Obazoa (Brown, 2013) is a proposed sister clade of Amoebozoa (which combined form Amorphea). Obazoa is composed of Breviata, Apusomonadida and Opisthokonta, and specifically excludes the Amoebozoa. Determining the placement of Breviata and Apusomonadida and their properties is of interest for the development of the Opisthokonts in which the main lineages of Animals and Fungi emerged.[1] While originally Breviata was seen as more basal than Apusomonadida, Breviata and Apusomonadida are found to be direct sisters (with 100% bootstrap support), forming a basal clade Apusozoa as sister of the Opisthokonta.[2][3][4][5] In some recent research, Obazoa is not seen as a clade.[6]


  1. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Sharpe, Susan C.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Lang, B. Franz; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Roger, Andrew J. (2013-10-22). "Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131755. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1755. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3768317Freely accessible. PMID 23986111. 
  2. ^ Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C.; Brown, Matthew W.; Roger, Andrew J. (2014-08-01). "On the Age of Eukaryotes: Evaluating Evidence from Fossils and Molecular Clocks". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (8): a016139. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016139. ISSN 1943-0264. PMID 25085908. 
  3. ^ Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M. (2015-06-11). "Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms". PLOS ONE. 10 (6): e0130114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130114. ISSN 1932-6203. 
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Chao, Ema; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Berney, Cédric; Snell, Elizabeth A.; Lewis, Rhodri (2015-02-01). "Multigene phylogeny resolves deep branching of Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 83: 293–304. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.011. 
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (2009). "Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x. PMID 19340985. 
  6. ^ Orr, Russell J. S.; Zhao, Sen; Klaveness, Dag; Yabuki, Akinori; Ikeda, Keiji; Makoto, Watanabe M.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran (2017-10-08). "Enigmatic Diphyllatea eukaryotes: Culturing and targeted PacBio RS amplicon sequencing reveals a higher order taxonomic diversity and global distribution". bioRxiv 199125Freely accessible. 
  7. ^ Phylogeny based on: