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See List of Quercus species

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜːrkəs/;[1] Latin
Latin
"oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta
Grevillea robusta
(silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae
Casuarinaceae
(she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America
North America
contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico
Mexico
has 160 species of which 109 are endemic. The second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains approximately 100 species.[2] Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species; some have serrated leaves or entire leaves with smooth margins. Many deciduous species are marcescent, not dropping dead leaves until spring. In spring, a single oak tree produces both male flowers (in the form of catkins) and small female flowers.[3] The fruit is a nut called an acorn or oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule; each acorn contains one seed (rarely two or three) and takes 6–18 months to mature, depending on their species. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid,[4] which helps to guard from fungi and insects.[5] The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not actually a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus.

Contents

1 Classification

1.1 Genus
Genus
Quercus 1.2 Genus
Genus
Cyclobalanopsis

2 Hybridization 3 Uses 4 Biodiversity and ecology 5 Genetics 6 Diseases and pests 7 Toxicity 8 Cultural significance

8.1 National symbol

8.1.1 Oaks as regional and state symbols 8.1.2 Political use

8.2 Religious 8.3 Historical 8.4 Famous oak trees

9 Historical note on Linnaean species 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Classification The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera (sometimes referred to as subgenera) and a number of sections: Genus
Genus
Quercus

Oak
Oak
at Schönderling

See also: List of Quercus species The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections:

Sect. Quercus (synonyms Lepidobalanus and Leucobalanus), the white oaks of Europe, Asia
Asia
and North America. Styles are short; acorns mature in 6 months and taste sweet or slightly bitter; the inside of an acorn shell is hairless. The leaves mostly lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are usually rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe
Europe
and Asia. Styles long; acorns mature in about 6 months and taste bitter; the inside of this acorn's shell is hairless. The section Mesobalanus is closely related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe
Europe
and Asia. Styles long; acorn mature in 18 months and taste very bitter. The inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States
United States
and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste very bitter. The inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. Leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae (synonym Erythrobalanus), the red oaks of North America, Central America
Central America
and northern South America. Styles long; acorns mature in 18 months and taste very bitter. The inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, clinging, papery skin. Leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe.

Genus
Genus
Cyclobalanopsis

Old oak tree on the shore of Lake Koluvere, Estonia.

The ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen
Evergreen
trees growing 10–40 m (33–131 ft) tall. They are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales; they commonly also have densely clustered acorns, though this does not apply to all of the species. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
and Flora of China
Flora of China
treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus. It contains about 150 species. Species
Species
of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, and Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis
Castanopsis
and the laurel family (Lauraceae).

Hybridization

A hybrid white oak, possibly Quercus stellata
Quercus stellata
× Q. muhlenbergii

Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but usually between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus; see List of Quercus species). Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Quercus and Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section. Because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring.[6] Ecological stresses, especially near habitat margins, can also cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function (pollen quantity and quality) in one parent species.[6][7] Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world; most notably, hybridization has produced large populations of hybrids with copious amounts of introgression, and the evolution of new species.[8] Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information.[9] Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that often does not differentiate between two clearly morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.[10] Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still largely a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a very slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms,[11][12] and the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a great challenge to the concept of a species since a species is often defined as a group of “actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.”[13] By this definition, many species of Quercus would be lumped together according to their geographic and ecological habitat, despite clear distinctions in morphology and, to a large extent, genetic data. Uses

Heart of oak beams of the frame of Saint-Girons church in Monein, France

Oak
Oak
wood has a density of about 0.75 g/cm3 (0.43 oz/cu in) creating great strength and hardness. The wood is very resistant to insect and fungal attack because of its high tannin content. It also has very appealing grain markings, particularly when quartersawn. Oak
Oak
planking was common on high status Viking
Viking
longships in the 9th and 10th centuries. The wood was hewn from green logs, by axe and wedge, to produce radial planks, similar to quarter-sawn timber. Wide, quarter-sawn boards of oak have been prized since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
for use in interior panelling of prestigious buildings such as the debating chamber of the House of Commons in London
London
and in the construction of fine furniture. Oak
Oak
wood, from Quercus robur
Quercus robur
and Quercus petraea, was used in Europe
Europe
for the construction of ships, especially naval men of war,[14] until the 19th century, and was the principal timber used in the construction of European timber-framed buildings. Today oak wood is still commonly used for furniture making and flooring, timber frame buildings, and veneer production. Barrels in which wines, sherry, and spirits such as brandy, Irish whiskey, Scotch whisky
Scotch whisky
and Bourbon whiskey
Bourbon whiskey
are aged are made from European and American oak, with single barrel whiskey fetching a premium. The use of oak in wine can add many different dimensions to wine based on the type and style of the oak. Oak
Oak
barrels, which may be charred before use, contribute to the colour, taste, and aroma of the contents, imparting a desirable oaky vanillin flavour to these drinks. The great dilemma for wine producers is to choose between French and American oakwoods. French oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) give the wine greater refinement and are chosen for the best wines since they increase the price compared to those aged in American oak wood. American oak contributes greater texture and resistance to ageing, but produces more powerful wine bouquets. Oak
Oak
wood chips are used for smoking fish, meat, cheeses,[15] and other foods.

