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Range of the ocelot

Synonyms[3]

Felis
Felis
buffoni Brass, 1911 F. chati Gray, 1827 F. hamiltonii J. B. Fischer, 1829 F. mexicana Kerr, 1792 F. pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 Leopardus
Leopardus
griseus Gray, 1842

The ocelot ( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis) /ˈɒsəlɒt/ is a wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. It is listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
as the population is estimated to comprise more than 40,000 mature individuals and is considered stable. Its fur was once regarded as particularly valuable, but legal trade of its fur ceased decades ago.[2] In the United States, it inhabits southern Texas
Texas
and southern Arizona.[4][5]

Contents

1 Taxonomy and etymology 2 Characteristics 3 Ecology and behavior

3.1 Diet and hunting 3.2 Reproduction

4 Distribution and habitat 5 Threats 6 As pets 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy and etymology[edit] The ocelot is a member of the genus Leopardus
Leopardus
and is classified under the family Felidae.[1] The ocelot was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
10th edition of Systema Naturae
(1758) as Felis
Felis
pardalis, placing it in the genus Felis
Felis
along with the domestic cat, Eurasian lynx, jaguar, leopard, lion and tiger.[6] The name ocelot comes from the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
word ōcēlōtl (pronounced [oːˈseːloːt͡ɬ]), which usually refers to the jaguar ( Panthera
Panthera
onca) rather than the ocelot.[7][8][9] Another possible origin for the name is the Latin cellatus ("having little eyes" or "marked with eye like spots"), in reference to the cat's spotted coat.[10] Other names for the ocelot include cunaguaro, manigordo, mathuntori, ocelote, onsa, pumillo, tigri-kati and tigrillo.[3] In Brazil
Brazil
they are called jacatirica, jaguatirica, maracajá, maracajá-açu and gato-do-mato.[citation needed] The following 10 subspecies are recognized (synonyms of the subspecies follow the Mammalian Species account of this species):[3][1]

L. p. aequatorialis (Mearns, 1906): Occurs in Costa Rica. L. p. mearnsi and L. p. minimalis are treated as synonyms of this subspecies. L. p. albescens (Pucheran, 1855): Occurs in Texas. Synonyms include L. p. limitis and L. p. ludoviciana. L. p. melanura (Ball, 1844): According to a 1941 account by British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock, this subspecies occurs in "British Guiana", which probably refers to Guyana. Synonyms include L. p. maripensis and L. p. tumatumari. L. p. mitis (Cuvier, 1820): Occurs in Paraguay. Synonyms include L. p. armillatus, L. p. brasiliensis, L. p. chibi-gouazou, L. p. chibiguazu, L. p. hamiltonii, L. p. maracaya and L. p. smithii. L. p. nelsoni (Goldman, 1925): Occurs in Mexico. L. p. pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758): Occurs in Mexico. Synonyms include L. p. canescens, L. p. griffithii, L. p. griseus, L. p. ocelot and L. p. pictus. L. p. pseudopardalis (Boitard, 1842): Occurs in Colombia. L. p. sanctaemartae is a synonym. L. p. pusaea Thomas, 1914: Occurs in coastal Ecuador. L. p. sonoriensis (Goldman, 1925): Occurs in Mexico. L. p. steinbachi Pocock, 1941: Occurs in Bolivia.

