Octave Chanute (February 18, 1832 – November 23, 1910) was a French-American
pioneer. He provided many budding enthusiasts, including the Wright brothers
, with help and advice, and helped to publicize their flying experiments. At his death he was hailed as the father of aviation and the initial concepts of the heavier-than-air flying machine.
Born in Paris
, Chanute was the son of Elise and Joseph Chanut, professor at the Collège de France
. He emigrated with his father to the United States of America in 1838, when the former was named Vice-President at Jefferson College in Louisiana. Octave attended private schools in New York.
Civil engineer (railroads)
from 1908 postcard
Octave Chanute began his training as a budding civil engineer in 1848.
He was widely considered brilliant and innovative in the engineering profession. During his career he designed and constructed the United States two biggest stockyards, Chicago Stock Yards
(1865) and Kansas City Stockyards
(1871). He designed and built the Hannibal Bridge
with Joseph Tomlinson
and George Morison, which was the first bridge to cross the Missouri River
in Kansas City
, in 1869 and established Kansas City as the dominant city in the region. He designed many other bridges during his railroad career, including the Illinois River
rail bridge at Chillicothe
, Illinois, the Genesee River Gorge
rail bridge near Portageville
, New York
(now in Letchworth State Park
), the bridge across the Missouri River at Sibley
, Missouri, across the Mississippi River at Fort Madison
, and the Kinzua Bridge
Pioneer in wood preservation
Chanute also established a procedure for pressure-treating wooden railroad ties with an antiseptic that increased the wood's lifespan in the tracks. Establishing the first commercial plants, he convinced railroad men that it was commercially feasible to make money by spending money on treating ties to extend their service time and reduce replacement costs. As a method to monitor the longevity of railroad ties and other wooden structures, he introduced the railroad date nail
in the United States.
Chanute retired from the Erie Railway in 1883 to become an independent engineering consultant.
at the glider
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Chanute first became interested in aviation after watching a balloon take off in Peoria, Illinois, in 1856. When he retired from his railroad career in 1883, he decided to devote some leisure time to furthering the new science of aviation. Applying his engineering background, Chanute collected all available data from flight experimenters around the world and combined it with the knowledge gathered as a civil engineer in the past. He published his findings in a series of articles in ''The Railroad and Engineering Journal'' from 1891 to 1893, which were then re-published in the influential book ''Progress in Flying Machines'' in 1894. This was the most systematic global survey of fixed-wing heavier-than-air
aviation research published up to that time.
At the World's Columbian Exposition
in Chicago in 1893, Chanute organized in collaboration with Albert Zahm a highly successful International Conference on Aerial Navigation.
Chanute was too old to fly himself, so he partnered with younger experimenters, including Augustus M. Herring
and William Avery
. In 1896 Chanute, Herring, and Avery tested a design based on the work of German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal
, as well as hang gliders
of their own design in the dunes along the shore of Lake Michigan
near the town of Miller Beach
, just east of what became the city of Gary
These experiments convinced Chanute that the best way to achieve extra lift without a prohibitive increase in weight was to stack several wings one above the other, an idea proposed by the British engineer Francis Wenham
in 1866 and realized in flight by Lilienthal in the 1890s. Chanute introduced the "strut-wire" braced wing structure that would be used in powered biplane
s of the future, not seriously challenged until the pioneering efforts of Hugo Junkers
to develop all-metal cantilever airframe technology without external bracing from 1915
onwards. Chanute based his "interplane strut" concept on the Pratt truss
, which was familiar to him from his bridge-building work. The Wright brothers based their glider designs on the Chanute "double-decker," as they called it. A new design of a biplane glider was developed and flown in 1897.
Chanute corresponded with many aviation pioneers, including Otto Lilienthal
, Louis Mouillard
, Gabriel Voisin
, John J. Montgomery
, Louis Blériot
, Ferdinand Ferber
, Lawrence Hargrave
, and Alberto Santos Dumont
. In 1897 he started a correspondence with British aviator Percy Pilcher
. Following Chanutes ideas, Pilcher built a triplane
, but he was killed in a glider crash in October 1899 before he could attempt to fly it.
Chanute was in contact with the Wright brothers starting in 1900 when Wilbur wrote to him after reading ''Progress in Flying Machines''. Chanute helped to publicize the Wright brothers work and provided consistent encouragement, visiting their camp near Kitty Hawk
, North Carolina
, in 1901, 1902, and 1903. The Wrights and Chanute exchanged hundreds of letters between 1900 and 1910.
Chanute freely shared his knowledge about aviation with anyone who was interested and expected others to do the same, although he did encourage colleagues to patent
their inventions. His open approach led to friction with the Wright brothers, who believed their ideas about aircraft control were unique and refused to share them. Chanute did not believe that the Wright flying machine patent, premised on wing warping
, could be enforced and said so publicly, including a newspaper interview in which he said, "I admire the Wrights. I feel friendly toward them for the marvels they have achieved, but you can easily gauge how I feel concerning their attitude at present by the remark I made to Wilbur Wright recently. I told him I was sorry to see they were suing other experimenters and abstaining from entering the contests and competitions in which other men are brilliantly winning laurels. I told him that in my opinion they are wasting valuable time over lawsuits which they ought to concentrate in their work. Personally, I do not think that the courts will hold that the principle underlying the warping tips can be patented." The friendship was still impaired when Chanute died, but Wilbur Wright took the opportunity to attend Chanutes memorial service at the family's home. Wright wrote a eulogy that was read at the Aero Club meeting in January 1911.
