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OCEANIA (UK : /ˌoʊʃiˈɑːniə, ˌoʊsi-/ or US : /ˌoʊʃiːˈæniə/ ) is a term used to denote a continent , or a region , comprising Australia
Australia
and the Pacific islands
Pacific islands
. Oceania consists of four subregions : Australasia
Australasia
, Melanesia
Melanesia
, Micronesia , and Polynesia . Located in the eastern and western hemispheres , Oceania
Oceania
covers an area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 41,050,699. Oceania
Oceania
is the smallest continental grouping in land area and the second smallest after Antarctica
Antarctica
in population.

The islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania
Oceania
are Bonin Islands , a politically integral part of Japan
Japan
, Hawaii
Hawaii
, a state of the United States , and Easter Island
Easter Island
, belonging to Chile
Chile
. Oceania
Oceania
has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, which rank high in quality of life and human development index , to the much less developed economies that belong to countries such as of Kiribati and Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. The largest and most populous country in Oceania
Oceania
is Australia, with Sydney
Sydney
being the largest city of both Oceania
Oceania
and Australia.

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived between 50,000 and 30,000 years ago , when Neanderthals
Neanderthals
still roamed. Oceania
Oceania
was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese navigators , between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands
Tanimbar Islands
, some of the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and west Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook , who later founded the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
, went to Tahiti
Tahiti
and followed the east coast of Australia
Australia
for the first time. The Pacific front saw major action during the Second World War , mainly between the belligerents United States
United States
, its ally Australia
Australia
, and Japan
Japan
.

The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and individualistic identity . The rock art of Australian Aborigines
Australian Aborigines
is the longest continuously practiced artistic tradition in the world. Puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Most Oceanian countries have a parliamentary representative democratic multi-party system , with tourism being a large source of income for the Pacific
Pacific
Islands nations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definitions

* 2 History

* 2.1 Australia
Australia
* 2.2 Melanesia
Melanesia
* 2.3 Polynesia * 2.4 Micronesia

* 2.5 European exploration

* 2.5.1 Colonization

* 2.6 Modern history

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Geology
Geology
* 3.2 Flora * 3.3 Fauna * 3.4 Climate
Climate

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Languages * 4.3 Immigration
Immigration
* 4.4 Archaeogenetics

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
* 5.2 Pacific
Pacific
Islands * 5.3 Tourism
Tourism

* 6 Politics

* 6.1 Australia
Australia
* 6.2 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 6.3 Pacific
Pacific
Islands

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Australia
Australia
* 7.2 Hawaii
Hawaii
* 7.3 New Zealand
New Zealand
* 7.4 Samoa
Samoa
* 7.5 Arts * 7.6 Sport

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

DEFINITIONS

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun . The word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός (ōkeanós), ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans. The term Oceania
Oceania
is used because, unlike the other continental groupings, it is the ocean that links the nations together.

* Biogeographically, as a synonym for the Australasian ecozone and the Pacific
Pacific
ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia), with New Zealand forming the south-western corner of the Polynesian Triangle . To note, New Zealand
New Zealand
may also be considered part of Australasia, despite being traditionally part of Polynesia. * As an ecozone , Oceania
Oceania
includes all of Micronesia , Fiji
Fiji
, and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands , Australia , the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
, and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, constitute the separate Australasian ecozone . * In the geopolitical conception used by the United Nations , International Olympic Committee , and many atlases, Oceania
Oceania
includes Australia
Australia
and the nations of the Pacific
Pacific
from Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
east, but not the Indonesian New Guinea
New Guinea
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Oceania

AUSTRALIA

Main articles: Prehistory
Prehistory
of Australia
Australia
and History of Indigenous Australians A 19th-century engraving of an Aboriginal Australian encampment.

Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands who migrated from Africa
Africa
to Asia
Asia
around 70,000 years ago and arrived in Australia
Australia
around 50,000 years ago. They are believed to be among the earliest human migrations out of Africa
Africa
. Although they likely migrated to Australia
Australia
through Southeast Asia
Asia
they are not demonstrably related to any known Asian or Polynesian population. There is evidence of genetic and linguistic interchange between Australians in the far north and the Austronesian peoples of modern-day New Guinea
New Guinea
and the islands, but this may be the result of recent trade and intermarriage .

They reached Tasmania
Tasmania
approximately 40,000 years ago by migrating across a land bridge from the mainland that existed during the last ice age . It is believed that the first early human migration to Australia
Australia
was achieved when this landmass formed part of the Sahul continent , connected to the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
via a land bridge. The Torres Strait Islanders
Torres Strait Islanders
are indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands, which are at the northernmost tip of Queensland
Queensland
near Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
. The earliest definite human remains found in Australia are that of Mungo Man , which have been dated at about 40,000 years old.

MELANESIA

Distribution of Melanesians Main article: History of New Guinea

The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan -speaking people. Migrating from South-East Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, including Makira
Makira
and possibly the smaller islands farther to the east.

Particularly along the north coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people
Austronesian people
, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics, languages, and culture among the peoples.

POLYNESIA

Main articles: History of Hawaii
Hawaii
and History of New Zealand
New Zealand
Moai
Moai
at Ahu Tongariki on Rapa Nui (Easter Island)

The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic, archaeological and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people
Austronesian people
and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
, and ultimately, in Taiwan
Taiwan
. Between about 3000 and 1000 BC speakers of Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
began spreading from Taiwan
Taiwan
into Island South-East Asia , as tribes whose natives were thought to have arrived through South China
China
about 8,000 years ago to the edges of western Micronesia and on into Melanesia
Melanesia
.

In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty. It is thought that by roughly 1400 BC, "Lapita Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago of north-west Melanesia
Melanesia
.

Easter Islanders claimed that a chief Hotu Matu\'a arrived on the island in one or two large canoes with his wife and extended family. They are believed to have been Polynesian . Published literature suggests the island was settled around 300–400 CE , or at about the time of the arrival of the earliest settlers in Hawaii
Hawaii
. Around 1200 CE, Tahitian explorers found and began settling the area. This date range is based on glottochronological calculations and on three radiocarbon dates from charcoal that appears to have been produced during forest clearance activities. Moreover, a recent study which included radiocarbon dates from what is thought to be very early material suggests that the island was settled as recently as 1200 CE.

MICRONESIA

See also: History of the Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
Stone money transport to Yap Island in Micronesia (1880).

Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers. There are numerous difficulties with conducting archaeological excavations in the islands, due to their size, settlement patterns and storm damage. As a result, much evidence is based on linguistic analysis.

The earliest archaeological traces of civilization have been found on the island of Saipan , dated to 1500 BCE or slightly before. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4,000 years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system eventually evolved into a more centralized economic and religious culture centered on Yap
Yap
and Pohnpei . The prehistory of many Micronesian islands such as Yap
Yap
are not known very well.

The first people of the Northern Mariana Islands navigated to the islands at some period between 4000 B.C. to 2000 B.C. from South-East Asia
Asia
. They became known as the Chamorros , and spoke an Austronesian language called Chamorro . The ancient Chamorro left a number of megalithic ruins, including Latte stone . The Refaluwasch, or Carolinian, people came to the Marianas in the 1800s from the Caroline Islands . Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick charts .