The phylogenetic relationships of the ocelot is considered as follows:[11][12]

Caracal

Serval (Leptailurus serval)

Caracal (C. caracal)

African golden cat (C. aurata)

Leopardus

Ocelot (L. pardalis)

Margay (L. wieldii)

Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)

Colocolo (L. colocolo)

Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)

Kodkod (L. guigna)

Oncilla (L. tigrinus)

Lynx

Bobcat (L. rufus)

Canada lynx (L. canadensis)

Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)

Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)

Puma

Characteristics[edit]

Profile

The ocelot is a medium-sized spotted cat, similar to the bobcat in physical proportions. The ocelot is between 55 and 100 centimetres (22 and 39 in) in head-and-body length and weighs 8–16 kilograms (18–35 lb).[10][13] Larger individuals have occasionally been recorded.[14][15] The thin tail, 26–45 centimetres (10–18 in) long, is ringed or striped and is shorter than the hindlimbs.[16] The round ears are marked with a bright white spot, in contrast with the black background.[10] The eyes are brown,[3] and gleam golden when exposed to light.[17] Ocelots have 28 to 30 teeth, and the dental formula is 3.1.2–3.13.1.2.1. The subspecies differ mainly in cranial measurements.[3] The fur is short and smooth; the back is basically creamy, tawny, yellowish, reddish grey or grey, while the neck and underside are white.[10] The guard hairs (the hairs above the basal hairs of the back) are 1 centimetre (0.39 in) long, while the fur on the underbelly measures 0.8 centimetres (0.31 in).[3] The coat is extensively marked with a variety of solid black markings – these vary from open or closed bands and stripes on the back, cheeks and flanks to small spots on the head and limbs. A few dark stripes run straight from the back of the neck up to the tip of the tail. A few horizontal streaks can be seen on the insides of the legs.[10][13] English naturalist Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
observed that the ocelot is "one of the most difficult members of the feline family to describe".[10] In 1929, wildlife author Ernest Thompson Seton
Ernest Thompson Seton
described the coat of the ocelot as "the most wonderful tangle of stripes, bars, chains, spots, dots and smudges...which look as though they were put on as the animal ran by."[10] The spoor measures nearly 2 by 2 centimetres (0.79 in × 0.79 in).[18] The ocelot can be easily confused with the margay, but differs in being twice as heavy, having a greater head-and-body length, a shorter tail, smaller eyes relative to the size of the head, and different cranial features.[10][19] The similar jaguar is notably larger and heavier,[16] and has rosettes instead of spots and stripes.[17] Ecology and behavior[edit]

Captive ocelot

An Ocelot
Ocelot
at the Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson Arizona

The ocelot is active around twilight and at night and hence difficult to observe.[20] However, it can be seen hunting in daytime as well – especially on cloudy or rainy days. The ocelot is active for 12 to 14 hours every day, and hunting is the major activity. It rests mainly during the day and in a variety of places, such as tree branches, depressions at the base of trees or under fallen trees. Nocturnality in ocelots appears to increase in areas where they face significant hunting risk.[10] The ocelot moves 1.8–7.6 kilometres (1.1–4.7 mi) every night, especially on certain favored trails; males appear to roam twice the distance covered by females.[13] Ocelots in Peru
Peru
were observed resting for a few hours in the midnight after their walk.[21] Ocelots are known to swim efficiently. They can produce a long-range "yowl" in the mating season as well as short-range vocalizations like "meow"s.[22] Solitary animals, ocelots live singly in territories that are scent-marked by urine spraying and forming dung piles. Male territories are 3.5–46 square kilometres (1.4–17.8 sq mi) large, while those of females cover 0.8–15 square kilometres (0.31–5.79 sq mi). Ranges of females hardly overlap, whereas the territory of a male can include the territories of two to three females in oestrus. Social interaction is minimal, though a few adults have been observed together even in non-mating months, and some juveniles may interact with their parents.[10] Ocelots also appear in high densities in Peru
Peru
and Venezuela, where densities can reach 0.4–0.8 per square kilometre (1.0–2.1/sq mi).[21][23] Barro Colorado Island
Barro Colorado Island
holds the highest ocelot density recorded: 1.59–1.74 per square kilometre (4.1–4.5/sq mi). This is probably due to higher prey availability, increased protection from poaching and reduced occurrence of large predators.[24][25] A study suggested that ocelot densities in an area may fall if rainfall decreases.[26] Diet and hunting[edit]