When the Aero Club of Illinois
was founded on February 10, 1910, Chanute served as its first president until his death.
Chanute died on November 23, 1910, in Chicago
The town of Chanute
, is named after Chanute (3 small towns in southeast Kansas were vying for the railroad's land office and Chanute suggested that they incorporate, which would make the larger town more attractive to the railroad - it worked), as is the former Chanute Air Force Base
, Illinois, which was decommissioned in 1993. The former base, now turned to peacetime endeavors, includes the Octave Chanute Aerospace Museum
, detailing the history of aviation and of Chanute Air Force base.
In 1902, the Western Society of Engineers
began to present the Octave Chanute Award
for papers of merit on engineering innovations. From 1939 to 2005, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
presented the Chanute Flight Award
for an outstanding contribution made by a pilot or test personnel to the advancement of the art, science, and technology of aeronautics
In 1974, Chanute was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame
[Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. ''These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame''. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. .]
In 1978, the U.S. Postal Service commemorated Octave Chanute with a pair of 21-cent airmail stamps.
In 1996, the National Soaring Museum honored the 100th anniversary of the glider flying experiments in the sand dunes along Lake Michigan as National Landmark of Soaring No. 8.
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach
, in Daytona Beach, Florida
, has an off-campus residence hall, the Chanute Complex. for upper-class students.
The Gary Bathing Beach Aquatorium
, in Gary, Indiana
, houses a museum dedicated to both Octave Chanute and the Tuskegee Airmen
. The historic bathing pavilion was designed by architect George Washington Maher
He is present in the Frieze of AmericaHistory
in the Capitol Rotunda, Washington DC.
* , ''Rolling Track Irons''
* , ''Dredging Machine'' (Octave Chanute & George S. Morrison)
* , ''Preserving timber structure''
* , ''Soaring Machine''
* , ''Means for Aerial Flight'', Chanute filed the patent on behalf of Louis Mouillard, with one-half being assigned to Chanute.
* , ''Soaring Machine'', William Paul Butusov, Chanute collaborated and paid for the patent process and was assigned one-half.
* , ''Process of Preserving Wood''
* , ''Means for Aerial Flight'' (or glider launcher).
(flying machine, c.1897)
* 13373 (flying machine, c.1897)
* 15221 (flying machine, c.1897)
* , ''Process of Preserving Wood Artificially against Decay''
ImageSize = width:777 height:500
DateFormat = YYYY
Period = from:1830 till:1915
PlotArea = width:710 height:475 left:40 bottom:20
TimeAxis = orientation:vertical order:reverse
ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1830
ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1830
at:1832 fontsize:S text:"Born Octave Alexandre Chanut, son of Joseph and Eliza (De Bonnaire) Chanut, in Paris, France"
at:1838 fontsize:S text:"Joseph Chanut (Father) accepts a position as Vice-president and History Professor at Jefferson College (Washington, Mississippi), north of New Orleans"
at:1846 fontsize:S text:"Moves to New York. Month-long steamship voyage, fascination with current technology."
at:1848 fontsize:S text:"Takes job as chairman with the Hudson River Railroad"
at:1854 fontsize:S text:"Becomes an American citizen. He adds the letter "e" to his family name and drops his middle name"
at:1857 fontsize:S text:"Marries Annie Riddell James in Peoria, Illinois; Plats the town of Fairbury, Illinois"
at:1863 fontsize:S text:"Appointed Chief Engineer of the Chicago and Alton Railroad"
at:1869 fontsize:S text:"Plats the town of Lenexa, Kansas."
at:1873 fontsize:S text:"Appointed Chief Engineer of the Erie Railway"
at:1883 fontsize:S text:"Resigns Chief Engineer position of the Erie Railway and opens consulting business in Kansas City"
at:1888 fontsize:S text:"Retires from railroad engineering, but continues working as a consulting engineer"
at:1894 fontsize:S text:"Publishes ''Progress in Flying Machines''"
at:1896 fontsize:S text:"Develops biplane glider, influential to all further development in aviation"
at:1910 fontsize:S text:"Dies in Chicago"
* Octave Chanute Award
* The "Pioneer Era" (1900–1914) of Aviation history
Text of ''Progress in Flying Machines''''Progress in Flying Machines'' By Octave Chanute
Courier Dover Publications, reprint 1997 of 1894 original. At Google books.
* ''World Book Encyclopedia''
Obituary in ''Flight
''. 3 December 1910
* Simine Short. 2011. Locomotive to Aeromotive: Octave Chanute and the Transportation Revolution
'. University of Illinois Press.
A comprehensive look at Chanute's glider flying experiments in 1896 in northern IndianaFlights Before the Wrights, Octave Chanute: aeronautical pioneer, engineer and teacher
Category:People from Paris
Category:Gliding in the United States
Category:Royal Aeronautical Society Gold Medal winners
Category:American railway civil engineers
Category:French emigrants to the United States
Category:Burials in Illinois
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