EUROPEAN EXPLORATION

1852 map of Oceania
Oceania
by J. G. Barbie du Bocage. Includes regions of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia
Melanesia
and Malaysia. See also: Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation , Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
, History of Australia
Australia
(1788–1850) , and Colony of New Zealand
New Zealand

In 1519 a Castilian (\'Spanish\' ) expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan sailed down the east coast of South America
South America
, found and sailed through the strait that bears his name and on 28 November 1520 entered the ocean which he named "Pacific". From 1527 to 1595 a number of other large Spanish expeditions crossed the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, leading to the discovery of the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
and Palau
Palau
in the North Pacific, as well as Tuvalu
Tuvalu
, the Marquesas , the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, the Cook Islands and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific.

Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen\'s Land (now Tasmania
Tasmania
) and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji
Fiji
islands. On 13 December Tasman sighted land on the north-west coast of the South Island
South Island
, New Zealand, becoming the first Europeans to do so.

On 23 April 1770 British explorer James Cook
James Cook
made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point . On 29 April, Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula . It is here that James Cook
James Cook
made first contact with an aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal . His expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline of Australia.

Colonization

See also: Colonisation of Australia
Australia
and Colonisation of New Zealand
New Zealand
New Guinea
New Guinea
from 1884 to 1919. The Netherlands
Netherlands
controlled the western half of New Guinea, Germany
Germany
the north-eastern part, and Britain the south-eastern part.

In 1789 the Mutiny on the Bounty
Mutiny on the Bounty
against William Bligh
William Bligh
led to several of the mutineers escaping the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and settling on Pitcairn Islands , which later became a British colony. Britain also established colonies in Australia
Australia
in 1788, New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1840 and Fiji
Fiji
in 1872, with much of Oceania
Oceania
becoming part of the British Empire . The Gilbert Islands (now known as Kiribati ) and the Ellice Islands (now known as Tuvalu
Tuvalu
) came under Britain's sphere of influence in the late 19th century.

French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti
Tahiti
in 1834; their expulsion in 1836 caused France
France
to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti
Tahiti
and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate , to allow Catholic missionaries to work undisturbed. The capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. On 24 September 1853, under orders from Napoleon III , Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia and Port-de-France (Nouméa) was founded 25 June 1854.

The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed in the Marshall Islands in 1529. They were named by Krusenstern , after English explorer John Marshall , who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay
Botany Bay
to Canton (two ships of the First Fleet
First Fleet
). In 1905 the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over south-east New Guinea
New Guinea
to Australia
Australia
(which renamed the area " Territory of Papua
Territory of Papua
"); and in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. The Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
were claimed by Spain in 1874. Germany
Germany
established colonies in New Guinea in 1884, and Samoa
Samoa
in 1900. The United States
United States
also expanded into the Pacific, beginning with Baker Island
Baker Island
and Howland Island
Howland Island
in 1857, and with Hawaii
Hawaii
becoming a U.S. territory in 1898. Disagreements between the US, Germany
Germany
and UK over Samoa
Samoa
led to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 .

MODERN HISTORY

Main articles: Pacific War
Pacific War
, Military history of Oceania , Military history of New Zealand
New Zealand
, Military history of Australia
Australia
during World War I , Military history of Australia
Australia
during World War II
World War II
, and History of Australia
Australia
(1901–1945) New Zealand
New Zealand
troops land on Vella Lavella , in the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands

One of the first land offensives in Oceania
Oceania
was the Occupation of German Samoa
Samoa
in August 1914 by New Zealand
New Zealand
forces . The campaign to take Samoa
Samoa
ended without bloodshed after over 1,000 New Zealanders landed on the German colony . Australian forces attacked German New Guinea in September 1914. A company of Australians and a British warship besieged the Germans and their colonial subjects, ending with a German surrender.

The attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters , was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States
United States
naval base at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii
Hawaii
, on the morning of 7 December 1941. The attack led to the United States\' entry into World War II
World War II
. The Japanese subsequently invaded New Guinea, the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and other Pacific islands. The Japanese were turned back at the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Kokoda Track campaign before they were finally defeated in 1945. Some of the most prominent Oceanic battlegrounds were the Battle of Bita Paka , Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
campaign , the Air raids on Darwin , the Kokada Track , and the Borneo campaign .

Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
became dominions in the 20th century, adopting the Statute of Westminster Act in 1942 and 1947 respectively. In 1946, Polynesians
Polynesians
were granted French citizenship and the islands' status was changed to an overseas territory ; the islands' name was changed in 1957 to Polynésie Française ( French Polynesia
French Polynesia
). Hawaii became a U.S. state
U.S. state
in 1959. Fiji
Fiji
and Tonga became independent in 1970. On 1 May 1979, in recognition of the evolving political status of the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
, the United States
United States
recognized the constitution of the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
and the establishment of the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
. The South Pacific Forum was founded in 1971, which became the Pacific Islands Forum in 2000.

GEOGRAPHY

See also: List of Oceanian countries by population and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania
Oceania
Aoraki / Mount Cook , located on the South Island
South Island
of New Zealand
New Zealand
Puncak Jaya / Carstensz Pyramid, highest summit in Oceania
Oceania

Oceania
Oceania
was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean, stretching from the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
to the coast of the Americas. It comprised four regions: Polynesia , Micronesia , Malaysia (now called the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
), and Melanesia
Melanesia
. Today, parts of three geological continents are included in the term "Oceania": Eurasia
Eurasia
, Australia
Australia
, and Zealandia
Zealandia
, as well the non-continental volcanic islands of the Philippines
Philippines
, Wallacea , and the open Pacific.

The area extends to Sumatra
Sumatra
in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands
Pacific islands
of Taiwan
Taiwan
, the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
, the Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
, and the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
of North America. In its periphery, Oceania
Oceania
sprawls 28 degrees north to the Bonin Islands in the northern hemisphere , and 55 degrees south to Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
in the southern hemisphere .

Oceania
Oceania
is one of eight terrestrial ecozones , which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. Related to these concepts are Near Oceania , that part of western Island Melanesia
Melanesia
which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled. Although the majority of the Oceanian islands lie in the South Pacific, a few of them are not always restricted to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Kangaroo Island and Ashmore and Cartier Islands , for instance, are situated in the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
and Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, respectively, and Tasmania\'s west coast faces the Southern Ocean.

VARIOUS MAPS OF OCEANIA

Satellite image of Oceania
Oceania

A map of Oceania
Oceania
from the CIA World Factbook

Political map of Oceania
Oceania

Map of Oceania, from a CIA factbook

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

Unlabeled map of Oceania
Oceania

GEOLOGY

Main articles: Geography of Fiji
Fiji
, Geology
Geology
of New Zealand
New Zealand
, Geology of Australia
Australia
, and Geography of Samoa
Samoa
The Pacific
Pacific
Plate comprises most of Oceanian regions, excluding Australasia
Australasia
and western portion of Melanesia
Melanesia
.

The Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
, which makes up most of Oceania, is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate. The plate contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands . It is almost entirely oceanic crust . The oldest member disappearing by way of the Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics
cycle is early-Cretaceous (145 to 137 million years ago).

