ODA NOBUNAGA (織田 信長,
* 1 Historical context * 2 Early life
* 3 Unification of Owari Province
* 3.1 Succession dispute * 3.2 Elimination of Nobuyuki
* 4 Rise to power
* 5 Campaign against rival daimyō
* 6 Coup at
* 10 Family
* 10.1 Immediate family * 10.2 Descendants * 10.3 Other relatives * 10.4 Later descendants
* 11 Honours * 12 In popular culture * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links
Site of Nagoya Castle (那古野城跡).
The goal of national unification and a return to the comparative
political stability of the earlier
Following the incident,
Akechi Mitsuhide declared himself master over
Nobunaga's domains, but was quickly defeated by
"Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."
UNIFICATION OF OWARI PROVINCE
In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly. Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar. This convinced many Oda retainers of Nobunaga's mediocrity and lack of discipline. Alienated, they then began to side with his soft-spoken and well-mannered brother, Nobuyuki . Hirate Masahide , a valuable mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, was ashamed by Nobunaga's behavior and performed seppuku . This had a profound effect on Nobunaga, who later built a temple to honor Masahide.
Although Nobunaga was Nobuhide's legitimate successor, the Oda clan was divided into many factions, and the clan was technically under the control of Owari's shugo , Shiba Yoshimune . Oda Nobutomo , the deceased Nobuhide's brother and deputy to the shugo, used the weak Yoshimune as his puppet and challenged Nobunaga's place as Owari's new ruler. Nobutomo murdered Yoshimune when it was discovered that he supported and attempted to aid Nobunaga.
Nobunaga persuaded Oda Nobumitsu, a grandfather of Nobuhide, to join
his side and, with Nobumitsu's help, slew Nobutomo in
Kiyosu Castle ,
which later became Nobunaga's place of residence for over ten years.
Taking advantage of the position of Shiba Yoshikane, Yoshimune's son,
as the rightful shugo, Nobunaga forged an alliance with the Imagawa
Suruga Province and the
Kira clan of
Although Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga
took an army to
ELIMINATION OF NOBUYUKI
A few months later Nobuyuki, with support from Shibata Katsuie and Hayashi Hidesada , rebelled against Nobunaga. The conspirators were defeated at the Battle of Inō , but were pardoned after the intervention of Tsuchida Gozen , the birth mother of Nobunaga and Nobuyuki. The next year, Nobuyuki again planned to rebel. Nobunaga was informed of this by Shibata Katsuie, then faked illness to get close to Nobuyuki and assassinated him in Kiyosu Castle.
In 1558, he protected Suzuki Shigeteru in the Siege of Terabe .
By 1559, Nobunaga had eliminated all opposition within the clan and Owari Province . :276 He continued to use Shiba Yoshikane as a pretext to make peace with other daimyo, though it was later discovered that Yoshikane had secretly corresponded with the Kira and Imagawa clans, attempting to oust Nobunaga and restore the Shiba clan 's place. Nobunaga eventually cast him out, voiding alliances created in the Shiba clan's name.
RISE TO POWER
BATTLE OF OKEHAZAMA
Main article: Battle of Okehazama
Imagawa Yoshimoto gathered an army of 40,000 men and
started his march toward
Nobunaga's scouts reported that Yoshimoto was resting at the narrow gorge of Dengaku-hazama, ideal for a surprise attack, and that the Imagawa army were celebrating their victories while Yoshimoto viewed the heads. Nobunaga moved towards Imagawa's camp, and set up a position some distance away. An array of flags and dummy troops made of straw and spare helmets gave the impression of a large host, while the real Oda army hurried round in a rapid march to get behind Yoshimoto's camp. The heat gave way to a terrific thunderstorm. As the Imagawa samurai sheltered from the rain Nobunaga deployed his troops, and when the storm ceased they charged down upon the enemy in the gorge, so suddenly that Yoshimoto thought a brawl had broken out among his men, only realizing it was an attack when two samurai charged up. One aimed a spear at him, which Yoshimoto deflected with his sword, but the second swung his blade and cut off Imagawa's head.
