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OBEAH (sometimes spelled Obi, Obeah, or Obia) is a term used by the Igbo tribe
Igbo tribe
in Nigeria
Nigeria
and in the West Indies
West Indies
to refer to sorcery and religious practices developed among enslaved West Africans of Igbo origin. Obeah
Obeah
is similar to other Afro-American religions such as Palo , Haitian Vodou
Haitian Vodou
, Santería
Santería
, and Hoodoo . Obeah
Obeah
is practiced in The Bahamas
The Bahamas
, Barbados
Barbados
, Belize
Belize
, Dominica
Dominica
, Guyana
Guyana
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
, Suriname
Suriname
, Trinidad and Tobago , The Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands
, Caribbean
Caribbean
nations. and predominantly by the Igbo people
Igbo people
of Nigeria.

Obeah
Obeah
is associated with both benign and malignant magic and with charms , luck, and with mysticism in general. In some Caribbean nations, Obeah
Obeah
refers to folk religions of the African diaspora
African diaspora
. In some cases, aspects of these folk religions have survived through syncretism with Christian symbolism
Christian symbolism
and practice introduced by European colonials and slave owners. Casual observation may conclude that Christian symbolism
Christian symbolism
is incorporated into Obeah
Obeah
worship, but in fact may represent clandestine worship and religious protest.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 History * 3 Obeah
Obeah
in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
* 4 Obeah
Obeah
in literature * 5 Obeah
Obeah
in popular culture * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links

ORIGINS

In parts of the Caribbean
Caribbean
where Obeah
Obeah
developed, slaves were taken from a variety of African nations with differing spiritual practices and religions . It is from these arrivals and their spiritualisms that Obeah
Obeah
originates. The hypothesis of origin that is most accepted and is supported by the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute database traces Obeah to the Dibia or Obia (Igbo : doctoring) traditions of the Igbo people . Specialists in Obia (also spelled Obea) were known as Ndi Obia (Igbo : Obia people) and practised the same activities as the Obeah men and women of the Caribbean
Caribbean
like predicting the future and manufacturing charms. Among the Igbo there were oracles known as Obiạ which were said to be able to talk. Parts of the Caribbean where Obeah
Obeah
was most active imported a large number of its slaves from the Igbo-dominated Bight of Biafra .

In another hypothesis, the Efik language is the root of Obeah
Obeah
where the word obeah comes from the Efik ubio meaning 'a bad omen'. The last hypothesis of the origin of Obeah
Obeah
lies with the Ashanti who called their priests Obayifoɔ and their practices Ɔbayi (pronounced "oh-beh-ee", the word was an anglicized distortion like many other Akan words, e.g., "bɛsɛ" becoming "bissy", thus the pronunciation of "obeah") (Akan : witchcraft). There is also evidence of Akan names among Obeah
Obeah
men of the Caribbean
Caribbean
in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Akan origin of Obeah
Obeah
has been criticised by several writers who hold that an Igbo origin is more likely. However, in colonies where Bight of Biafra slaves were less represented and Akan were plenty (Suriname and Guyana), Obeah
Obeah
is thought to be more of a mixture of Akan and European Christian beliefs. According to Edward Long a slave-master and historian, the Akan culture dominated Jamaica
Jamaica
and even other newly arrived enslaved Africans had to conform to it and that only Akan gods and customs were observed, because Akan people were the majority of the slave population on the island. The first time in Jamaican history the term "obeah" was used was to refer to Nanny of the Maroons an Ashanti-Akan queen as an old 'witch', to slander her because of her defeating the British.

Obeah
Obeah
came to mean any physical object, such as a talisman or charm, that was used for evil magical purposes. Referred to as an Obeah-item (for e.g. an 'obeah ring' or an 'obeah-stick', etc. translated as: ring used for witchcraft or stick used for witchcraft respectively) Obeah
Obeah
incorporated various beliefs from the religions of later migrants to the colonies where it was present. Obeah
Obeah
also influenced other religions in the Caribbean, e.g. Christianity
Christianity
which incorporated some Obeah
Obeah
beliefs.

HISTORY

Obeah
Obeah
figure confiscated from a black man named Alexander Ellis on his arrest in suspicion of practicing as an 'obeah-man' in Morant Bay , Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1887.