Ocelot

Ocelots are carnivores and prey on small mammals, such as armadillos, opossums and rabbits, rodents, small birds, fish, insects and reptiles.[10] According to studies, primates prevail in the diet of ocelots in southeastern Brazil,[27] and iguanas are the main prey of Mexican ocelots.[28] An ocelot typically preys on animals that weigh less than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). It rarely targets large animals such as deer and peccaries. An ocelot requires 600–800 grams (21–28 oz) of food every day to satisfy its energy requirements.[10] The composition of the diet may vary by season; in Venezuela, ocelots were found to prefer iguanas and rodents in the dry season and then switch to land crabs in the wet season.[23] A study showed that ocelots are similar to margays and oncillas in dietary preferences, but the oncilla focuses on tree-living marsupials and birds while the margay is not as selective.[29] Ocelots have been observed following scent trails to acquire prey.[21] Two hunting strategies have been observed: moving at a speed as slow as 0.3 km/h (0.2 mph) on the lookout for prey, or waiting for 30 to 60 minutes at a certain place and then moving to another place, walking at a speed of 0.8–1.4 km/h (0.5–0.9 mph). They tend to eat the kill immediately; they remove the feathers before eating birds.[10] Reproduction[edit] Ocelots may mate at any time of the year, and the time when peaks occur varies geographically – peaks have been observed during autumn and winter in Mexico
Mexico
and Texas, and during autumn in Argentina
Argentina
and Paraguay. Oestrus
Oestrus
lasts four to five days, and recurs every 25 days in a non-pregnant female.[13] A study in southern Brazil
Brazil
showed that sperm production in ocelots, margays as well as oncillas peaks in summer.[30] Observations of captive ocelots suggest that a mating pair will spend more time together; both will scent-mark extensively and may even eat less.[3] A litter of one to three is born after a gestational period of 79 to 83 days. Births take place in dens, usually located in dense vegetation. A newborn kitten weighs 200–340 grams (7.1–12.0 oz).[10][13] A study in southern Texas
Texas
showed that a mother will use two to three dens, and keep a litter in a den for 13 to 64 days.[31] The eyes open 15 to 18 days after birth. Kittens begin to leave the den at three months, but remain with their mother for up to two years, before dispersing to establish their own territory. In comparison to other felids, ocelots have a relatively longer duration between births and a narrow litter size. Ocelots live for up to 20 years in captivity.[10] Distribution and habitat[edit]

Moche Ocelot. 200 A.D. Larco Museum
Larco Museum
Collection Lima, Peru

The ocelot is distributed extensively over South America, including the Margarita
Margarita
and Trinidad
Trinidad
islands, Central America, Mexico
Mexico
and a small population in southern Texas.[1][32][33] Countries in this range are: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago, the United States and Venezuela. The cat is likely extinct in Uruguay.[2] It inhabits tropical forest, thorn forest, mangrove swamps and savanna at elevations up to 1,200 m (3,900 ft). It prefers areas with relatively dense vegetation cover, but occasionally also hunts in more open areas at night.[10] The ocelot once inhabited the chaparral thickets of the Gulf Coast of south and eastern Texas, and could be found in Arizona, Louisiana, and Arkansas.[34] In the United States, it now ranges only in several small areas of dense thicket in South Texas
Texas
and is rarely sighted in Arizona. On November 7, 2009, an ocelot was photographed in the mountains of Cochise County, Arizona. This was the first such verifiable evidence of the feline's presence in the state.[35] In February 2011, the Arizona
Arizona
Game and Fish Department confirmed the sighting of another ocelot in the Huachuca Mountains
Huachuca Mountains
of southern Arizona.[36] Most surviving Texas
Texas
ocelots are in the shrublands remaining at or near the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge
Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge
near Brownsville, where only 30–35 animals remain.[37] Threats[edit]

The fur trade is a major threat to ocelot populations.