Rapidly weakening in the wake of this battle, the
Tradition dates this battle as the first time that Nobunaga noticed the talents of the sandal-bearer who would eventually become Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
SIEGE OF INABAYAMA CASTLE
In Mino, Saitō Yoshitatsu died suddenly of illness in 1561, and was succeeded by his son, Saitō Tatsuoki . Tatsuoki, however, was young and much less effective as a ruler and military strategist compared to his father and grandfather. :57
Taking advantage of this situation, Nobunaga moved his base to Komaki
After taking possession of the castle, Nobunaga changed the name of
both the castle and the surrounding town to Gifu . Remains of
Nobunaga's residence in Gifu can be found today in
Gifu Park . Naming
it after the legendary Mount Qi (岐山 Qi in
CAMPAIGN IN KYOTO
In 1568, Ashikaga Yoshiaki went to Gifu to ask Nobunaga to start a campaign toward Kyoto. Yoshiaki was the brother of the murdered thirteenth shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate, Yoshiteru , and wanted revenge against the killers who had already set up a puppet shogun, Ashikaga Yoshihide . Nobunaga agreed to install Yoshiaki as the new shogun and, grasping the opportunity to enter Kyoto, started his campaign. An obstacle in southern Ōmi Province, however, was the Rokkaku clan . Led by Rokkaku Yoshikata, the clan refused to recognize Yoshiaki as shogun and was ready to go to war. In response, Nobunaga launched a rapid attack, driving the Rokkaku clan out of their castles. :278–79
Within a short amount of time, Nobunaga had reached
CAMPAIGN AGAINST RIVAL DAIMYō
BATTLE OF ANEGAWA
Main article: Battle of Anegawa
The Asakura clan was particularly disdainful of the Oda clan's increasing power. Furthermore, Asakura Yoshikage had also protected Ashikaga Yoshiaki, but had not been willing to march toward Kyoto. :281
When Nobunaga launched a campaign into the Asakura clan's domain,
Azai Nagamasa, to whom
Oichi was married, broke the alliance with Oda
to honor the Azai-Asakura alliance which had lasted for generations.
With the help of Ikko rebels , the anti-Nobunaga alliance sprang into
full force, taking a heavy toll on the Oda clan. At the Battle of
SIEGE OF NAGASHIMA AND ISHIYAMA HONGAN-JI
During the siege of Nagashima , Nobunaga suffered tremendous losses to the Ikkō-ikki resistance opposed samurai rule. The siege finally ended when Nobunaga surrounded the enemy complex and set fire to it, killing tens of thousands. :221–25
He later succeeded in taking their main stronghold at Ishiyama Hongan-ji after an 11-year siege that ended with its surrender.
BATTLE OF NAGASHINO
Battle of Nagashino
One of the strongest rulers in the anti-Nobunaga alliance was Takeda Shingen , in spite of his generally peaceful relationship and a nominal alliance with the Oda clan. In 1572, at the urgings of the Shogun, Shingen decided to make a drive for the capital starting with invading Tokugawa territory. Tied down on the Western front, Nobunaga sent lackluster aid to Ieyasu, who suffered defeat at the Battle of Mikatagahara in 1573. However, after the battle, Tokugawa's forces launched night raids and convinced Takeda of an imminent counter-attack, thus saving the vulnerable Tokugawa with the bluff. This would play a pivotal role in Tokugawa's philosophy of strategic patience in his campaigns with Oda Nobunaga. Shortly thereafter, the Takeda forces were neutralized after Shingen died from Esophageal cancer in April 1573. :153–56
This was a relief for Nobunaga because he could now focus on Yoshiaki, who had openly declared hostility more than once, despite the imperial court's intervention. Nobunaga was able to defeat Yoshiaki's forces and send him into exile, bringing the Ashikaga shogunate to an end in the same year. :281
Also in 1573, Nobunaga successfully destroyed the Asakura and Azai clans, :156 leading Azai Nagamasa to send Oichi back to Nobunaga and commit suicide. With Nagashima's destruction in 1574, the only threat to Nobunaga was the Takeda clan , now led by Takeda Katsuyori .
