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An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós, the sea of classical antiquity[1]) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.[2] On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World
World
Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic
Arctic
Oceans.[3][4] The word sea is often used interchangeably with "ocean" in American English
American English
but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land.[5] Saline water
Saline water
covers approximately 360,000,000 km2 (140,000,000 sq mi) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth's surface and 90% of the Earth's biosphere.[6] The ocean contains 97% of Earth's water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean
World Ocean
has been explored.[6] The total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers (320 million cu mi) with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters (12,100 ft).[7][8][9] As the world ocean is the principal component of Earth's hydrosphere, it is integral to life, forms part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns. The world ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the number of species that exist in the ocean is much larger, possibly over two million.[10] The origin of Earth's oceans is unknown; oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean
Hadean
eon and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. Extraterrestrial oceans
Extraterrestrial oceans
may be composed of water or other elements and compounds. The only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their geologic histories, Mars
Mars
and Venus
Venus
are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars
Mars
ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars
Mars
was once covered by water, and a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus. Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many dwarf planets and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of Europa is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth. The Solar System's giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean
Ocean
planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.[11][12]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Earth's global ocean

2.1 Oceanic divisions 2.2 Global system 2.3 Physical properties 2.4 Oceanic zones 2.5 Exploration 2.6 Oceanic maritime currents 2.7 Climate 2.8 Biology 2.9 Gases 2.10 Surface 2.11 Mixing time 2.12 Salinity 2.13 Absorption of light 2.14 Economic value 2.15 Waves and swell

3 Extraterrestrial oceans

3.1 Planets 3.2 Natural satellites 3.3 Dwarf planets
Dwarf planets
and trans-Neptunian objects 3.4 Extrasolar 3.5 Non-water surface liquids

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Etymology The word « ocean » comes from the figure in classical antiquity, Oceanus
Oceanus
(/oʊˈsiːənəs/; Greek: Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós,[13] pronounced [ɔːkeanós]), the elder of the Titans in classical Greek mythology, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world. The concept of Ōkeanós has an Indo-European connection. Greek Ōkeanós has been compared to the Vedic
Vedic
epithet ā-śáyāna-, predicated of the dragon Vṛtra-, who captured the cows/rivers. Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail on some early Greek vases.[14] Earth's global ocean

Various ways to divide the World
World
Ocean

Oceanic divisions Further information: Borders of the oceans

1. Epipelagic
Epipelagic
zone: surface – 200 meters deep 2. Mesopelagic
Mesopelagic
zone: 200 m – 1000 m 3. Bathypelagic
Bathypelagic
zone: 1000 m – 4000 m 4. Abyssopelagic zone: 4000 m – 6000 m 5. Hadal zone
Hadal zone
(the trenches): 6000 m to the bottom of the ocean

Though generally described as several separate oceans, the global, interconnected body of salt water is sometimes referred to as the World Ocean
World Ocean
or global ocean.[15][16] The concept of a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[17] The major oceanic divisions – listed below in descending order of area and volume – are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria.[9][12][18]

# Ocean Location Area (km2) (%) Volume (km3) (%) Avg. depth (m) Coastline (km)

1 Pacific Ocean Separates Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
from the Americas[19][NB] 7008168723000000000♠168,723,000 46.6 7008669880000000000♠669,880,000 50.1 7003397000000000000♠3,970 7005135663000000000♠135,663

2 Atlantic Ocean Separates the Americas
Americas
from Europe
Europe
and Africa[20] 7007851330000000000♠85,133,000 23.5 7008310410900000000♠310,410,900 23.3 7003364600000000000♠3,646 7005111866000000000♠111,866

3 Indian Ocean Washes upon southern Asia
Asia
and separates Africa
Africa
and Australia[21] 7007705600000000000♠70,560,000 19.5 7008264000000000000♠264,000,000 19.8 7003374100000000000♠3,741 7004665260000000000♠66,526

4 Southern Ocean Sometimes considered an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans,[22][23] which encircles Antarctica 7007219600000000000♠21,960,000 6.1 7007718000000000000♠71,800,000 5.4 7003327000000000000♠3,270 7004179680000000000♠17,968

5 Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Sometimes considered a sea or estuary of the Atlantic,[24][25] which covers much of the Arctic
Arctic
and washes upon northern North America
North America
and Eurasia[26] 7007155580000000000♠15,558,000 4.3 7007187500000000000♠18,750,000 1.4 7003120500000000000♠1,205 7004453890000000000♠45,389