Australia, being part of the Indo-Australian plate
Indo-Australian plate
, is the lowest, flattest, and oldest landmass on Earth
Earth
and it has had a relatively stable geological history. Geological forces such as tectonic uplift of mountain ranges or clashes between tectonic plates occurred mainly in Australia's early history, when it was still a part of Gondwana . Australia
Australia
is situated in the middle of the tectonic plate, and therefore currently has no active volcanism.

The geology of New Zealand
New Zealand
is noted for its volcanic activity, earthquakes and geothermal areas because of its position on the boundary of the Australian Plate and Pacific
Pacific
Plates . Much of the basement rock of New Zealand
New Zealand
was once part of the super-continent of Gondwana , along with South America
South America
, Africa
Africa
, Madagascar
Madagascar
, India
India
, Antarctica
Antarctica
and Australia
Australia
. The rocks that now form the continent of Zealandia
Zealandia
were nestled between Eastern Australia
Australia
and Western Antarctica
Antarctica
.

The Australia- New Zealand
New Zealand
continental fragment of Gondwana split from the rest of Gondwana in the late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
time (95–90 Ma). By 75 Ma, Zealandia
Zealandia
was essentially separate from Australia
Australia
and Antarctica
Antarctica
, although only shallow seas might have separated Zealandia
Zealandia
and Australia
Australia
in the north. The Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
, and part of Zealandia
Zealandia
then locked together with Australia
Australia
to form the Australian Plate (40 Ma), and a new plate boundary was created between the Australian Plate and Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
.

Most islands in the Pacific
Pacific
are high islands (volcanic islands), such as, Easter Island
Easter Island
, American Samoa
Samoa
and Fiji
Fiji
, among others, having peaks up to 1300 m rising abruptly from the shore. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
were formed approximately 7 to 30 million years ago, as shield volcanoes over the same volcanic hotspot that formed the Emperor Seamounts
Emperor Seamounts
to the north and the Main Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
to the south. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
is 13,796 ft (4,205 m) above mean sea level.

FLORA

Main articles: Geography of Australia
Australia
, Environment of New Zealand
New Zealand
, Flora of Australia
Australia
, Flora of New Zealand
New Zealand
, and Endemism
Endemism
in the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
New Zealand
New Zealand
countryside Uluru
Uluru
in Central Australia
Australia
.

The most diverse country of Oceania
Oceania
when it comes to the environment is Australia, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the centre. Desert
Desert
or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland. The northernmost point of the east coast is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula .

Prominent features of the Australian flora are adaptations to aridity and fire which include scleromorphy and serotiny . These adaptations are common in species from the large and well-known families Proteaceae
Proteaceae
( Banksia ), Myrtaceae ( Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
– gum trees), and Fabaceae
Fabaceae
( Acacia
Acacia
– wattle). The flora of Fiji, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
is tropical dry forest , with tropical vegetation that includes palm trees , premna protrusa , psydrax odorata , gyrocarpus americanus and derris trifoliata .

New Zealand's landscape ranges from the fjord -like sounds of the southwest to the tropical beaches of the far north. South Island
South Island
is dominated by the Southern Alps
Southern Alps
. There are 18 peaks of more than 3000 metres (9800 ft) in the South Island. All summits over 2,900 m are within the Southern Alps, a chain that forms the backbone of the South Island; the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook , at 3,754 metres (12,316 ft). Earthquakes are common, though usually not severe, averaging 3,000 per year. There is a wide variety of native trees , adapted to all the various micro-climates in New Zealand.

In Hawaii, one endemic plant, Brighamia , now requires hand-pollination because its natural pollinator is presumed to be extinct. The two species of Brighamia—B. rockii and B. insignis—are represented in the wild by around 120 individual plants. To ensure these plants set seed, biologists rappel down 3,000-foot (910 m) cliffs to brush pollen onto their stigmas.

FAUNA

Main articles: Fauna of Australia
Australia
, Birds of Australia
Australia
, Birds of New Zealand , Fauna of New Zealand
New Zealand
, Mammals of Australia
Australia
, List of birds of Australia
Australia
, and List of birds of New Zealand
New Zealand
The Pacific robin inhabits the islands of the south western Pacific.

The aptly-named Pacific kingfisher is found in the Pacific
Pacific
Islands, as is the Red-vented bulbul , Polynesian starling
Polynesian starling
, Brown goshawk , Pacific Swallow
Pacific Swallow
and the Cardinal myzomela , among others. Birds breeding on Pitcairn
Pitcairn
include the fairy tern , common noddy and red-tailed tropicbird . The Pitcairn
Pitcairn
reed warbler , endemic to Pitcairn
Pitcairn
Island, was added to the endangered species list in 2008.

Native to Hawaii
Hawaii
is the Hawaiian crow , which has been extinct in the wild since 2002. The brown tree snake is native to northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Papua New Guinea, Guam
Guam
and the Solomon Islands. Native to Australia, New Guinea
New Guinea
and proximate islands are birds of paradise , honeyeaters , Australasian treecreeper , Australasian robin , kingfishers , butcherbirds and bowerbirds .

A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placental mammals, and dominance of the marsupials — a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch , including the macropods , possums and dasyuromorphs . The passerines of Australia, also known as songbirds or perching birds, include wrens , the magpie group , thornbills , corvids , pardalotes , lyrebirds . Predominant bird species in the country include the Australian magpie
Australian magpie
, Australian raven , the pied currawong , crested pigeons and the laughing kookaburra . The koala , emu , platypus and kangaroo are national animals of Australia, and the Tasmanian devil is also one of the well-known animals in the country. The goanna is a predatory lizard native to the Australian mainland .

The birds of New Zealand
New Zealand
evolved into an avifauna that included a large number of endemic species. As an island archipelago New Zealand accumulated bird diversity and when Captain James Cook
James Cook
arrived in the 1770s he noted that the bird song was deafening. The mix includes species with unusual biology such as the kakapo which is the world's only flightless, nocturnal, lek breeding parrot, but also many species that are similar to neighboring land areas. Some of the more well known and distinctive bird species in New Zealand
New Zealand
are the kiwi , kea , takahe , kakapo , mohua , tui and the bellbird . The tuatara is a notable reptile endemic to New Zealand.

CLIMATE

Main articles: Climate
Climate
of Australia
Australia
, Climate
Climate
of New Zealand
New Zealand
, and Climate
Climate
of Hawaii
Hawaii
August 2011 winter's snowfall in Dunedin
Dunedin
, Otago
Otago

The Pacific
Pacific
Islands are ruled by a tropical rainforest and tropical savanna climate . To the southwest of the region, in the Australian landmass, the climate is mostly desert or semi-arid , with the southern coastal corners having a temperate climate, such as oceanic and humid subtropical climate in the east coast and Mediterranean climate in the west. The northern parts of the country have a tropical climate . Snow
Snow
falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria , New South Wales
New South Wales
, Tasmania
Tasmania
and in the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
.

Most regions of New Zealand
New Zealand
belong to the temperate zone with a maritime climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
: Cfb) characterised by four distinct seasons. Conditions vary from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island
South Island
to almost semi-arid in Central Otago and subtropical in Northland . Snow
Snow
falls in New Zealand's South Island and at higher altitudes in the North Island
North Island
. It is extremely rare at sea level in the North Island.

Hawaii, although being in the tropics , experiences many different climates, depending on latitude and its geography. The island of Hawaii
Hawaii
for example hosts 4 (out of 5 in total) climate groups on a surface as small as 4,028 sq miles according to the Köppen climate types : tropical, arid, temperate and polar. The Hawaiian Islands receive most of their precipitation during the winter months (October to April).

The highest recorded temperature in Oceania
Oceania
occurred in Oodnadatta , South Australia
Australia
(2 January 1960), where the temperature reached 50.7 °C (123.3 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Oceania
Oceania
was −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F), at Ranfurly in Otago
Otago
in 1903, with a more recent temperature of −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F) recorded in 1995 in nearby Ophir . Pohnpei
Pohnpei
of the Senyavin Islands in Micronesia is the wettest place in Oceania, and one of the wettest places on earth, with annual recorded rainfall exceeding 7,600 millimetres (300 in) each year in certain mountainous locations. The summit of Mount Waialeale received 460.0 inches (11,684 mm) in the 1912–45 averages.

KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION OF SELECTED REGIONS IN OCEANIA

Australia
Australia

Hawaii
Hawaii

New Zealand
New Zealand

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea

Australasia
Australasia
and adjacent islands

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Oceania

The linked map below shows the Exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the islands of Oceania
Oceania
and neighbouring areas, as a guide to the following table. (There are no political boundaries that can be drawn on a map of the Pacific
Pacific
at this scale.) Australia
Australia
New Zealand Chatham Hawaii
Hawaii
Wake Federated States of Micronesia Palau
Palau
Papua New Guinea Easter Island French Polynesia Cook Islands New Caledonia Fiji
Fiji
Tuvalu
Tuvalu
Kiribati (Gilberts) (Phoenix) (Line) Solomon Islands Tokelau
Tokelau
Marshall Islands Nauru
Nauru
Vanuatu
Vanuatu
Tonga Pitcairn
Pitcairn
Guam
Guam
Norfolk Northern Marianas Samoa
Samoa
AS WF Niue
Niue
Cocos Christmas Daito Bonin Parece Vela Marcus Midway Johnston Clipperton Socorro Howland Baker Kingman Palmyra Jarvis Coral Sea
Coral Sea
Lord Howe Kermadec Bounties Antipodes Aucklands Campbell Ashmore font-size:85%; left:286.5px; top:394.75px">Macquarie Indonesia
Indonesia
Philippines
Philippines
Sarawak
Sarawak
BN Sabah
Sabah
Maluku Papua East Timor
Timor
Paracels Spratlys This template:

* view * talk * edit

The demographic table below shows the subregions and countries of geopolitical Oceania. The countries and territories in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations. The information shown follows sources in cross-referenced articles; where sources differ, provisos have been clearly indicated. These territories and regions are subject to various additional categorisations, of course, depending on the source and purpose of each description.

ARMS FLAG NAME OF REGION, FOLLOWED BY COUNTRIES Area (km²) POPULATION Population density (per km²) CAPITAL ISO 3166-1

AUSTRALASIA

Ashmore and Cartier Islands ( Australia
Australia
) 199

AUSTRALIA 7,686,850 23,034,879 2.7 Canberra
Canberra
AU

Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands
(Australia) 10 4

NEW ZEALAND 268,680 4,465,900 16.5 Wellington
Wellington
NZ

Norfolk Island (Australia) 35 2,302 61.9 Kingston NF

MELANESIA

FIJI 18,270 856,346 46.9 Suva FJ

New Caledonia
New Caledonia
( France
France
) 19,060 240,390 12.6 Nouméa
Nouméa
NC

Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
( Indonesia
Indonesia
) 74,505 1,895,000

ML

Papua (Indonesia) 319,036 3,486,432 11 Jayapura PA

West Papua (Indonesia) 140,375 760,855 5.4 Manokwari PB

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 462,840 5,172,033 11.2 Port Moresby PG

SOLOMON ISLANDS 28,450 494,786 17.4 Honiara SB

VANUATU 12,200 240,000 19.7 Port Vila
Port Vila
VU

MICRONESIA

FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA 702 135,869 193.5 Palikir
Palikir
FM

Guam
Guam
( United States
United States
) 549 160,796 292.9 Hagåtña GU

KIRIBATI 811 96,335 118.8 South Tarawa KI

MARSHALL ISLANDS 181 73,630 406.8 Majuro
Majuro
MH

NAURU 21 12,329 587.1 Yaren (de facto) NR

Northern Mariana Islands (United States) 477 77,311 162.1 Saipan MP

PALAU 458 19,409 42.4 Ngerulmud PW

Wake Island (United States) 2 150

Wake Island UM

POLYNESIA

American Samoa
Samoa
(United States) 199 68,688 345.2 Pago Pago
Pago Pago
, Fagatogo AS

Cook Islands (New Zealand) 240 20,811 86.7 Avarua CK

Easter Island
Easter Island
( Chile
Chile
) 164 5,761 31 Hanga Roa CL

French Polynesia
French Polynesia
(France) 4,167 257,847 61.9 Papeete
Papeete
PF

Hawaii
Hawaii
(United States) 16,636 1,360,301 81.8 Honolulu
Honolulu
US

Niue
Niue
(New Zealand) 260 2,134 8.2 Alofi
Alofi
NU

Pitcairn Islands ( United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) 47 47 10 Adamstown PN

SAMOA 2,944 179,000 63.2 Apia WS

Tokelau
Tokelau
(New Zealand) 10 1,431 143.1 Nukunonu
Nukunonu
TK

TONGA 748 106,137 141.9 Nukuʻalofa
Nukuʻalofa
TO

TUVALU 26 11,146 428.7 Funafuti TV

Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
(France) 274 15,585 56.9 Mata-Utu WF

TOTAL 8,919,530 41,050,699 4.4

TOTAL MINUS MAINLAND AUSTRALIA 1,232,680 19,022,699 14.8

* ^ According to Act of Papua Autonomy (Undang-Undang Otonomi Khusus bagi Provinsi Papua) section 2 verse 2, the province itself has their own flag & arms, similar with other provinces. However, the flag "> Great Synagogue , opened in 1878, Sydney
Sydney
.

The predominant religion in Oceania
Oceania
is Christianity
Christianity
(73.3%). A 2011 survey found that 92.1% in Melanesia
Melanesia
, 93.1% in Micronesia and 96.1% in Polynesia described themselves as Christians
Christians
. Traditional religions are often animist , and prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in spirits (masalai in Tok Pisin ) representing natural forces. In the 2013 census, 47.5% of New Zealanders affiliated themselves with Christianity
Christianity
and 41.92% declared no religion. In the 2016 Census, 52.1% of the Australian population declared some variety of Christianity
Christianity
and 30.1% stated "no religion".

In recent Australian and New Zealand
New Zealand
censuses, large proportions of the population say they belong to "no religion " (which includes atheism , agnosticism , deism , secular humanism , and rationalism ). In Tonga , everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith. The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
mosque in Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
is the only mosque in Micronesia . Another one in Tuvalu
Tuvalu
belongs to the same sect. The Bahá\'í House of Worship in Tiapapata, Samoa
Samoa
, is one of seven designations administered in the Bahá\'í Faith .