At the decisive
Battle of Nagashino
SURRENDER OF ISHIYAMA HONGAN-JI
In 1574 Nobunaga became Gondainagon and Ukon'etaishō. By 1576 he was
given the title of Minister of the Right (Udaijin). The Oda clan's
Ishiyama Hongan-ji in
Due to his defeat, Nobunaga's expansion in Noto, Kaga, and Etchū Province area stagnated. But Kenshin, who prepared to move his armies again after the battle, died from a possible cerebral hemorrhage before moving them. After Kenshin's death and much confusion among his successors, Nobunaga started his campaign again on this area.
Nobunaga forced the
Ishiyama Hongan-ji to surrender in 1580 and
Takeda clan in 1582. Nobunaga's administration was at
its height of power and he was about to launch invasions into Echigo
COUP AT HONNō-JI AND DEATH
In 1582, Nobunaga's former sandal bearer Hashiba Hideyoshi invaded
Bitchū Province , laying siege to Takamatsu Castle. The castle was
vital to the Mori clan, and losing it would leave the Mori home domain
vulnerable. Led by
It has often been argued that Hideyoshi had no need for reinforcements, but asked Nobunaga anyway for various reasons. Most believe that Hideyoshi, envied and hated by fellow generals for his swift rise from a lowly footman to a top general under Oda Nobunaga, wanted to give the credit for taking Takamatsu to Nobunaga so as to humble himself in front of other Oda vassals.
In any case, Nobunaga ordered
Niwa Nagahide to prepare for an
Mitsuhide chose that time to attack. On June 21, 1582, Mitsuhide took
a unit of his men and surrounded the
The cause of Mitsuhide's "betrayal" is controversial. It has been proposed that Mitsuhide may have heard a rumor that Nobunaga would transfer Mitsuhide's fief to the page, Mōri Ranmaru, with whom Nobunaga is alleged to have been in a ritualized homosexual relationship, a form of patronage, known as shudō . Other motives include revenge for Nobunaga's numerous insults and derisive treatment of Mitsuhide, or Mitsuhide's jealousy as Nobunaga had shown greater favor toward another vassal, Hashiba Hideyoshi. Another possible motive is for revenge as Akechi Mitsuhide's mother (or perhaps aunt) was killed because Nobunaga had gone against a peace treaty to which he had previously agreed.
In 1579, Nobunaga captured Yakami
Just eleven days after the coup at Honnō temple, Mitsuhide was
killed at the
Battle of Yamazaki and his army was defeated by Hashiba
Hideyoshi, who eventually became heir to Nobunaga's legacy. He is more
widely known as Toyotomi Hideyoshi. At the time of Nobunaga's death,
he was in control of more than half of the provinces in Japan, the
majority of which were in the
NOBUNAGA, HIDEYOSHI, AND IEYASU
Hideyoshi was brought up from a nameless peasant to be one of
Nobunaga's top generals. When he became a grand minister in 1586, he
created a law that the samurai caste became codified as permanent and
heritable, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons,
thereby ending the social mobility of
It is important to note that the distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class (even small farmers) belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule. It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century. The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. Large battles occurred during the change between regimes and a number of defeated samurai were destroyed, became rōnin or were absorbed into the general populace.
Ieyasu had shared his childhood with Nobunaga as a hostage of the Oda clan. Though there were a number of battles between him and the Oda clan, Ieyasu eventually switched sides and became one of Nobunaga's strongest allies.
Militarily, Nobunaga changed the way war was fought in Japan. He
developed, implemented, and expanded the use of long pikes , firearms
and castle fortifications in accordance with the expanded mass battles
of the period. The firearms that were introduced by the Portuguese had
allowed the establishment of firearm brigades in the army. Once the
two important musket factories in Sakai City and Omi province were
conquered, it gave Nobunaga superior firepower over his enemies.
