibórz
Racibórz
– Kędzierzyn- Koźle
Koźle
Krapkowice
Krapkowice
Opole
Opole
Brzeg
Brzeg
Oława
Oława
Jelcz-Laskowice
Jelcz-Laskowice
Wrocław
Wrocław
Brzeg
Brzeg
Dolny – Ścinawa
Ścinawa
Szlichtyngowa
Szlichtyngowa
– Głogów – Bytom Odrzański
Bytom Odrzański
Nowa Sól
Nowa Sól
Zielona Góra
Zielona Góra
– Krosno Odrzańskie – Eisenhüttenstadt
Eisenhüttenstadt
Frankfurt (Oder)
Frankfurt (Oder)
– Słubice – Kostrzyn – Cedynia
Cedynia
Schwedt
Schwedt
Vierraden
Vierraden
Gartz
Gartz
Gryfino
Gryfino
Szczecin
Szczecin
– Police

Dziwna
Dziwna
branch (between Wolin
Wolin
Island and mainland Poland):

Wolin
Wolin
Kamień Pomorski
Kamień Pomorski
– Dziwnów

Świna
Świna
branch (between Wolin
Wolin
and the Usedom
Usedom
islands):

Świnoujście

Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon:

Nowe Warpno
Nowe Warpno
– Ueckermünde

Peene
Peene
branch (between Usedom
Usedom
Island and the German mainland):

Usedom
Usedom
– Lassan – Wolgast

Eastern tributaries[edit]

Ostravice – Olza – Ruda – Bierawka – Kłodnica
Kłodnica
– Czarnka – Mała Panew
Mała Panew
– Stobrawa – Widawa
Widawa
– Jezierzyca – Barycz – Krzycki Rów – Obrzyca – Jabłonna – Pliszka – Ołobok – Gryżynka – Warta
Warta
with the Noteć
Noteć
– Myśla – Kurzyca – Stubia – Rurzyca – Tywa – Płonia – Ina – Gowienica
Gowienica
- Śmieszka

Western tributaries[edit]

Opava – Psina (Cyna) – Cisek – Olszówka – Stradunia – Osobłoga
Osobłoga
– Prószkowski Potok – Nysa Kłodzka
Nysa Kłodzka
Oława
Oława
Ślęza
Ślęza
– Bystrzyca – Średzka Woda – Cicha Woda – Kaczawa
Kaczawa
– Ślepca – Zimnica – Dębniak – Biała Woda – Czarna Struga – Śląska Ochla
Śląska Ochla
– Zimny Potok – Bóbr
Bóbr
– Olcha – Racza – Lusatian Neisse
Lusatian Neisse
Finow – Gunica

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oder
Oder
River.

List of rivers of Germany List of rivers of Poland Lower Oder
Oder
Valley National Park Oder–Neisse line Odra Wodzisław Ostrów Grabowski, a river island in Szczecin

Notes[edit]

^ Czech pronunciation: [ˈodra], Polish pronunciation: [ˈɔdra] ^ Claudius Ptolemaios: Geographike Hyphegesis, Kap. 11: Germania Magna. (altgriech./lat./engl.) ^ Ralf Loock: Mündungen der Flüsse bestimmt. In: Märkische Oderzeitung, Frankfurt 2008,3 (März); Ralf Loock: Namenskrimi um Viadrus in: Märkische Oderzeitung – Journal. Frankfurt 25./26. Nov. 2006, S. 2; siehe auch Alfred Stückelberger, Gerd Graßhoff (Hrsg.): Ptolemaios – Handbuch der Geographie. Schwabe, Basel 2006, S. 223, ISBN 3-7965-2148-7 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's 9th edition 1870–1890: Oder& ^ NoorderSoft Waterways Database Archived November 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. ^ The commission was staffed with one representative of Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom each and three representatives of Prussia, being the German state competent for the navigable section of the Oder, comprised within the latter's borders. Cf. Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden: 21 Bde., completely revised ed., Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 151928-1935, vol 13 (1932): Dreizehnter Band Mue–Ost, article: 'Oder', pp. 600seq., here p. 601. No ISBN. ^ Cf. Archiwum Państwowe w Szczecinie (State Archive of Szczecin), Rep. 126, Krajowy Urząd Skarbowy w Szczecinie [1] ^ Allen DJ (2003) The Oder-Neisse line: the United States, Poland, and Germany
Germany
in the Cold War, Praeger P13 ^ XII. ORDERLY TRANSFER OF GERMAN POPULATIONS. The Three Governments, having considered the question in all its aspects, recognize that the transfer to Germany
Germany
of German populations, or elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner.

External links[edit]

multilingual information site on the Oder Odra electronic shipping guide Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law Peace Palace Library

v t e

Tributaries of the Oder
Oder
/ Odra

Main tributaries of the left bank

Budišovka Čermná Opava Psina (Cyna) Cisek Olszówka Stradunia Osobłoga Nysa Kłodzka Oława Ślęza Bystrzyca Średzka Woda Cicha Woda Kaczawa Ślepca Zimnica Dębniak Biała Woda Czarna Struga Śląska Ochla Zimny Potok Bóbr Olcha Racza Lusatian Neisse Finow Canal Gręziniec Gunica

Main tributaries of the right bank

Suchá Luha Jičínka Sedlnice Lubina Ostravice Olza Ruda Bierawka Kłodnica Gliwice Canal Czarnka Mała Panew Stobrawa Widawa Jezierzyca Barycz Krzycki Rów Obrzyca Jablonna Pliszka Ołobok Gryzynka Warta Myśla Kurzyca Stubia Rurzyca Tywa Płonia Ina Gowienica

Distributary

East Oder
East Oder
(Regalica) West Oder Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon Dziwna Świna Peene

Cities

Ostrava Bohumín Racibórz Kędzierzyn-Koźle Krapkowice Opole Brzeg Oława Jelcz-Laskowice Wrocław Brzeg
Brzeg
Dolny Ścinawa Szlichtyngowa Głogów Bytom Odrzański Nowa Sól Krosno Odrzańskie Eisenhüttenstadt Frankfurt (Oder) Słubice Kostrzyn nad Odrą Cedynia Schwedt Vierraden Gartz Gryfino Szczecin Police

v t e

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v t e

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euroregion

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Lists

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A–H I–P Q–Z

Largest

>100,000

Tricity

Gdańsk Gdynia Sopot

Szczecin Koszalin

>50,000

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Greifswalder Oie Hiddensee Rügen Ummanz Usedom Vilm Wolin

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Fischland-Darß-Zingst Jasmund Hela Mönchgut Wittow

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Dziwna Grabowa Ina Łeba Oder Parsęta Peene Peenestrom Randow Recknitz Rega Ryck Słupia Świna Tollense Trebel Uecker Vistula Wieprza

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Lake Dąbie Lake Gardno Kummerower See Lake Łebsko Lake Miedwie

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Lagoon

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Oder
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v t e

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1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (1919) Potsdam (1945)

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oder". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–3. 

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2145602485001362

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