Other religions in the region include Judaism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. Sir Isaac Isaacs was the first Australian born Governor General of Australia
Australia
and was the first Jewish vice-regal representative in the British Empire
British Empire
.

LANGUAGES

Main articles: Languages of Australia
Australia
, Languages of New Zealand
New Zealand
, Languages of Fiji
Fiji
, and Languages of Tonga

Native languages of Oceania
Oceania
fall into three major geographic groups:

* The large Austronesian language family , with such languages as Malay (Indonesian), and Polynesian languages such as Maori and Hawaiian * The Aboriginal Australian languages , including the large Pama–Nyungan family * The Papuan languages of New Guinea
New Guinea
and neighbouring islands, including the large Trans– New Guinea
New Guinea
family

Colonial languages include English in Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, Hawaii
Hawaii
, and many other territories; French in New Caledonia
New Caledonia
and French Polynesia
French Polynesia
, Japanese in the Bonin Islands , Spanish on Easter Island . There are also Creoles formed from the interaction of Malay or the colonial languages with indigenous languages, such as Tok Pisin , Bislama , Chavacano , various Malay trade and creole languages , Hawaiian Pidgin
Hawaiian Pidgin
, Norfuk , and Pitkern . Contact between Austronesian and Papuan resulted in several instances in mixed languages such as Maisin .

Immigrants brought their own languages to the region, such as Mandarin , Italian , Arabic , Polish , Hindi , German , Spanish , Korean , Cantonese
Cantonese
and Greek , among others, namely in Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, or Fiji
Fiji
Hindi in Fiji
Fiji
.

IMMIGRATION

Main articles: Post-war immigration to Australia
Australia
, Immigration
Immigration
to Australia
Australia
, Immigration
Immigration
to New Zealand
New Zealand
, Refugees in Australia
Australia
, and Refugees in New Zealand
New Zealand
Dutch immigrants arriving in Australia (1954).

The most multicultural areas in Oceania, which have a high degree of immigration , are Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Hawaii. Since 1945, more than 7 million people have settled in Australia. From the late 1970s, there was a significant increase in immigration from Asian and other non-European countries, making Australia
Australia
a multicultural country .

Sydney
Sydney
is the most multicultural city in Oceania, having more than 250 different languages spoken with about 40 percent of residents speaking a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 36 percent of the population reported having been born overseas , with top countries being Italy
Italy
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Iraq
Iraq
, among others. Melbourne
Melbourne
is also fairly multicultural, having the largest Greek-speaking population outside of Europe
Europe
, and the second largest Asian population in Australia
Australia
after Sydney.

European migration to New Zealand
New Zealand
provided a major influx following the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Subsequent immigration has been chiefly from the British Isles, but also from continental Europe, the Pacific, The Americas and Asia. Auckland
Auckland
is home to over half (51.6 percent) of New Zealand's overseas born population, including 72 percent of the country's Pacific
Pacific
Island-born population, 64 percent of its Asian -born population, and 56 percent of its Middle Eastern and African born population. Many Portuguese immigrants in Hawaii
Hawaii
were Azorean or Madeiran .

Hawaii
Hawaii
is a majority-minority state . Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii
Hawaii
starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity
Christianity
and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. As of 2015 , a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino , Japanese , Korean and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. Almost 13,000 Portuguese immigrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii
Hawaii
began in 1899 when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii.

Between 2001 and 2007 Australia's Pacific Solution policy transferred asylum seekers to several Pacific
Pacific
nations, including the Nauru detention centre . Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and other nations took part in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
from 2003 after a request for aid.

ARCHAEOGENETICS

Archaeology
Archaeology
, linguistics , and existing genetic studies indicate that Oceania
Oceania
was settled by two major waves of migration. The first migration took place approximately 40 thousand years ago, and these migrants, Papuans , colonised much of Near Oceania . Approximately 3.5 thousand years ago, a second expansion of Austronesian speakers arrived in Near Oceania, and the descendants of these people spread to the far corners of the Pacific, colonising Remote Oceania .

Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA) studies quantify the magnitude of the Austronesian expansion and demonstrate the homogenising effect of this expansion. With regards to Papuan influence, autochthonous haplogroups support the hypothesis of a long history in Near Oceania, with some lineages suggesting a time depth of 60 thousand years. Santa Cruz , a population located in Remote Oceania, is an anomaly with extreme frequencies of autochthonous haplogroups of Near Oceanian origin.

Large areas of New Guinea
New Guinea
are unexplored by scientists and anthropologists due to extensive forestation and mountainous terrain. Known indigenous tribes in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
have very little contact with local authorities aside from the authorities knowing who they are. Many remain preliterate and, at the national or international level, the names of tribes and information about them is extremely hard to obtain. The Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
are home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups .

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Oceania

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND

Main articles: Economy of Australia
Australia
and Economy of New Zealand
New Zealand
The skyline of Sydney
Sydney
.

New Zealand
New Zealand
is the only other first world nation in the region, although the economy of Australia
Australia
is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world. Australia's per-capita GDP is higher than that of the UK , Canada
Canada
, Germany
Germany
, and France
France
in terms of purchasing power parity . NZ is also one of the most globalised economies and depends greatly on international trade.

The Australian Securities Exchange in Sydney
Sydney
is the largest stock exchange in Australia
Australia
and in the South Pacific
Pacific
. New Zealand
New Zealand
is the 53rd -largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 68th -largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). In 2012, Australia
Australia
was the 12th largest national economy by nominal GDP and the 19th-largest measured by PPP-adjusted GDP.

Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney
Sydney
tenth in the world in terms of quality of living , making it one of the most livable cities . It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by GaWC . Melbourne
Melbourne
also ranked highly in the world\'s most liveable city list, and is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region. Auckland
Auckland
and Wellington
Wellington
, in New Zealand, are frequently ranked among the world\'s most liveable cities .

The majority of people living in Australia
Australia
and to a lesser extent, New Zealand
New Zealand
work in mining , electrical and manufacturing sectors also. Australia
Australia
boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region, producing cars , electrical equipment, machinery and clothes .

PACIFIC ISLANDS

Main articles: Economy of Fiji
Fiji
, Economy of Samoa
Samoa
, and Economy of Tonga Honolulu
Honolulu
viewed from Diamond Head crater

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific
Pacific
islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan
Japan
, China
China
, the United States
United States
and South Korea
South Korea
. The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products. Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations . Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit
Summit
(EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.

The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut , but timber , beef , palm oil , cocoa , sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific
Pacific
. Fishing
Fishing
provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific
Pacific
, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources , such as lead , zinc , nickel and gold , are mined in Australia
Australia
and the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea
South Korea
and the European Union
European Union
.

Endowed with forest , mineral , and fish resources, Fiji
Fiji
is one of the most developed of the Pacific
Pacific
island economies , though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product , although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001. Sugar
Sugar
exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar
Sugar
cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconuts , ginger , and copra are also significant.