Nobunaga also instituted a specialized warrior class system and
appointed his retainers and subjects to positions based on ability,
not wholly based on name, rank, or family relationship as in prior
periods. Retainers were also given land on the basis of rice output,
not land size. Nobunaga's organizational system in particular was
later used and extensively developed by his ally
Nobunaga's dominance and brilliance was not restricted to the
battlefield, for he also was a keen businessman and understood the
principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics . First, in order to
modernize the economy from an agricultural base to a manufacture and
service base, castle towns were developed as the center and basis of
local economies. Roads were also made within his domain between castle
towns to not only facilitate trade , but also to move armies great
distances in short timespans.
International trade was also expanded
beyond China and the
Nobunaga also instituted rakuichi rakuza (楽市楽座) policies as a way to stimulate business and the overall economy through the use of a free market system. These policies abolished and prohibited monopolies and opened once closed and privileged unions, associations and guilds , which he saw as impediments to commerce. Even though these policies provided a major boost to the economy, it was still heavily dependent on daimyos' support. Copies of his original proclamations can be found in Entoku-ji in the city of Gifu . He also developed tax exemptions and established laws to regulate and ease the borrowing of debt.
As Nobunaga conquered
Additionally, Nobunaga was very interested in European culture which
was still very new to Japan. He collected pieces of Western art as
well as arms and armor, and he is considered to be among the first
Japanese people in recorded history to wear European clothes. He also
became the patron of the
Depending upon the source,
Nobunaga was the eldest legitimate son of Nobuhide, a minor warlord from Owari Province, and Tsuchida Gozen , who was also the mother to three of his brothers (Nobuyuki , Nobukane , and Hidetaka ) and two of his sisters (Oinu and Oichi ).
Oda Nobuhiro (died 1574)
Oda Nobuyuki (1536–1557)
Oda Nobukane (1548–1614)
* Oichi (1547–1583) * Oinu, married Saji Nobukata later married Hosokawa Nobuyoshi
Nōhime , the daughter of Saitō Dōsan, as a matter
of political strategy; however, she was unable to give birth to
children and was considered to be barren. It was his concubines
Kitsuno and Lady Saka who bore his children.
Kitsuno gave birth to
Nobunaga's eldest son, Nobutada . Nobutada's son Hidenobu became ruler
Oda clan after the deaths of Nobunaga and Nobutada. His son Oda
Nobuhide was a Christian, and took the baptismal name Peter; he was
Oda Nobutada (1557–1582)
Oda Nobukatsu (1558–1630)
Oda Nobutaka (1558–1583)
Hashiba Hidekatsu (1567–1585)
Oda Katsunaga (died 1582)
Oda Nobuhide (1571–1597)
Oda Nobutaka later Toyotomi Takajuro (1576–1602) adopted by
* Tokuhime (1559–1636), married Matsudaira Nobuyasu * Fuyuhime (1561–1641), married Gamō Ujisato * Hideko (died 1632), married Tsutsui Sadatsugu * Eihime (1574–1623), married Maeda Toshinaga * Hōonin, married Niwa Nagashige * Sannomarudono (died 1603), concubine to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, married Nijō Akizane * Tsuruhime, married Nakagawa Hidemasa * Oushin, concubine of Saji Kazunari * Ofuri, married Mizune Tadatane * Marikoji Mitsufusa 's wife * Tokudaiji Sanehisa 's wife
One of Nobunaga's younger sisters, Oichi, gave birth to three daughters. These three nieces of Nobunaga became involved with important historical figures. Chacha (also known as Lady Yodo), the eldest, became the mistress of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. O-Hatsu married Kyōgoku Takatsugu . The youngest, O-go , married the son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada (the second shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate ). O-go's daughter Senhime married her cousin Toyotomi Hideyori, Lady Yodo's son.
Nobunaga's nephew was
Tsuda Nobusumi , the son of Nobuyuki. Nobusumi
married Akechi Mitsuhide's daughter, and was killed after the
Nobunaga's granddaughter Oyu no Kata, by his son Oda Nobuyoshi, married Tokugawa Tadanaga .