Total – World
World
Ocean 7008361900000000000♠361,900,000 100 7009133500000000000♠1,335,000,000 100 7003368800000000000♠3,688 7005377412000000000♠377,412[27]

NB: Volume, area, and average depth figures include NOAA
NOAA
ETOPO1 figures for marginal South China Sea. Sources: Encyclopedia of Earth,[19][20][21][22][26] International Hydrographic Organization,[23] Regional Oceanography: an Introduction (Tomczak, 2005),[24] Encyclopædia Britannica,[25] and the International Telecommunication Union.[27] Oceans are fringed by smaller, adjoining bodies of water such as seas, gulfs, bays, bights, and straits. Global system

World
World
Distribution of Mid-Oceanic Ridges; USGS

Three main types of plate boundaries.

The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean and the longest mountain range in the world. The continuous mountain range is 65,000 km (40,000 mi) long (several times longer than the Andes, the longest continental mountain range).[28] Physical properties Further information: Seawater The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 quintillion metric tons (7018140000000000000♠1.4×1018 long tons or 7018150000000000000♠1.5×1018 short tons), which is about 0.023% of Earth's total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, almost all of which is in the ocean. The area of the World Ocean
World Ocean
is about 361.9 million square kilometers (139.7 million square miles),[9] which covers about 70.9% of Earth's surface, and its volume is approximately 1.335 billion cubic kilometers (320.3 million cubic miles).[9] This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,101 kilometers (684 mi). Its average depth is about 3,688 meters (12,100 ft),[9] and its maximum depth is 10,994 meters (6.831 mi) at the Mariana Trench.[29] Nearly half of the world's marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[16] The vast expanses of deep ocean (anything below 200 meters or 660 feet) cover about 66% of Earth's surface.[30] This does not include seas not connected to the World
World
Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea. The bluish color of water is a composite of several contributing agents. Prominent contributors include dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll.[31] Mariners and other seafarers have reported that the ocean often emits a visible glow which extends for miles at night. In 2005, scientists announced that for the first time, they had obtained photographic evidence of this glow.[32] It is most likely caused by bioluminescence.[33][34][35] Oceanic zones

The major oceanic zones, based on depth and biophysical conditions

Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone includes the oceans from the surface to a depth of 200 m; it is the region where photosynthesis can occur and is, therefore, the most biodiverse. Because plants require photosynthesis, life found deeper than the photic zone must either rely on material sinking from above (see marine snow) or find another energy source. Hydrothermal vents
Hydrothermal vents
are the primary source of energy in what is known as the aphotic zone (depths exceeding 200 m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into vertical regions according to temperature. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region. Its lowermost boundary is at a thermocline of 12 °C (54 °F), which, in the tropics generally lies at 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft). Next is the bathypelagic lying between 10 and 4 °C (50 and 39 °F), typically between 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft) and 2,000–4,000 meters (6,600–13,100 ft), lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssopelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 meters (20,000 ft). The last zone includes the deep oceanic trench, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000–11,000 meters (20,000–36,000 ft) and is the deepest oceanic zone. The benthic zones are aphotic and correspond to the three deepest zones of the deep-sea. The bathyal zone covers the continental slope down to about 4,000 meters (13,000 ft). The abyssal zone covers the abyssal plains between 4,000 and 6,000 m. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone, which is found in oceanic trenches. The pelagic zone can be further subdivided into two subregions: the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic zone encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves whereas the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water. In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions. It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. The halocline often coincides with the thermocline, and the combination produces a pronounced pycnocline. Exploration

Map of large underwater features (1995, NOAA)

The deepest point in the ocean is the Mariana Trench, located in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
near the Northern Mariana Islands. Its maximum depth has been estimated to be 10,971 meters (35,994 ft) (plus or minus 11 meters; see the Mariana Trench
Mariana Trench
article for discussion of the various estimates of the maximum depth.) The British naval vessel Challenger II surveyed the trench in 1951 and named the deepest part of the trench the "Challenger Deep". In 1960, the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men. Oceanic maritime currents

Oceanic surface currents (U.S. Army, 1943).

Amphidromic points showing the direction of tides per incrementation periods along with resonating directions of wavelength movements.