The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries; sandalwood , whaling , sugarcane, pineapple , the military, tourism and education. Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. As of 2015 , Honolulu
Honolulu
was ranked high on world livability rankings, and was also ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U.S.

TOURISM

Shangri-La\'s Fijian Resort

Tourists mostly come from Japan, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States. Fiji
Fiji
currently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji
Fiji
islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry.

Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is widely recognised as one of the premier vacation destinations for scuba divers wishing to explore coral reefs of the South Pacific
Pacific
region. Tourism
Tourism
has been promoted, in part, by Vanuatu being the site of several reality-TV shows. The ninth season of the reality TV series Survivor
Survivor
was filmed on Vanuatu, entitled Survivor: Vanuatu
Vanuatu
—Islands of Fire. Two years later, Australia's Celebrity Survivor
Survivor
was filmed at the same location used by the US version. Dandenong Ranges
Dandenong Ranges
in Victoria are popular among tourists.

Tourism
Tourism
in Australia
Australia
is an important component of the Australian economy. In the financial year 2014/15, tourism represented 3.0% of Australia
Australia
's GDP contributing A$47.5 billion to the national economy. In 2015, there were 7.4 million visitor arrivals. Popular Australian destinations include the Sydney
Sydney
Harbour ( Sydney
Sydney
Opera House , Sydney Harbour Bridge , Royal Botanic Garden , etc.), Gold
Gold
Coast (theme parks such as Warner Bros. Movie World
Warner Bros. Movie World
, Dreamworld and Sea World ), Walls of Jerusalem National Park and Mount Field National Park
Mount Field National Park
in Tasmania
Tasmania
, Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne
Melbourne
, the Great Barrier Reef
Great Barrier Reef
in Queensland
Queensland
, The Twelve Apostles in Victoria , Uluru
Uluru
and the Australian outback
Australian outback
.

Tourism
Tourism
in New Zealand
New Zealand
contributes NZ$ 7.3 billion (or 3.7%) of the country's GDP in 2013, as well as directly supporting 110,800 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 6% of New Zealand's workforce). International tourist spending accounted for 16% of New Zealand's export earnings (nearly NZ$10 billion). International and domestic tourism contributes, in total, NZ$24 billion to New Zealand's economy every year. Tourism
Tourism
New Zealand
New Zealand
, the country's official tourism agency, is actively promoting the country as a destination worldwide. Milford Sound
Milford Sound
in South Island
South Island
is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination.

In 2003 alone, according to state government data, there were over 6.4 million visitors to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
with expenditures of over $10.6 billion. Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. In 2011, Hawaii
Hawaii
saw increasing arrivals and share of foreign tourists from Canada, Australia
Australia
and China increasing 13%, 24% and 21% respectively from 2010.

POLITICS

AUSTRALIA

Main article: Politics of Australia
Australia
Elizabeth is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of 5 Oceanian countries: Australia
Australia
, New Zealand , Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Tuvalu
Tuvalu
.

Australia
Australia
is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
at its apex as the Queen of Australia
Australia
, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms . The Queen is represented in Australia
Australia
by the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party . Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left . The Australian Defence Force
Australian Defence Force
is by far the largest military force in Oceania.

NEW ZEALAND

Main article: Politics of New Zealand
New Zealand

New Zealand
New Zealand
is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy , although its constitution is not codified . Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand
New Zealand
and the head of state . The Queen is represented by the Governor-General , whom she appoints on the advice of the Prime Minister . The New Zealand
New Zealand
Parliament holds legislative power and consists of the Queen and the House of Representatives . A parliamentary general election must be called no later than three years after the previous election. New Zealand
New Zealand
is identified as one of the world's most stable and well-governed states, with high government transparency and among the lowest perceived levels of corruption.

PACIFIC ISLANDS

Fiji
Fiji
has a multiparty system with the Prime Minister of Fiji
Fiji
as head of government . The executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji
Fiji
. Fiji
Fiji
's Head of State is the President . He is elected by Parliament of Fiji
Fiji
after nomination by the Prime Minister or the Leader of the Opposition , for a three-year term. Government Building in the capital Apia housing administrative ministerial offices.

In Samoan politics the Prime Minister of Samoa
Samoa
is the head of government . The 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1962, builds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy , modified to take account of Samoan customs. The national government (malo) generally controls the legislative assembly . Politics of Tonga takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the King
King
is the Head of State.

In the politics of Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
the Prime Minister is the head of government . In Kiribati , the President of Kiribati is the head of government , and of a multi-party system. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
remains an integral part of the French Republic
French Republic
. Inhabitants of New Caledonia are French citizens and carry French passports. They take part in the legislative and presidential French elections. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
sends two representatives to the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
and two senators to the French Senate .

Hawaii
Hawaii
is dominated by the Democratic Party . As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii
Hawaii
, there are three branches of government : executive, legislative and judicial. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State . The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol .

CULTURE

AUSTRALIA

Main articles: Culture of Australia
Australia
and Cuisine of Australia
Australia
On 28 June 2007, the Sydney
Sydney
Opera House became a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture
Western culture
, with some Indigenous influences. The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture. Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations. The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era. The Australian Museum
Museum
in Sydney
Sydney
and the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne
Melbourne
are the oldest and largest museums in Oceania.

Australia
Australia
is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres . Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were responsible for the flat white coffee. Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker . The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast
Sunday roast
. Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post- World War II
World War II
European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture , and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese -inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll . The ʻ Iolani Palace
Iolani Palace
in Honolulu
Honolulu
, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1978.

HAWAII

Main articles: Culture of Hawaii
Hawaii
, Cuisine of Hawaii
Hawaii
, and Hawaiian religion

The music of Hawaii
Hawaii
includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip hop . Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States
United States
are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as slack-key guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii
Hawaii
also made a major contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel guitar . The Hawaiian religion is polytheistic and animistic , with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky.

The cuisine of Hawaii
Hawaii
is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians
Polynesians
and Native Hawaiian cuisine , and American , Chinese , Filipino , Japanese , Korean , Polynesian and Portuguese origins. Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist Israel Kamakawiwoʻole , famous for his medley of " Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World ", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by NPR
NPR
in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.

NEW ZEALAND

Main articles: Culture of New Zealand
New Zealand
and Cuisine of New Zealand
New Zealand
The Hobbiton Movie Set , located near Matamata , was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.

New Zealand
New Zealand
has a culture is a Western culture, which is influenced by the cultural input of the indigenous Māori and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration which followed the British colonisation of New Zealand
New Zealand
. Māori people
Māori people
constitute one of the major cultures of Polynesia. The country has been broadened by globalisation and immigration from the Pacific
Pacific
Islands , East Asia and South Asia
South Asia
. New Zealand marks two national days of remembrance, Waitangi Day and ANZAC Day , and also celebrates holidays during or close to the anniversaries of the founding dates of each province.

The New Zealand
New Zealand
recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand
New Zealand
musicians have obtained success in Britain and the United States. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka (song and dance) has made a resurgence. The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand, including Avatar , The Lord of the Rings , The Hobbit , The Chronicles of Narnia , King
King
Kong and The Last Samurai .