Nobunari Oda , a retired figure skater, claims to be a 17th generation direct descendant of Nobunaga. The ex-monk celebrity Mudō Oda also claims descent from the Sengoku period warlord, but his claims have not been verified.
* Senior First Rank (November 17, 1917; posthumous)
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Main article: People of the Sengoku period in popular culture § Oda Nobunaga
Nobunaga appears frequently within fiction and continues to be
portrayed in many other anime, manga, video games, and cinematic
films. Many depictions show him as villainous or even demonic in
nature, though some portray him in a more positive light. The latter
type of works include
By contrast, the novel and anime series
Yōtōden portrays Nobunaga
as a literal demon in addition to a power-mad warlord. In the novel
The Samurai's Tale by
Erik Christian Haugaard , he is portrayed as an
antagonist "known for his merciless cruelty". He is portrayed as evil
or megalomaniacal in some anime and manga series including Samurai
Deeper Kyo and
Flame of Recca . Nobunaga is portrayed as evil,
villainous, bloodthirsty, and/or demonic in many video games such as
Nobunaga has been portrayed numerous times in a more neutral or
historic framework, especially in the Taiga dramas shown on television
Historical representations in video games (mostly Western-made strategy titles) include Shogun: Total War , Total War: Shogun 2 , Throne of Darkness , the eponymous Nobunaga\'s Ambition series, as well as Civilization V and Age of Empires II: The Conquerors . Kamenashi Kazuya of the Japanese pop group KAT-TUN wrote and performed a song titled "1582" which is written from the perspective of Mori Ranmaru during the coup at Honnō temple.
Nobunaga has also been portrayed fictively, such as when the figure
of Nobunaga influences a story or inspires a characterization. In
James Clavell 's novel Shōgun , the character Goroda is a pastiche of
Nobunaga. In the film
Sengoku Jieitai 1549 , Nobunaga is killed by
time-travellers. Nobunaga also appears as a major character in the
eroge Sengoku Rance and is a playable character in
Pokémon Conquest ,
with his partner
Zekrom . In
the anime Sengoku Otome: Momoiro Paradox , in
Sengoku Collection , and
the light novel and anime series
The Ambition of Oda Nobuna , he is
depicted as a female character. He is the main character of the stage
action and anime adaptation of
Nobunaga the Fool
Hyouge Mono (へうげもの Hepburn: Hyōge Mono, lit. "Jocular Fellow") is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Yoshihiro Yamada. It was adapted into an anime series in 2011, and includes a fictional depiction of Oda's life.
* ^ Berry, Mary Elizabeth (1982). Hideyoshi. Cambridge and London:
The Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. pp. 41–43.
ISBN 0-674-39026-1 .
* ^ Found in:Duiker, William J.; Jackson J. Spielvogel (2006).
World History, Volume II. Cengage Learning. pp. 463, 474. ISBN
0-495-05054-7 . , attributed to C.Nakane and S.Oishi, eds., Tokugawa
* Hall, John Whitney, ed. The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 4:
* t * e
Prominent people of the Sengoku period
THREE MAJOR DAIMYōS
* Go-Kashiwabara * Go-Nara * Ōgimachi * Go-Yōzei
* List of daimyōs from the Sengoku period
* Saika Magoichi
* Suzuki Sadayu * Suzuki Shigehide * Suzuki Shigetomo
* Suzuki Magoroku * Igasaki Dōshun
Monks and other religious figures
* Asahihime * Chacha * Dota Gozen * Gotokuhime * Hosokawa Gracia * Izumo no Okuni * Kitsuno * Kyōgoku Maria * Kyōgoku Tatsuko * Nene * Nōhime * Oeyo * Oichi * Ohatsu * Okaji no Kata * Lady Kasuga * Lady Saigō * Lady Tsukiyama * Senhime * Sentōin * Tokuhime
* List of samurai from the Sengoku period
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 74652663
* LCCN : n81032316
* ISNI : 0000 0000 6678 8911
* GND : 11894469X
* SUDOC : 068562209
* BNF : cb120016997 (data)