The remnant U.S. ocelot population in south Texas
Texas
has declined from 80–120 individuals in 1995 to fewer than 50 in recent years, with about half of ocelot deaths resulting from automobile accidents.[38][39] The destruction of habitat is the main threat to their survival. In addition, this animal is sought by poachers in order to market their skin, because of the aesthetic values it has. At the level of America, its main threats are loss and fragmentation of habitat, illegal trade in specimens and skins, hunting and predation retaliation for poultry species. Natural predators of ocelots include jaguar, cougar, the harpy eagle, and species of boa.[citation needed] In Trinidad, habitat fragmentation, as well as direct exploitation via illegal poaching, are major threats to the survival of the remnant populations of ocelots on the island. No empirical studies have been conducted to reliably estimate population status on the island. Historical records indicate that the species once existed on the island of Tobago, but it has long been extirpated there.[citation needed] As pets[edit] Like many wild cats, ocelots are occasionally kept as pets. Salvador Dalí frequently traveled with his pet ocelot Babou,[40] even bringing it aboard the luxury ocean liner SS France.[41] Opera singer Lily Pons
Lily Pons
was also known to have kept an ocelot ("Ita") at her NYC apartment, later donating it to a local zoo.[42] Musician Gram Parsons
Gram Parsons
kept an ocelot as a pet in the backyard swimming pool area of his family's Winter Haven, Florida, home, during his teens, in the mid-1960s.[43] The Moche people of ancient Peru
Peru
worshiped animals and often depicted the ocelot in their art.[44]

Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
and Babou the ocelot. 

Moche ceramic bottle shaped as an ocelot, Musée d'ethnographie de Genève. 

References[edit]