Oceanic maritime currents have different origins. Tidal currents are in phase with the tide, hence are quasiperiodic, they may form various knots in certain places,[clarification needed] most notably around headlands. Non periodic currents have for origin the waves, wind and different densities. The wind and waves create surface currents (designated as « drift currents »). These currents can decompose in one quasi permanent current (which varies within the hourly scale) and one movement of Stokes drift
Stokes drift
under the effect of rapid waves movement (at the echelon of a couple of seconds).).[36] The quasi permanent current is accelerated by the breaking of waves, and in a lesser governing effect, by the friction of the wind on the surface.[37] This acceleration of the current takes place in the direction of waves and dominant wind. Accordingly, when the sea depth increases, the rotation of the earth changes the direction of currents, in proportion with the increase of depth while friction lowers their speed. At a certain sea depth, the current changes direction and is seen inverted in the opposite direction with speed current becoming nul: known as the Ekman spiral. The influence of these currents is mainly experienced at the mixed layer of the ocean surface, often from 400 to 800 meters of maximum depth. These currents can considerably alter, change and are dependent on the various yearly seasons. If the mixed layer is less thick (10 to 20 meters), the quasi permanent current at the surface adopts an extreme oblique direction in relation to the direction of the wind, becoming virtually homogeneous, until the Thermocline.[38] In the deep however, maritime currents are caused by the temperature gradients and the salinity between water density masses. In littoral zones, breaking wave is so intense and the depth measurement so low, that maritime currents reach often 1 to 2 knots. Climate

A map of the global thermohaline circulation; blue represent deep-water currents, whereas red represent surface currents

Ocean
Ocean
currents greatly affect Earth's climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland. Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation. It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget. In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming, see shutdown of thermohaline circulation. It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe
Europe
is so temperate. An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe
Europe
is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.[39][40] The Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans. One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms). Biology Further information: Marine biology The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere. Oceanic evaporation, as a phase of the water cycle, is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land. Life
Life
within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region.[41] Lifeforms native to the ocean include:

Fish Radiata
Radiata
such as jellyfish (Cnidaria) Cetacea
Cetacea
such as whales, dolphins, and porpoises Cephalopods, such as octopus and squid Crustaceans, such as lobsters, shrimp, and krill Marine worms Plankton Echinoderms such as brittle stars, starfish, sea cucumbers, and sand dollars

In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins, seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles, also spend most of their time in the oceans. Gases

Characteristics of oceanic gases [42][43][44]

Gas Concentration of seawater, by mass (in parts per million), for the whole ocean % Dissolved gas, by volume, in seawater at the ocean surface

Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
(CO2) 64 to 107 15%

Nitrogen
Nitrogen
(N2) 10 to 18 48%

Oxygen (O2) 0 to 13 36%

Solubility of oceanic gases (in mL/L) with temperature at salinity of 33‰ and atmospheric pressure[45]

Temperature O2 CO2 N2

0 °C 8.14 8,700 14.47

10 °C 6.42 8,030 11.59

20 °C 5.26 7,350 9.65

30 °C 4.41 6,600 8.26

Surface

Generalized characteristics of ocean surface by latitude [46][47][48][49][50][51][52]

Characteristic Oceanic waters in polar regions Oceanic waters in temperate regions Oceanic waters in tropical regions

Precipitation
Precipitation
vs. evaporation P > E P > E E > P

Sea
Sea
surface temperature in winter −2 °C 5 to 20 °C 20 to 25 °C

Average salinity 28‰ to 32‰ 35‰ 35‰ to 37‰

Annual variation of air temperature ≤ 40ªC 10 °C < 5 °C

Annual variation of water temperature < 5ªC 10 °C < 5 °C

Mixing time

Mean oceanic residence time for various constituents [53][54]

Constituent Residence time (in years)

Iron (Fe) 200

Aluminum (Al) 600

Manganese (Mn) 1,300

Water
Water
(H2O) 4,100

Silicon (Si) 20,000

Carbonate (CO32−) 110,000

Calcium (Ca2+) 1,000,000

Sulfate (SO42−) 11,000,000

Potassium (K+) 12,000,000

Magnesium (Mg2+) 13,000,000

Sodium (Na+) 68,000,000

Chloride (Cl−) 100,000,000

Salinity A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] Salinity
Salinity
can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions (includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) in seawater. By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity: Salinity
Salinity
(in ‰) = 1.80655 × Chlorinity (in ‰) The average chlorinity is about 19.2‰, and, thus, the average salinity is around 34.7‰ [55] Absorption of light

Absorption of light in different wavelengths by ocean [55]

Color: Wavelength (nm) Depth at which 99 percent of the wavelength is absorbed (in meters) Percent absorbed in 1 meter of water