The term 'obeah' is first found in documents from the early 18th century, as in its connection to Nanny of the Maroons , but discussion of it becomes more frequent when it was made illegal in Jamaica
Jamaica
after Tacky\'s War , in which an obeahman provided advice to the rebels.

In 1787 a letter to an English newspaper referred to "Obiu-women" interpreting the wishes of the dead at the funeral of a murdered slave in Jamaica: a footnote explained the term as meaning "Wise-women".

A continuing source of white anxiety related to Obeah
Obeah
was the belief that practitioners were skilled in using poisons, as mentioned in Matthew Lewis 's Journal of a West India Proprietor. An anti- Obeah
Obeah
law passed in Barbados
Barbados
in 1818 specifically forbade the possession of "any poison, or any noxious or destructive substance". A doctor who examined the medicine chest of an Obeah
Obeah
man arrested in Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1866 identified white arsenic as one of the powders in it, but could not identify the others. The unnamed correspondent reporting this affirmed "The Jamaica
Jamaica
herbal is an extensive one, and comprises some highly poisonous juices, of which the Obeah
Obeah
men have a perfect knowledge."

During the mid 19th century the appearance of a comet in the sky became the focal point of an outbreak of religious fanatical millennialism among the Myal men of Jamaica. Spiritualism was at that time sweeping the English-speaking nations as well, and it readily appealed to those in the Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
diaspora, as spirit contact, especially with the dead, is an essential part of many African religions.

During the conflict between Myal and Obeah, the Myal men positioned themselves as the "good" opponents to "evil" Obeah. They claimed that Obeah
Obeah
men stole people's shadows, and they set themselves up as the helpers of those who wished to have their shadows restored. Myal men contacted spirits in order to expose the evil works they ascribed to the Obeah
Obeah
men, and led public parades which resulted in crowd-hysteria that engendered violent antagonism against Obeah
Obeah
men. The public "discovery" of buried Obeah
Obeah
charms, presumed to be of evil intent, led on more than one occasion to violence against the rival Obeah
Obeah
men.

Laws were passed that limited both Obeah
Obeah
and Myal traditions.

OBEAH IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

One aspect of Obeah
Obeah
that is familiar to Trinidad and Tobago, though not all other nations where Obeah
Obeah
is practiced, is the Moko-Jumbie , or stilt dancer. Moko was a common word for Ibibio slaves. In the Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Obeah
Obeah
tradition. A Douen is a child who has died before being baptized, and is said to be forced to forever walk the earth at night in English-speaking regions of the Caribbean. Jewelry is made from deadly toxic red and black seeds called jumbies, jumbie eyes or jumbie beads (seeds of Abrus precatorius
Abrus precatorius
containing the lethal AB toxin abrin ) in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and South America. By contrast, the moko-jumbie of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
is brightly colored, dances in the daylight, and is very much alive. The moko-jumbie also represents the flip side of spiritual darkness, as stilt-dancing is most popular around holy days and Carnival
Carnival
.

OBEAH IN LITERATURE

Although 18th-century literature mentions Obeah
Obeah
often, one of the earliest references to Obeah
Obeah
in fiction can be found in 1800, in William Earle's novel Obi; or, The History of Three-Finger'd Jack, a narrative inspired by true events that was also reinterpreted in several dramatic versions on the London stage in 1800 and following. One of the next major books about Obeah
Obeah
was Hamel, the Obeah
Obeah
Man (1827). Several early plantation novels also include Obeah
Obeah
plots. In Marryat 's novel Poor Jack (1840) a rich young plantation-owner ridicules superstitions held by English sailors but himself believes in Obeah.

The 20th century saw less actual Obeah
Obeah
in open practice, yet it still appears quite often in fiction and drama. The following is only a partial list:

* Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley
, a controversial English mystic declared the Book of the Law
Book of the Law
was dictated to him in 1904 by a non-physical being. Ch 1 verse 37 reads: "Also the mantras and spells; the obeah and the wanga ; the work of the wand and the work of the sword; these shall he learn and teach" * Henry S. Whitehead
Henry S. Whitehead
, who lived for some time on St Croix
St Croix
in the Caribbean, published his supernatural tale "The Jumbee" in Weird Tales (1926). The story lent its title to his collection Jumbee and Other Uncanny Tales (1944). * Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston
researched and wrote widely on the subject, including essays, drama, and the novel Jonah\'s Gourd Vine . * The former slave, Christophine, in Jean Rhys
Jean Rhys
's novel Wide Sargasso Sea is a practitioner of Obeah. * Solitaire, the female lead in the James Bond
James Bond
novel Live and Let Die , is said to have "the power of the Obeah." * An Obeah
Obeah
woman is a sort of matchmaker in Earl Lovelace 's novel Salt
Salt
. * Ma Kilman in Derek Walcott
Derek Walcott
's epic poem " Omeros
Omeros
" is a healer who uses Obeah. * In the novels and memoirs of Jamaica
Jamaica
Kincaid there are several passages that mention Obeah. * There are frequent references to Obeah
Obeah
in The Suffrage of Elvira written by V S Naipaul * A central character in Unburnable is reputed to be an Obeah
Obeah
woman. * The protagonist of the novel Brown Girl in the Ring by Nalo Hopkinson is an Obeah-woman in training, learning from her grandmother. She uses her abilities to defeat an evil Obeah-man and his duppy . * Obeah
Obeah
is heavily referenced in Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child 's novel Cemetery Dance . * A main character in the 2009 YA novel Three Witches by Paula Jolin (Roaring Brook/MacMillan)is a native of Trinidad and attempts to use Obeah
Obeah
to raise a dead classmate. * Several characters in the book "The Book of Night Women" by Marlon James are said to practice Obeah, and it is a focal point at a number of points in the novel. * Shadowcatcher, the antagonist in the Nicholas Da Silva graphic novel series Dread & Alive (novel) , is an Obeah-man who uses Obeah
Obeah
to regain the prized amulet taken away from him by his brother, Cudjoe, the Myalman of the Jamaican Maroons." * Robert Louis Stevenson Jamieson and his brother Arthur Conan Doyle Jamieson are both practicing Obeah
Obeah
in the Necroscope: the lost Years Novel from Brian Lumley . * Obeah
Obeah
figures in prominently in The Lazarus Curse (Dr. Thomas Silkstone #4) by Tessa Harris. The story centers around Jamaican slaves in 18th century England and the Obeah-men and their spells/talismans. * Marie-Magdeleine Carbet, Martinique
Martinique
's most prolific woman writer, wrote a short story, "Obeah," now republished in English translation (along with the original French) by Michigan State UP as "Obeah" and Other Martinican Stories.

OBEAH IN POPULAR CULTURE

* In the films Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man\'s Chest , and its sequel, Pirates of the Caribbean: At World\'s End , the character of Tia Dalma
Tia Dalma
is called an " Obeah
Obeah
woman" and has (among other skills) the power to restore life. * In the action thriller Marked for Death
Marked for Death
, obeah plays a major role in the plot. * The 1953 film City Beneath the Sea , taking place in Jamaica, includes Obeah
Obeah
rituals and references to Obeah
Obeah
people. * Captain Beefheart
Captain Beefheart
composed and recorded a song called " Obeah
Obeah
Man" in 1966, but it went unreleased until included in the 1999 box set "Grow Fins: Rarities 1965–1982" . He also used the phrase "obi-man" in the song "Golden Birdies" on his album Clear Spot. * The famous Grenadian-Trinidadian calypsonian The Mighty Sparrow sings a song entitled " Obeah
Obeah
Wedding". * Bahamian singer Exuma recorded the song " Obeah
Obeah
Man", which was included on his eponymous debut album in 1970. * African American singer, pianist and civil rights activist Nina Simone took on the role of " Obeah
Obeah
Woman" in the song of the same name which she performed live on It Is Finished (1974). She used this image of a powerful African witch, who "could hug the sun, kiss the moon and eat thunder" to manifest her rage concerning the situation of African-Americans at the time. * The film Meet Joe Black
Meet Joe Black
features a Jamaican woman who calls the title character an "obeah man" (translated as "evil spirit") until she has learned that he is in fact a personification of Death
Death
. * A chutney music duo Babla ">