^ a b c d Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 538. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c Paviolo, A.; Crawshaw, P.; Caso, A.; de Oliveira, T.; Lopez-Gonzalez, C.A.; Kelly, M.; De Angelo, C. & Payan, E. (2016). " Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis". IUCN Red List
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Ocelot
(Leopardus pardalis) Recovery Plan, First Revision. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southwest Region, Albuquerque, New Mexico. ^ Stangl Jr, F. B. and Young, J. H (2011). "The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in northern Texas, with comments on its northern biogeography". Western North American Naturalist 71 (3): 412–417. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). " Felis
Felis
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Nahuatl
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Leopardus
pardalis) and puma (Puma concolor) after jaguar ( Panthera
Panthera
onca) decline" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 87 (4): 808–16. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-360R2.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-04.  ^ a b Reid, F.A. (1997). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America & Southeast Mexico. New York, US: Oxford University Press. pp. 270–1. ISBN 978-0-19-506401-8.  ^ a b Burt, W.H. (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals: North America North of Mexico
Mexico
(3rd ed.). Boston, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. pp. 78–9. ISBN 978-0-395-91098-6.  ^ Murie, O.J. (1998). A Field Guide to Animal
Animal
Tracks (2nd ed.). New York, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-395-91094-8.  ^ Bowers, N.; Bowers, R.; Kaufman, K. (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Mammals of North America. New York, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-618-95188-8.  ^ Henderson, C.L. (2010). Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Field Guide. Texas, US: University of Texas
Texas
Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-292-78464-2.  ^ a b c Emmons, L.H. (1988). "A field study of ocelots Felis
Felis
pardalis in Peru" (PDF). Revue D Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie. 43: 133–157.  ^ Peters, G. (1984). "on the structure of friendly close range vocalizations in terrestrial carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: Fissipedia)". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 49 (3): 157–82.  ^ a b Ludlow, M.E.; Sunquist, M. (1987). "Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela". National Geographic Research. 3 (4): 447–61.  ^ Rodgers, T.W.; Giacalone, J.; Heske, E.J.; Janečka, J.E.; Phillips, C.A.; Schooley, R.L. (2014). "Comparison of noninvasive genetics and camera trapping for estimating population density of ocelots ( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama" (PDF). Tropical Conservation Science. 7 (4): 690–705. doi:10.1177/194008291400700408.  ^ Hance, J. (December 18, 2014). "Ocelots live in super densities on Barro Colorado Island". Mongabay.  ^ Maffei, L.; Noss, A.J.; Cuéllar, E.; Rumiz, D.I. (2005). "Ocelot ( Felis
Felis
pardalis) population densities, activity, and ranging behaviour in the dry forests of eastern Bolivia: data from camera trapping" (PDF). Journal of Tropical Ecology. 21 (3): 349–353. doi:10.1017/S0266467405002397.  ^ Bianchi, R.C.; Mendes, S.L. (2007). " Ocelot
Ocelot
( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, southeast Brazil". American Journal of Primatology. 69 (10): 1173–8. doi:10.1002/ajp.20415. PMID 17330310.  ^ Meza, A.V.; Meyer, E.M.; Gonzalez, C.A.L. (2002). " Ocelot
Ocelot
(Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico". The American Midland Naturalist. 148 (1): 146–54. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2002)148[0146:OLPFHI]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Wang, E. (2002). "Diets of ocelots ( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis), margays (L. wiedii), and oncillas (L. tigrinus) in the Atlantic rainforest in southeast Brazil". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 37 (3): 207–12. doi:10.1076/snfe.37.3.207.8564.  ^ Morais, R.N.; Mucciolo, R.G.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Lacerda, O.; Moraes, W.; Moreira, N.; Graham, L.H.; Swanson, W.F.; Brown, J.L. (2002). "Seasonal analysis of semen characteristics, serum testosterone and fecal androgens in the ocelot ( Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis), margay (L. wiedii) and tigrina (L. tigrinus)". Theriogenology. 57 (8): 2027–41. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00707-0.  ^ Laack, L.L.; Tewes, M.E.; Haines, A.M.; Rappole, J.H. (2005). "Reproductive life history of ocelots Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis in southern Texas". Acta Theriologica. 50 (4): 505–14. doi:10.1007/BF03192643.  ^ Ocelot. The Animal
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Files. Retrieved on 2012-04-10. ^ "News Release, March 2014 – Laguna Atascosa – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service". Fws.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-21.  ^ Mammals: Ocelot
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The San Diego Zoo ^ "Rare ocelot photographed in southern Arizona". Associated Press. 2010.  ^ "Rare ocelot observed in southern Arizona". Arizona
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Game and Fish Department. 2011.  ^ " Ocelot
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( Leopardus
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pardalis)". Texas
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Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ Ocelot
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(PDF) (Report). Texas
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Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ Steve Sinclair (2013-10-10). "Current Sightings: Plight of the ocelot: Endangered cat's future uncertain". The Coastal Current. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ Dali with Capitain Moore and Ocelot
Ocelot
– Vintage photo. Ecademy.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-15. ^ Huggler, Justin. "Chic ship too toxic for scrapping". ssMaritime.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21.  ^ Twomey, Bill (February 20, 2015). "Met Opera's Lily Pons
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leaves pet at Bronx Zoo". Bronx Times Reporter. p. 48. ^ "Return of the grievous angel: New bio of Gram Parsons
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offers tragic insights" (PDF). Austin American Statesman. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2009-11-02.  ^ Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera (1997). Katherine Berrin, ed. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York City: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-01802-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Leopardus
Leopardus
pardalis

Look up ocelot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

IUCN / SCC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group: Ocelot National Geographic Society: Ocelot Ocelot
Ocelot
Behavior & Care, by Mindy Stinner Ecology of the Ocelot
Ocelot
and Margay

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q33261 ADW: Leopardus_pardalis ARKive: leopardus-pardalis EoL: 313991 EPPO: LEOPPA Fossilworks: 47513 GBIF: 2434982 iNaturalist: 41997 ITIS: 552470 IUCN: 11509 MSW: 14000103 NCBI: 325

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