Ultraviolet (UV): 310 31 14.0

Violet (V): 400 107 4.2

Blue (B): 475 254 1.8

Green (G): 525 113 4.0

Yellow (Y): 575 51 8.7

Orange (O): 600 25 16.7

Red (R): 725 4 71.0

Infrared (IR): 800 3 82.0

Economic value Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.[56] Oceans are also the major supply source for the fishing industry. Some of the major harvests are shrimp, fish, crabs, and lobster.[6] Waves and swell Further information: Wind
Wind
wave See also: Sea
Sea
§ Waves The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves, are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface. The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell.[citation needed] Extraterrestrial oceans Further information: Extraterrestrial liquid water
Extraterrestrial liquid water
and List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System

Artist's conception of subsurface ocean of Enceladus
Enceladus
confirmed April 3, 2014.[57][58]

Two models for the composition of Europa predict a large subsurface ocean of liquid water. Similar models have been proposed for other celestial bodies in the Solar System.

Although Earth
Earth
is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System, other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.[59] Planets The gas giants, Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn, are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen, however their planetary geology is not well understood. The possibility of the ice giants Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune
Neptune
having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised. Although their composition is still not fully understood, a 2006 study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune,[60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.[61] The Mars
Mars
ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars
Mars
was once covered by water, though the water on Mars
Mars
is no longer oceanic (much of it residing in the ice caps). The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance. Astronomers think that Venus
Venus
had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history.[citation needed] If they existed, all later vanished via resurfacing. Natural satellites A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan, Europa, Enceladus
Enceladus
and, with less certainty, Callisto, Ganymede[62][63] and Triton.[64][65] A magma ocean is thought to be present on Io. Geysers have been found on Saturn's moon Enceladus, possibly originating from about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) deep ocean beneath an ice shell.[57] Other icy moons may also have internal oceans, or may once have had internal oceans that have now frozen.[66] Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas. The Cassini–Huygens
Cassini–Huygens
space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. Cassini's more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions. Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. Dwarf planets
Dwarf planets
and trans-Neptunian objects

Diagram showing a possible internal structure of Ceres

Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and icy mantle and may harbour a liquid-water ocean under its surface.[67][68] Not enough is known of the larger trans-Neptunian objects to determine whether they are differentiated bodies capable of supporting oceans, although models of radioactive decay suggest that Pluto,[69] Eris, Sedna, and Orcus have oceans beneath solid icy crusts approximately 100 to 180 km thick.[66] Extrasolar

Rendering of a hypothetical large extrasolar moon with surface liquid-water oceans

Some planets and natural satellites outside the Solar System
Solar System
are likely to have oceans, including possible water ocean planets similar to Earth
Earth
in the habitable zone or "liquid-water belt". The detection of oceans, even through the spectroscopy method, however is likely extremely difficult and inconclusive. Theoretical models have been used to predict with high probability that GJ 1214 b, detected by transit, is composed of exotic form of ice VII, making up 75% of its mass,[70] making it an ocean planet. Other possible candidates are merely speculated based on their mass and position in the habitable zone include planet though little is actually known of their composition. Some scientists speculate Kepler-22b
Kepler-22b
may be an "ocean-like" planet.[71] Models have been proposed for Gliese 581 d
Gliese 581 d
that could include surface oceans. Gliese 436 b is speculated to have an ocean of "hot ice".[72] Exomoons orbiting planets, particularly gas giants within their parent star's habitable zone may theoretically have surface oceans. Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean. There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so "super- Earth
Earth
exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact."[73] Non-water surface liquids Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out.[74] There is evidence that the icy surfaces of the moons Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Titan and Enceladus
Enceladus
are shells floating on oceans of very dense liquid water or water–ammonia.[75][76][77][78][79] Earth
Earth
is often called the ocean planet because it is 70% covered in water.[80][81] Extrasolar terrestrial planets that are extremely close to their parent star will be tidally locked and so one half of the planet will be a magma ocean.[82] It is also possible that terrestrial planets had magma oceans at some point during their formation as a result of giant impacts.[83] Hot Neptunes close to their star could lose their atmospheres via hydrodynamic escape, leaving behind their cores with various liquids on the surface.[84] Where there are suitable temperatures and pressures, volatile chemicals that might exist as liquids in abundant quantities on planets include ammonia, argon, carbon disulfide, ethane, hydrazine, hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, neon, nitrogen, nitric oxide, phosphine, silane, sulfuric acid, and water.[85] Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids. Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune, it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.[86] The gaseous outer layers of Jupiter and Saturn
Saturn
transition smoothly into oceans of supercritical hydrogen.[87][88] The atmosphere of Venus
Venus
is 96.5% carbon dioxide, which is a supercritical fluid at its surface. See also