* ^ Williams, Joseph John S.J. . Voodoos and Obeahs: Phases of West Indian Witchcraft (1932). Publisher: Lincoln MacVeagh, Dial Press, Inc., New York. Chapter "Origin of Obeah." * ^ Deane, John Bathurst , The Worship of the Serpent (1883), p.163. * ^ Heffernan, Andrew. "Obeah, Christianity, and Jamaica". * ^ "obeah (religious cult) - Memidex dictionary/thesaurus". www.memidex.com. Retrieved 2017-02-25. * ^ "The Igbo People - Origins & History". www.faculty.ucr.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-21. * ^ A B Eltis, David; Richardson, David (1997). Routes to slavery: direction, ethnicity, and mortality in the transatlantic slave trade. Routledge
Routledge
. p. 88. ISBN 0-7146-4820-5 . * ^ Payne-Jackson, Arvilla (2004). Jamaican Folk Medicine: A Source of Healing. University of the West Indies
West Indies
Press. ISBN 9766401233 . * ^ A B Incayawar, Mario; Wintrob, Ronald; Bouchard, Lise; Bartocci, Goffredo (2009). Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health. John Wiley and Sons
John Wiley and Sons
. p. 222. ISBN 0-470-51683-6 . * ^ Ph.D, Patrick Iroegbu. "Igbo Medicine and Culture: The Concept of Dibia and Dibia Representations in Igbo Society of Nigeria
Nigeria
- ChatAfrik". Retrieved 2017-10-04. * ^ "Dibia Odinani: The Sacred Arts & Sciences of the Igbo People". igbocybershrine.com. Retrieved 2017-10-04. * ^ System, Independent Computer. "Igbo medicine". umunumo.com. Retrieved 2017-10-04. * ^ A B C Rucker, Walter C. (2006). The river flows on: Black resistance, culture, and identity formation in early America. LSU Press . p. 40. ISBN 0-8071-3109-1 . * ^ Eltis, David; Richardson, David (1997). Routes to slavery: direction, ethnicity, and mortality in the transatlantic slave trade. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 0-7146-4820-5 . * ^ Obeah. Merriam Webster . Retrieved 2010-06-03. * ^ Chambers, Douglas B. (2009). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 14, 36. ISBN 1-60473-246-6 . * ^ Thomas, M.; Desch-Obi, J. (2008). Fighting for honor: the history of African martial art traditions in the Atlantic world. Univ of South Carolina Press. p. 58. ISBN 1-57003-718-3 . * ^ McCall, John Christensen (2000). Dancing histories: heuristic ethnography with the Ohafia Igbo. University of Michigan Press . p. 148. ISBN 0-472-11070-5 . * ^ Metcalf, Allan A. (1999). The world in so many words: a country-by-country tour of words that have shaped our language. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 78. ISBN 0-395-95920-9 . * ^ Chambers, Douglas B. (2009). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 263. ISBN 1-60473-246-6 . * ^ A B Konadu, Kwasi (2010). The Akan Diaspora in the Americas. Oxford University Press US. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-539064-4 . * ^ Long, Edward (1774). "The History of Jamaica
Jamaica
Or, A General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island: With Reflexions on Its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Products, Commerce, Laws, and Government" (google). 2 (3/4): 445–475. * ^ Mendez, Serafin; Cueto, Gail; Deynes, Neysa Rodríguez (2003). Notable Caribbeans and Caribbean
Caribbean
Americans: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0313314438 . * ^ Delbourgo, James. "Gardens of life and death". British Society for the History of Science: 3. Retrieved 2010-07-06. * ^ Folklore. IV. Folklore Society of Great Britain. 1893. pp. 211–212. * ^ BECARA, i. e. White Man. "To the Editor of the Universal Register." Times 23 Nov. 1787: 1. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 7 June 2012. * ^ "Colonial Intelligence." Times 5 Dec. 1818: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 7 June 2012. * ^ OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. "The Outbreak In Jamaica." Times 2 Apr. 1866: 10. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 11 June 2012 * ^ "The Obeah
Obeah
men are hired to revenge some man's wrong, while Myal men profess to undo the work of Obeah
Obeah
men and to cure those subject to Obeah
Obeah
alarms." OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. "The Outbreak In Jamaica." Times 2 Apr. 1866: 10. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 7 June 2012. * ^ In 1818 The Times reported the passing of an act by the House of Assembly in Barbados
Barbados
against the practice of Obeah, which carried the penalty of death or transportation for those convicted. "Colonial Intelligence." Times 5 Dec. 1818: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 7 June 2012. * ^ Obi * ^ Described as a 'curly-headed Creole', possibly intended to be mixed-race. F. Marryat, Poor Jack, Chapter XLI. * ^ Lewis Spence, An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, Kosimo 2006/University Books 1920, p. 315

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