HOME
The Info List - Oceanic Languages


--- Advertisement ---



The approximately 450 Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
are a well-established family of Austronesian languages. The area occupied by speakers of these languages includes Polynesia, as well as much of Melanesia
Melanesia
and Micronesia. Though covering a vast area, Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
are spoken by only two million people. The largest individual Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
are Eastern Fijian with over 600,000 speakers, and Samoan with an estimated 400,000 speakers. The Kiribati
Kiribati
(Gilbertese), Tongan, Tahitian, Māori, Western Fijian and Kuanua (Tolai) languages each have over 100,000 speakers. The common ancestor which is reconstructed for this group of languages is called Proto-Oceanic (abbr. POc).

Contents

1 Classification

1.1 Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002)

2 Word order 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography

Classification[edit] The Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
were first shown to be a language family by Sidney Herbert Ray
Sidney Herbert Ray
in 1896 and, besides Malayo-Polynesian, they are the only established large branch of Austronesian languages. Grammatically, they have been strongly influenced by the Papuan languages of northern New Guinea, but they retain a remarkably large amount of Austronesian vocabulary.[2] Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002)[edit] According to Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002), Oceanic languages often form linkages with each other. Linkages are formed when languages emerged historically from an earlier dialect continuum. The linguistic innovations shared by adjacent languages define a chain of intersecting subgroups (a linkage), for which no distinct proto-language can be reconstructed.[3] Lynch, Ross, & Crowley (2002) propose three primary groups of Oceanic languages:

Admiralties
Admiralties
linkage: languages of Manus Island, its offshore islands, and small islands to the west. Western Oceanic (WOc) linkage: languages of the north coast of Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
(excluding the Admiralties) and the western Solomon Islands. West Oceanic is made up of three or four sub-linkages and families:

? Sarmi– Jayapura
Jayapura
linkage: maybe part of the North New Guinea linkage? North New Guinea
New Guinea
linkage: consists of languages of the north coast of New Guinea, east from Jayapura. Meso-Melanesian linkage: consists of languages of the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. Papuan Tip linkage: consists of languages of the tip of the Papuan Peninsula.

Central–Eastern Oceanic (CEOc) linkage: nearly all languages of Oceania
Oceania
not included in the Admiralties
Admiralties
and Western Oceanic. Central–Eastern consists of four or five subgroups:

Southeast Solomonic linkage: of the South East Solomon Islands. (Utupua–Vanikoro linkage: later removed to Temotu languages). Southern Oceanic linkage: consist of languages of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
and Vanuatu. Central Oceanic linkage: consists of the Polynesian languages, and the languages of Fiji. Micronesian linkage.

The "residues" (as they are called by Lynch, Ross, & Crowley), which do not fit into the three groups above, but are still classified as Oceanic are:

St. Matthias Islands linkage. ? Yapese language: of the island of Yap. Perhaps part of the Admiralties?

Ross & Næss (2007) removed Utupua–Vanikoro, from Central–Eastern Oceanic, to a new primary branch of Oceanic:[4]

Temotu linkage, named after the Temotu Province
Temotu Province
of the Solomon Islands.

Word order[edit] Word order in Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
is highly diverse, and is distributed in the following geographic regions (Lynch, Ross, & Crowley 2002:49).

SVO: Admiralty Islands, most of Markham Valley, Siasi Islands, most of New Britain, New Ireland, some parts of Bougainville Island, most parts of the southeast Solomon Islands, most parts of Vanuatu, some parts of New Caledonia, most of Micronesia SOV: central and southeast Papua New Guinea, some parts of Markham Valley, Madang
Madang
coast, Wewak
Wewak
coast, Sarmi coast, a few parts of Bougainville, some parts of New Britain VSO: New Georgia, some parts of Santa Ysabel Island, much of Polynesia, Yap VOS: Fijian language, Anejom language, Loyalty Islands, Kiribati, many parts of New Caledonia, Gela language TVX (where T = topic, V = verb, X = arguments other than topic): much of Bougainville Island, Choiseul Island, some parts of Santa Ysabel Island

See also[edit]

Wave model
Wave model
of language change

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Oceanic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Mark Donohue and Tim Denham, 2010. Farming and Language in Island Southeast Asia: Reframing Austronesian History. Current Anthropology, 51(2):223–256. ^ The Wave model
Wave model
is more appropriate than the Tree model
Tree model
for representing such linkages: see François, Alexandre (2014), "Trees, Waves and Linkages: Models of Language Diversification" (PDF), in Bowern, Claire; Evans, Bethwyn, The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics, London: Routledge, pp. 161–189, ISBN 978-0-41552-789-7 . ^ Ross, Malcolm and Åshild Næss (2007). "An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?". Oceanic Linguistics. 46: 456–498. doi:10.1353/ol.2008.0003. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ray, S.H. (1896). "The common origin of the Oceanic languages". Journal of the Polynesian Society: 58–68.  Lynch, John; Ross, Malcolm; Crowley, Terry (2002). The Oceanic Languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1128-4. OCLC 48929366.  Ross, Malcolm and Åshild Næss (2007). "An Oceanic Origin for Äiwoo, the Language of the Reef Islands?". Oceanic Linguistics. 46: 456–498. doi:10.1353/ol.2008.0003. 

v t e

Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

v t e

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy)

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering

Celebic (Disputed)

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages)

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages

Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

v t e

Micronesian languages

Nuclear Micronesian

Chuukic-Pohnpeic

Pohnpeic

Mokilese Ngatikese Pingelapese Pohnpeian

Chuukic

Carolinian Chuukese Mapia Mortlockese Namonuito Pááfang Puluwatese Satawalese Sonsorolese Tanapag Tobian Ulithian Woleaian

Others

Kiribati Kosraean Marshallese

Non-Nuclear

Nauruan

v t e

Fijian–Polynesian languages

Polynesian

East

Marquesic

Hawaiian Mangerevan Marquesan

Tahitic

Austral Māori Moriori Penrhyn Rakahanga-Manihiki Rarotongan Tahitian Tuamotuan

Other

Rapa Rapa Nui

West

Samoic

Niuatoputapu Pukapuka Samoan Tokelauan

Ellicean

Kapingamarangi Nukumanu Nukuoro Nukuria Ontong Java Sikaiana Takuu Tuvaluan Vaeakau-Taumako

Futunic

Anuta Emae Futunan Futuna-Aniwan Mele-Fila Pukapukan Rennellese Tikopia Wallisian West Uvean

Tongic

Niuafoʻou Niuean Tongan

Fijian

East

Fijian Gone Dau Lauan Lomaiviti

West

Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Western Fijian

Other

Rotuman

Authority control

GND: 4293270-

.