Oceans portal Ecology
Ecology
portal Environment portal Geography
Geography
portal Weather
Weather
portal

Biosalinity Blue carbon Brackish water Effects of global warming on oceans European Atlas of the Seas Four Seas International Maritime Organization List of bodies of water by salinity List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System List of oceans with alternative names List of seas Marine debris Marine pollution Ocean
Ocean
acidification Ocean
Ocean
current Ocean
Ocean
general circulation model Ocean
Ocean
governance Ocean
Ocean
rowing Oceanography Oceans (film) Ogyges Pelagic zone Physical oceanography Polar seas Saline water Salinity Sea Sea
Sea
ice Sea
Sea
in culture Sea
Sea
level and sea level rise Sea
Sea
salt Sea
Sea
state Seawater Seven Seas United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Water Water
Water
distribution on Earth Wind
Wind
wave World Ocean
World Ocean
Atlas World
World
Oceans Day

On other bodies:

Extraterrestrial liquid water Ocean
Ocean
planet Ice
Ice
planet

References

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NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
– Ocean". Noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ Qadri, Syed (2003). "Volume of Earth's Oceans". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  ^ Charette, Matthew; Smith, Walter H. F. (2010). "The volume of Earth's ocean". Oceanography. 23 (2): 112–114. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.51. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Volumes of the World's Oceans from ETOPO1". NOAA. Archived from the original on 2015-03-11. Retrieved 2015-03-07. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Drogin, Bob (August 2, 2009). "Mapping an ocean of species". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, 2009.  ^ "Titan Likely To Have Huge Underground Ocean
Ocean
Mind Blowing Science". Mindblowingscience.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ a b "Ocean-bearing Planets: Looking For Extraterrestrial Life
Life
In All The Right Places". Sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ Ὠκεανός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project ^ Matasović, Ranko, A Reader in Comparative Indo-European Religion Zagreb: Univ of Zagreb, 2016. p. 20. ^ "Ocean". Sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.  ^ a b ""Distribution of land and water on the planet". UN Atlas of the Oceans. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.  External link in work= (help) ^ Spilhaus, Athelstan F. (July 1942). "Maps of the whole world ocean". Geographical Review. American Geographical Society. 32 (3): 431–5. doi:10.2307/210385. JSTOR 210385.  ^ "CIA World
World
Factbook". CIA. Retrieved 2015-04-05.  ^ a b "Pacific Ocean". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 2015-03-07.  ^ a b "Atlantic Ocean". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 2015-03-07.  ^ a b "Indian Ocean". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 2015-03-07.  ^ a b "Southern Ocean". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 2015-03-10.  ^ a b "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ a b Tomczak, Matthias; Godfrey, J. Stuart (2003). Regional Oceanography: an Introduction (2 ed.). Delhi: Daya Publishing House. ISBN 81-7035-306-8.  ^ a b "' Arctic
Arctic
Ocean' – Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 2012-07-02. As an approximation, the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
may be regarded as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.  ^ a b " Arctic
Arctic
Ocean". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 2015-03-07.  ^ a b "Recommendation ITU-R RS.1624: Sharing between the Earth exploration-satellite (passive) and airborne altimeters in the aeronautical radionavigation service in the band 4 200–4 400 MHz (Question ITU-R 229/7)" (PDF). ITU Radiotelecommunication Sector (ITU-R). Retrieved 2015-04-05. The oceans occupy about 3.35×108 km2 of area. There are 377412 km of oceanic coastlines in the world.  ^ "What is the longest mountain range on earth?". Ocean
Ocean
Facts. NOAA. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ "Scientists map Mariana Trench, deepest known section of ocean in the world". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2012.  ^ Drazen, Jeffrey C. "Deep- Sea
Sea
Fishes". School of Ocean
Ocean
and Earth Science and Technology, the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  ^ Coble, Paula G. (2007). "Marine Optical Biogeochemistry:  The Chemistry of Ocean
Ocean
Color". Chemical Reviews. 107: 402–418. doi:10.1021/cr050350.  ^ Britt, Robert Roy (October 4, 2005). "Mystery Ocean
Ocean
Glow Confirmed in Satellite Photos".  ^ Holladay, April (November 21, 2005). "A glowing sea, courtesy of algae". USA Today.  ^ "Sea's eerie glow seen from space". New Scientist. October 5, 2005.  ^ Casey, Amy (August 8, 2003). "The Incredible Glowing Algae". NASA Earth
Earth