The national cuisine has been described as Pacific
Pacific
Rim , incorporating the native Māori cuisine and diverse culinary traditions introduced by settlers and immigrants from Europe, Polynesia and Asia. New Zealand
New Zealand
yields produce from land and sea—most crops and livestock, such as maize, potatoes and pigs, were gradually introduced by the early European settlers. Distinctive ingredients or dishes include lamb , salmon, kōura (crayfish), dredge oysters , whitebait , pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both are types of New Zealand
New Zealand
shellfish), kūmara (sweet potato), kiwifruit , tamarillo and pavlova (considered a national dish).

SAMOA

Main articles: Culture of Samoa
Samoa
and Polynesian culture A fale on Manono Island .

The fa\'a Samoa
Samoa
, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa
Samoa
maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language . Cultural customs such as the Samoa
Samoa
\'ava ceremony are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven \ 'ie toga .

The Samoan word for dance is siva with unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and which tell a story, although the Samoan male dances can be more snappy. The sasa is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums (pate ) or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the fa\'ataupati or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian , Tahitian and Māori ) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos.

ARTS

Main articles: Oceanian art , Samoan art , Hawaiian art , Maori art , and Indigenous Australian art
Indigenous Australian art
Bradshaw rock paintings
Bradshaw rock paintings
found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia
Australia
.

The artistic creations of native Oceanians varies greatly throughout the cultures and regions. The subject matter typically carries themes of fertility or the supernatural. Petroglyphs
Petroglyphs
, Tattooing , painting, wood carving, stone carving and textile work are other common art forms. Art of Oceania
Oceania
properly encompasses the artistic traditions of the people indigenous to Australia
Australia
and the Pacific
Pacific
Islands . These early peoples lacked a writing system , and made works on perishable materials, so few records of them exist from this time.

Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. These rock paintings served several functions. Some were used in magic, others to increase animal populations for hunting, while some were simply for amusement. Sculpture in Oceania
Oceania
first appears on New Guinea
New Guinea
as a series of stone figures found throughout the island, but mostly in mountainous highlands. Establishing a chronological timeframe for these pieces in most cases is difficult, but one has been dated to 1500 BC.

By 1500 BC the Lapita
Lapita
culture, descendants of the second wave, would begin to expand and spread into the more remote islands. At around the same time, art began to appear in New Guinea, including the earliest examples of sculpture in Oceania. Starting around 1100 AD, the people of Easter Island
Easter Island
would begin construction of nearly 900 moai (large stone statues). At about 1200 AD, the people of Pohnpei, a Micronesian island, would embark on another megalithic construction, building Nan Madol , a city of artificial islands and a system of canals. Hawaiian art includes wood carvings , feather work, petroglyphs, bark cloth (called kapa in Hawaiian and tapa elsewhere in the Pacific) and tattoos. Native Hawaiians had neither metal nor woven cloth.

SPORT

See also: Sport in Oceania Fiji
Fiji
playing Wales at seven-a-side rugby

Rugby union
Rugby union
is one of the region's most prominent sports, and is the national sport of New Zealand, Samoa, Fiji
Fiji
and Tonga. The most popular sport in Australia
Australia
is cricket , the most popular sport among Australian women is netball , while Australian rules football
Australian rules football
is the most popular sport in terms of spectatorship and television ratings. Rugby is the most popular sport among New Zealanders. In Papua New Guinea, the most popular sport is the Rugby league
Rugby league
.

Australian rules football
Australian rules football
is the national sport in Nauru
Nauru
and is the most popular football code in Australia
Australia
in terms of attendance. It has a large following in Papua New Guinea, where it is the second most popular sport after Rugby League. It attracts significant attention across New Zealand
New Zealand
and the Pacific
Pacific
Islands . Fiji\'s sevens team is one of the most successful in the world, as is New Zealand\'s .

Currently, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
is the only country in Oceania
Oceania
to call association football its national sport. However, it is also the most popular sport in Kiribati , the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
and Tuvalu
Tuvalu
, and has a significant (and growing) popularity in Australia
Australia
. In 2006, Australia joined the Asian Football Confederation and qualified for the 2010 and 2014 World Cups as an Asian entrant.

Australia
Australia
has hosted two Summer Olympics: Melbourne
Melbourne
1956 and Sydney 2000 . Also, Australia
Australia
has hosted four editions of the Commonwealth Games ( Sydney
Sydney
1938 , Perth
Perth
1962 , Brisbane
Brisbane
1982 , Melbourne
Melbourne
2006 ), and is scheduled for a fifth ( Gold
Gold
Coast 2018 ). Meanwhile, New Zealand has hosted the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
three times: Auckland
Auckland
1950 , Christchurch
Christchurch
1974 and Auckland
Auckland
1990 . The Pacific
Pacific
Games (formerly known as the South Pacific
Pacific
Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympics on a much smaller scale, with participation exclusively from countries around the Pacific. It is held every four years and began in 1963. Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
competed in the games for the first time in 2015.

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Oceania
Oceania
portal

* Europeans in Oceania * Festival of Pacific
Pacific
Arts * Flags of Oceania * List of cities in Oceania * Oceanic cuisine * Oceania (journal) * Pacific
Pacific
Union * Secretariat of the Pacific
Pacific
Community * United Nations geoscheme
United Nations geoscheme
for Oceania
Oceania

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* ^ Regions and constituents as per UN categorisations/map except notes 2–3 , 6. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below (notes 3, 5–7, 9) may be in one or both of Oceania
Oceania
and Asia
Asia
or North America
North America
. * ^ The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is " Australia
Australia
and New Zealand."

* ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
is often considered part of Polynesia rather than Australasia
Australasia
.

* ^ Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia
Asia
(UN region) frequently reckoned in this region. * ^ Indonesian Act of Papua Autonomy, Act 21 year 2001 (Indonesian: UU 21 tahun 2001). Available at: http://www.kinerja.or.id/pdf/8bbcd469-bc2c-4d89-bf63-c2d81804ae27.pdf * ^ "Papuan province changes name from West Irian Jaya to West Papua". Radio New Zealand
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International. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2008.

* ^ Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
is often considered part of Australasia
Australasia
and Melanesia
Melanesia
. It is sometimes included in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
.

* ^ On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror
Koror
to Ngerulmud in the state of Melekeok
Melekeok
, located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Koror
Koror
on Babelthuap Island .