Observatory. NASA.  ^ Étude de la dérive à la surface sous l’effet du vent, Observation and estimation of Lagrangian, Stokes and Eulerian currents induced by wind and waves at the sea surface, F. Ardhuin, L. Marié, N. Rascle, P. Forget, and A. Roland, 2009: J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 39, n° 11, pp. 2820–2838. ^ Mesure de l’effet de frottement à la surface de la mer, "Tangential stress beneath wind-driven air-water interfaces", M. L. Banner and W. L. Peirson, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 364, pp. 115–145, 1998. ^ Courants mesurés près de la surface, The drift current from observations made on the bouee laboratoire, Joseph Gonella, 1971: Cahiers Océanographiques, vol. 23, pp. 1–15. ^ Seager, R. (2006). "The Source of Europe's Mild Climate". American Scientist. 94 (4): 334. doi:10.1511/2006.60.999.  ^ Rhines; Hakkinen (2003). "Is the Oceanic Heat Transport in the North Atlantic Irrelevant to the Climate
Climate
in Europe?" (PDF). ASOF Newsletter.  ^ "Chapter 34: The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environment". Biology: Concepts & Connections. section 34.7.  ^ "Dissolved Gases other than Carbon Dioxide in Seawater" (PDF). soest.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ "Dissolved Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide" (PDF). chem.uiuc.edu.  ^ Anthoni, Floor. "Composition of seawater". Seafriends.org.nz. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ "12.742. Marine Chemistry. Lecture 8. Dissolved Gases and Air-sea exchange" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ "5.6 Synthesis – AR4 WGI Chapter 5: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea
Sea
Level". Ipcc.ch. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ " Evaporation
Evaporation
minus precipitation, Latitude-Longitude, Annual mean". ERA-40 Atlas. ECMWF. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02.  ^ Barry, Roger Graham; Chorley, Richard J. (2003). "Atmosphere, Weather, and Climate". [Routledge]. p. 68.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ " Ocean
Ocean
Stratification". Eesc.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ Huang, Rui Xin (2010). " Ocean
Ocean
Circulation: Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Processes". [Cambridge University Press].  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Deser, C.; Alexander, M. A.; Xie, S. P.; Phillips, A. S. (2010). " Sea
Sea
Surface Temperature Variability: Patterns and Mechanisms" (PDF). Annual Review of Marine Science. 2: 115–43. Bibcode:2010ARMS....2..115D. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-120408-151453. PMID 21141660. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-14.  ^ "Chapter 6 – Temperature, Salinity, and Density – Geographical Distribution of Surface Temperature and Salinity". Introduction to Physical Oceanography :. Oceanworld.tamu.edu. 2009-03-23. Retrieved 2014-05-05.  ^ "Calculation of residence times in seawater of some important solutes" (PDF). gly.uga.edu.  ^ Chester, Roy; Jickells, Tim (2012). Marine Geochemistry. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 225–230. ISBN 978-1-118-34907-6.  ^ a b c Chester, Roy; Jickells, Tim (2012). Marine Geochemistry. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-118-34907-6.  ^ Zacharias, Mark (2014-03-14). Marine Policy: An Introduction to Governance and International Law of the Oceans. Routledge. ISBN 9781136212475.  ^ a b Platt, Jane; Bell, Brian (2014-04-03). " NASA
NASA
Space Assets Detect Ocean
Ocean
inside Saturn
Saturn
Moon". NASA. Retrieved 2014-04-03.  ^ Iess, L.; Stevenson, D.J.; Parisi, M.; Hemingway, D.; et al. (4 April 2014). "The Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Enceladus". Science. 344 (6179): 78–80. Bibcode:2014Sci...344...78I. doi:10.1126/science.1250551. PMID 24700854. Retrieved 3 April 2014.  ^ Dyches, Preston; Chou, Felcia (7 April 2015). "The Solar System
Solar System
and Beyond is Awash in Water". NASA. Retrieved 8 April 2015.  ^ Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Ingersoll, Andrew P. (2007). "Liquid water oceans in ice giants". Icarus. 186 (2): 436–447. arXiv:astro-ph/0609723 . Bibcode:2007Icar..186..436W. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.003. ISSN 0019-1035.  ^ Silvera, Isaac (2010). "Diamond: Molten under pressure". Nature Physics. 6 (1): 9–10. Bibcode:2010NatPh...6....9S. doi:10.1038/nphys1491. ISSN 1745-2473.  ^ Clavin, Whitney (May 1, 2014). "Ganymede May Harbor 'Club Sandwich' of Oceans and Ice". NASA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2014-05-01.  ^ Vance, Steve; Bouffard, Mathieu; Choukroun, Mathieu; Sotina, Christophe (12 April 2014). "Ganymede's internal structure including thermodynamics of magnesium sulfate oceans in contact with ice". Planetary and Space Science. 96: 62–70. Bibcode:2014P&SS...96...62V. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2014.03.011. Retrieved 2014-05-02.  ^ McKinnon, William B.; Kirk, Randolph L. (2007). "Triton". In Lucy Ann Adams McFadden; Lucy-Ann Adams; Paul Robert Weissman; Torrence V. Johnson. Encyclopedia of the Solar System
Solar System