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FURTHER READING

* Frank Harary & Per Hage (1991) Exchange in Oceania: A Graph Theoretic Analysis, Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * Frank Harary padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutOCEANIAat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* Oceania
Oceania
at DMOZ
DMOZ
* " Australia
Australia
and Oceania" from National Geographic

ARTICLES RELATED TO OCEANIA

* v * t * e

Countries and territories of Oceania
Oceania

SOVEREIGN STATES

ENTIRE

* Australia
Australia
* Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
* Fiji
Fiji
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
* New Zealand
New Zealand
* Palau
Palau
* Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
* Samoa
Samoa
* Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
* Tonga * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

IN PART

* Chile
Chile

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands

* Indonesia
Indonesia

* West Papua * Papua

* Japan
Japan

* Bonin Islands * Minami-Tori-Shima
Minami-Tori-Shima

* United States
United States

* Hawaii
Hawaii
* Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll

Associated states of New Zealand
New Zealand

* Niue
Niue
* Cook Islands

Dependencies and other territories

AUSTRALIA

* Ashmore and Cartier Islands * Coral Sea Islands
Coral Sea Islands
* Kangaroo Island * Lord Howe Island * Macquarie Islands * Norfolk Island

UNITED STATES

* American Samoa
Samoa
* Baker Island
Baker Island
* Guam
Guam
* Howland Island
Howland Island
* Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island
* Johnston Atoll * Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
* Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
* Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

NEW ZEALAND

* Auckland
Auckland
Islands * Bounty Islands
Bounty Islands
* Chatham Islands * Campbell Island * Tokelau
Tokelau

OTHERS

* French Polynesia
French Polynesia
/ New Caledonia
New Caledonia
/ Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna

* France
France

* Pitcairn Islands

* UK

* v * t * e

Capitals of Oceania
Oceania

Dependent territories are in italics

AUSTRALASIA

* CANBERRA , Australia
Australia
* KINGSTON , Norfolk Island 1 * WELLINGTON , New Zealand
New Zealand
2

MELANESIA

* HONIARA , Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
* NOUMéA , New Caledonia
New Caledonia
3 * PORT MORESBY , Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
4 * PORT VILA , Vanuatu
Vanuatu
* SUVA , Fiji
Fiji

MICRONESIA

* HAGåTñA , Guam
Guam
5 * MAJURO , Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
11 * NGERULMUD , Palau
Palau
11 * PALIKIR , Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
11 * SAIPAN , Northern Mariana Islands 5 * SOUTH TARAWA /BAIRIKI , Kiribati * YAREN , Nauru
Nauru
(de facto)

POLYNESIA

* ADAMSTOWN , Pitcairn Islands 6 * ALOFI , Niue
Niue
8 * APIA , Samoa
Samoa
* AVARUA , Cook Islands 8 * FAKAOFO , Tokelau
Tokelau
8 * FUNAFUTI , Tuvalu
Tuvalu
* HANGA ROA , Easter Island
Easter Island
9 * HONOLULU , Hawaii
Hawaii
10 * MATA-UTU , Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
3 * NUKUʻALOFA , Tonga * PAGO PAGO , American Samoa
Samoa
5 * PAPEETE , French Polynesia
French Polynesia
3

* 1 Territory of Australia
Australia
* 2 Often included in Polynesia * 3 Overseas collectivity of France * 4 Often included in Australasia * 5 Insular area
Insular area
of the United States * 6 Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 7 In free association with New Zealand * 8 New Zealand
New Zealand
dependent territory * 9 Territory of Chile
Chile
* 10 U.S. state
U.S. state
* 11 In free association with the United States

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
* Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile
Cataracts of the Nile
* Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley
Nile Valley
* Nile Delta
Nile Delta
* Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley
Great Rift Valley
* Afar Triangle
Afar Triangle
* Danakil Desert
Desert
* Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift
Albertine Rift
Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe
Mayombe

* Igboland
Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast
Pepper Coast
* Gold
Gold
Coast * Slave Coast
Slave Coast
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region)
Sudan (region)
* Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld
Highveld
* Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Region
* Kalahari Desert
Desert
* Okavango Delta * False Bay
False Bay
* Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island
Vancouver island
* Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula
Labrador Peninsula
* Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay * James Bay
James Bay
* Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States
Mountain States
* Northwestern * Pacific
Pacific
* Pacific
Pacific
Northwest * Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
* West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains
Great Plains
* Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt
Sun Belt
* Snow
Snow
Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California
Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca
La Mixteca
* La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
* Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands
Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago
Lucayan Archipelago
* Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
* Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas * Pantanal
Pantanal
* Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado
Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert
Desert
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm
Khwarezm
* Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan
Yedisan
* Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region
Volga region
* Idel-Ural * Kolyma
Kolyma
* Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye
Zalesye
* Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
* Tian Shan * Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions
Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North
Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal
Transbaikal
* Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
* Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
* Gobi Desert
Desert
* Taklamakan Desert
Desert
* Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
* Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China
China
proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China
China
Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China
China
Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang
Liangguang
* Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong
Guanzhong
* Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA
MENA
* Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah
Tihamah
* Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
* Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
* Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
* Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley
Hula Valley
* Gaza Strip * West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah
Arabah
* Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Desert
* Syrian Desert
Desert
* Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz
Alborz
* Absheron Peninsula
Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia
Cappadocia
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India
India
* Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
* Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
* Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan
Pashtunistan
* Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert
Desert
* Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert
Desert
* Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
* Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar
Gulf of Mannar
* Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass
Wakhjir Pass
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago
Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
* Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi
Sápmi
* West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor
Lithuania Minor
* Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia
European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states
Alpine states
* Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel
English Channel
* Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
* Insular Italy
Italy
* Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
* Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine
Sloboda Ukraine
* Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia
Volhynia
* Karelia * East Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula
Huon Peninsula
* Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island
North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula
Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin
Murray–Darling basin
* Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain * Outback
Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia
Sunraysia
* Great Victoria Desert
Desert
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
* Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula
Eyre Peninsula
* Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region
Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati * Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
* Nauru
Nauru
* Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands
* Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau
Tokelau
* Tonga * Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* West Antarctica
Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone
Ecozone
* Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories * Nunavik
Nunavik
* Nunavut * Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi
Sápmi
* Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
* Barents Sea
Barents Sea
* Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
* East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea
Pechora Sea
* Queen Victoria Sea
Queen Victoria Sea
* Wandel Sea * White Sea
White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
* Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
* English Channel
English Channel
* Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
* Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
* Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea
Irish Sea
* Irminger Sea * James Bay
James Bay
* Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea
Libyan Sea
* Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
* Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
* Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
* Sea of Crete
Sea of Crete
* Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
* Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Khambhat
* Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
* Java Sea * Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
* Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea
Camotes Sea
* Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea
Chilean Sea
* Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China
China
Sea * Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Alaska
* Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California
Gulf of California
* Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
* Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin
* Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan
Japan
* Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China
China
Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King
King
Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea
Mawson Sea
* Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea * Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
* Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia
Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia

Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea * Pannotia * Rodinia
Rodinia
* Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica
Arctica
* Asiamerica * Atlantica
Atlantica
* Avalonia
Avalonia
* Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China
China
* Siberia
Siberia
* South China
China
* East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India
India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam
Kumari Kandam
* Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis
Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Oceania
Oceania
articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Colonisation

* exploration

* Slavery * Military

GEOGRAPHY

* Countries and territories * Islands * Regions * Rivers

POLITICS

* Heads of government * Heads of state * Pan-Oceanianism

* Politics

* parties

ECONOMY

* Countries by GDP (nominal) * Countries by HDI * Renewable energy * Stock exchanges

SOCIETY

* Languages * Women

CULTURE

* Art

* Cinema

* films * film festivals

* Cuisine * Literature

* Media

* radio stations * TV stations

* Religion * World Heritage Sites

SPORT

* Oceania
Oceania
National Olympic Committees * Athletics * Australian-rules football * Basketball * Football * Hockey * Rugby union
Rugby union
* Swimming

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Countries by population * List of Oceanian countries by area

BY YEAR

* 2004 * 2006 * 2008 * 2009 * 2010 * 2011 * 2012

* Outline

* Category
Category
* Portal

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 253275800 * GND : 4044257-3 * NDL

.