(2nd ed.). Amsterdam; Boston: Academic Press. pp. 483–502. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3.  ^ Ruiz, Javier (December 2003). "Heat flow and depth to a possible internal ocean on Triton". Icarus. 166 (2): 436–439. Bibcode:2003Icar..166..436R. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.09.009.  ^ a b Hussmann, Hauke; Sohl, Frank; Spohn, Tilman (November 2006). "Subsurface oceans and deep interiors of medium-sized outer planet satellites and large trans-neptunian objects" (PDF). Icarus. 185 (1): 258–273. Bibcode:2006Icar..185..258H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.005.  ^ McCord, Thomas B. (2005). "Ceres: Evolution
Evolution
and current state". Journal of Geophysical Research. 110 (E5): E05009. Bibcode:2005JGRE..11005009M. doi:10.1029/2004JE002244.  ^ Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; McCord, T. B.; Davis, A. G. (2007). "Ceres: evolution and present state" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Science. XXXVIII: 2006–2007. Retrieved 2009-06-25.  ^ "The Inside Story". pluto.jhuapl.edu — NASA
NASA
New Horizons mission site. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2013.  ^ Aguilar, David A. (2009-12-16). "Astronomers Find Super- Earth
Earth
Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 23, 2010.  ^ Mendez Torres, Abel (2011-12-08). "Updates on Exoplanets during the First Kepler Science Conference". Planetary Habitability Laboratory at UPR Arecibo.  ^ Fox, Maggie (May 16, 2007). "Hot "ice" may cover recently discovered planet". Reuters. Retrieved May 18, 2012.  ^ Elkins-Tanton (2010). "Formation of Early Water
Water
Oceans on Rocky Planets". Astrophysics and Space Science. 332 (2): 359–364. arXiv:1011.2710 . Bibcode:2011Ap&SS.332..359E. doi:10.1007/s10509-010-0535-3.  ^ McKinnon, William B.; Kirk, Randolph L. (2007). "Triton". In Lucy Ann Adams McFadden; Lucy-Ann Adams; Paul Robert Weissman; Torrence V. Johnson. Encyclopedia of the Solar System
Solar System
(2nd ed.). Amsterdam; Boston: Academic Press. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3.  ^ Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Matson, D.; et al. (2008). "American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008, abstract #P21A-1346". American Geophysical Union. 21: 1346. Bibcode:2008AGUFM.P21A1346C. the Titan system, rich in organics, containing a vast subsurface ocean of liquid water  contribution= ignored (help) ^ Nimmo, F.; Bills, B. G. (2010). "Shell thickness variations and the long-wavelength topography of Titan". Icarus. 208 (2): 896–904. Bibcode:2010Icar..208..896N. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.02.020. observations can be explained if Titan has a floating, isostatically-compensated ice shell  ^ Goldreich, Peter M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L. (2010). "Elastic ice shells of synchronous moons: Implications for cracks on Europa and non-synchronous rotation of Titan". Icarus. 209 (2): 631–638. arXiv:0910.0032 . Bibcode:2010Icar..209..631G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.04.013. A number of synchronous moons are thought to harbor water oceans beneath their outer ice shells. A subsurface ocean frictionally decouples the shell from the interior  ^ "Study of the ice shells and possible subsurface oceans of the Galilean satellites using laser altimeters on board the Europa and Ganymede orbiters JEO and JGO" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-14.  ^ "Tidal heating and the long-term stability of a subsurface ocean on Enceladus" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-14.  ^ Hinrichsen, D (2011-10-03). "The ocean planet". People Planet. 7 (2): 6–9. PMID 12349465.  ^ "Irrigating Crops with Seawater". Scientific American. August 1998.  ^ Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce, Jr. (2009). "Chemistry of Silicate Atmospheres of Evaporating Super-Earths". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 703 (2): L113–L117. arXiv:0906.1204 . Bibcode:2009ApJ...703L.113S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/703/2/L113.  ^ Solomatov, V. S. (2000). "Fluid Dynamics of a Terrestrial Magma Ocean" (PDF).  ^ Leitner, J.J.; Lammer, H.; Odert, P.; Leitzinger, M.; et al. (2009). "Atmospheric Loss of Sub-Neptune's and Implications for Liquid Phases of Different Solvents on Their Surfaces" (PDF). EPSC Abstracts. 4. EPSC2009-542.  ^ Tables 3 and 4 in Bains, William (2004). "Many Chemistries Could Be Used to Build Living Systems" (PDF). Astrobiology.  ^ Atreya, S.; Egeler, P.; Baines, K. (2006). "Water-ammonia ionic ocean on Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune?" (PDF). Geophysical Research Abstracts. 8: 05179. Bibcode:2005AGUFM.P11A0088A.  ^ Guillot, T. (1999). "A comparison of the interiors of Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn". Planetary and Space Science. 47 (10–11): 1183–200. arXiv:astro-ph/9907402 . Bibcode:1999P&SS...47.1183G. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00043-4.  ^ Lang, Kenneth R. (2003). "Jupiter: a giant primitive planet". NASA. Retrieved 2007-01-10. 

Further reading

Matthias Tomczak and J. Stuart Godfrey. 2003. Regional Oceanography: an Introduction. (see the site) Pope, F. 2009. From eternal darkness springs cast of angels and jellied jewels. in The Times. November 23. 2009 pp. 16–17.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ocean.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Oceans

Look up ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Oceans at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Smithsonian Ocean
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Portal NOAA
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
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– Ocean Ocean :: Science Daily Ocean-bearing Planets: Looking For Extraterrestrial Life
Life
In All The Right Places Titan Likely To Have Huge Underground Ocean
Ocean
Mind Blowing Science Origins of the oceans and continents". UN Atlas of the Oceans.

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay
Bay
of Biscay Bay
Bay
of Bothnia Bay
Bay
of Campeche Bay
Bay
of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay
Bay
of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

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Physical oceanography

Waves

Airy wave theory Ballantine scale Benjamin–Feir instability Boussinesq approximation Breaking wave Clapotis Cnoidal wave Cross sea Dispersion Edge wave Equatorial waves Fetch Gravity wave Green's law Infragravity wave Internal wave Iribarren number Kelvin wave Kinematic wave Longshore drift Luke's variational principle Mild-slope equation Radiation stress Rogue wave Rossby wave Rossby-gravity waves Sea
Sea
state Seiche Significant wave height Soliton Stokes boundary layer Stokes drift Stokes wave Swell Trochoidal wave Tsunami

megatsunami

Undertow Ursell number Wave
Wave
action Wave
Wave
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Wave
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Wave
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one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations shallow water equations

Wind
Wind
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model

Circulation

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shutdown

Upwelling Whirlpool World Ocean
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Tides

Amphidromic point Earth
Earth
tide Head of tide Internal tide Lunitidal interval Perigean spring tide Rip tide Rule of twelfths Slack water Tidal bore Tidal force Tidal power Tidal race Tidal range Tidal resonance Tide
Tide
gauge Tideline

Landforms

Abyssal fan Abyssal plain Atoll Bathymetric chart Coastal geography Cold seep Continental margin Continental rise Continental shelf Contourite Guyot Hydrography Oceanic basin Oceanic plateau Oceanic trench Passive margin Seabed Seamount Submarine canyon Submarine volcano

Plate tectonics

Convergent boundary Divergent boundary Fracture zone Hydrothermal vent Marine geology Mid-ocean ridge Mohorovičić discontinuity Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis Oceanic crust Outer trench swell Ridge push Seafloor spreading Slab pull Slab suction Slab window Subduction Transform fault Volcanic arc

Ocean
Ocean
zones

Benthic Deep ocean water Deep sea Littoral Mesopelagic Oceanic Pelagic Photic Surf Swash

Sea
Sea
level

Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis Future sea level Global Sea
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Level Observing System North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System Sea-level curve Sea
Sea
level rise World
World
Geodetic System

Acoustics

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Ocean
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Satellites

Jason-1 Jason-2 ( Ocean
Ocean
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Regions of the world

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea
Sea
of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River
River
Delta Pearl River
River
Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait
Strait
of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay
Bay
of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River
River
Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait
Strait
of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay
Bay
de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay
Bay
(San Francisco Bay
Bay
Area) East Bay
Bay
(San Francisco Bay
Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River
River
Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River
River
Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River
River
Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River
River
Delta Columbia River
River
Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River
River
Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay
Bay
of Biscay Bay
Bay
of Bothnia Bay
Bay
of Campeche Bay
Bay
of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay
Bay
of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Bo

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