Sherry
Sherry
maturing in oak barrels

Japanese oak is used in the making of professional drums from the manufacturer Yamaha Drums. The higher density of oak gives the drum a brighter and louder tone compared to traditional drum materials such as maple and birch. In hill states of India, besides fuelwood and timber, the local people use oak wood for making agricultural implements. The leaves are used as fodder during lean period and bedding for livestock.[16][17]

A cross section of the trunk of a cork oak, Quercus suber

The bark of the cork oak is used to produce wine stoppers (corks). This species grows in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
region, with Portugal, Spain, Algeria, and Morocco
Morocco
producing most of the world's supply. Of the North American oaks, the northern red oak is one of the most prized of the red oak group for lumber, much of which is marketed as red oak regardless of the species of origin. It is not good for outdoor use due to its open capillaries unless the wood is treated. If the wood is properly treated with preservatives, it will not rot as quickly as cured white oak heartwood. The closed cell structure of white oaks prevents them from absorbing preservatives. With northern red oak, one can blow air through an end grain piece 10 inches long to make bubbles come out in a glass of water. These openings give fungus easy access when the finish deteriorates. Shumard oak, a member of the red oak subgenus, provides timber which is described as "mechanically superior" to northern red oak. Cherrybark oak
Cherrybark oak
is another type of red oak which provides excellent timber. The standard for the lumber of the white oak group – all of which is marketed as white oak – is the Quercus alba. White oak is often used to make wine barrels. The wood of the deciduous pedunculate oak and sessile oak accounts for most of the European oak production, but evergreen species, such as Holm oak
Holm oak
and cork oak also produce valuable timber. The bark of the white oak is dried and used in medical preparations. Oak bark
Oak bark
is also rich in tannin, and is used by tanners for tanning leather. Acorns are used for making flour or roasted for acorn coffee.

Oak
Oak
forest in Estonia.

Oak
Oak
on sandy earth.

Oak
Oak
forest on the beach in Njivice, Croatia

Oak
Oak
galls were used for centuries as a main ingredient in iron gall ink, a kind of manuscript ink, harvested at a specific time of year.[citation needed] In Korea, oak bark is used to make shingles for traditional roof construction. Biodiversity and ecology Oaks are keystone species in a wide range of habitats from Mediterranean semi-desert to subtropical rainforest. For example, oak trees are important components of hardwood forests, and certain species are particularly known to grow in associations with members of the Ericaceae
Ericaceae
in oak-heath forests.[18][19] A number of kinds of truffles, including the two well known varieties, the black Périgord truffle[20] and the white Piedmont truffle,[21] have symbiotic relationships with oak trees. The European pied flycatcher
European pied flycatcher
is an example of an animal species that often depends upon oak trees. Many species of oaks are under threat of extinction in the wild, largely due to land use changes, livestock grazing and unsustainable harvesting. For example, over the past 200 years, large areas of oak forest in the highlands of Mexico, Central America
Central America
and the northern Andes have been cleared for coffee plantations and cattle ranching. There is a continuing threat to these forests from exploitation for timber, fuelwood and charcoal.[22] In the USA, entire oak ecosystems have declined due to a combination of factors still imperfectly known, but thought to include fire suppression, increased consumption of acorns by growing mammal populations, herbivory of seedlings, and introduced pests.[23] In a recent survey, 78 wild oak species have been identified as being in danger of extinction, from a global total of over 500 species.[24] The proportion under threat may be much higher in reality, as there is insufficient information about over 300 species, making it near impossible to form any judgement of their status. In the Himalayan region of India, oak forests are being invaded by pine forests due to the increase in temperature. The associated species of pine forest may cross frontiers and become new elements of the oak forests.[25] In eastern North America, rare species of oak trees include scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii), and post oak (Quercus stellata).[26] The mature trees shed varying numbers of acorns annually. Scientists suggest that shedding excess numbers allows the oaks to satiate nut gathering species, improving the chances of germination. Every four to ten years, certain oak populations will synchronize to produce almost no acorns at all, only to rain them down excessively the following year, known as a "mast" year. The year preceding the mast year is thought to starve off the mammal populations feeding on the supply, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the overproduction in the mast year that follows.[27][28] This is necessary to the survival of any given oak species, as only one in 10,000 acorns results in an eventual tree.[29] Genetics Beginning November 1, 2011, a project began to sequence the entire oak genome. The goal of the project is to create a high resolution sequence of the Quercus robur
Quercus robur
genome, and to study genetic diversity by comparison of the genomes of different species.[30] Current research has compiled genomic data from many different sources and techniques to create a genome map with 89% coverage of the genome. The project is still in the process of annotating this genome.[31] Diseases and pests See also: List of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
that feed on oaks

Oak
Oak
powdery mildew on pedunculate oak

Sudden oak death
Sudden oak death
(Phytophthora ramorum) is a water mould that can kill oaks within just a few weeks. Oak
Oak
wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (a fungus closely related to Dutch elm disease), is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but generally live longer). Other dangers include wood-boring beetles, as well as root rot in older trees which may not be apparent on the outside, often being discovered only when the trees come down in a strong gale. Oak
Oak
apples are galls on oaks made by the gall wasp. The female kermes scale causes galls to grow on kermes oak. Oaks are used as food plants by the larvae of Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(butterfly and moth) species such as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, which can defoliate oak and other broadleaved tree species in North America.[32] A considerable number of galls are found on oak leaves, buds, flowers, roots, etc. Examples are oak artichoke gall, oak marble gall, oak apple gall, knopper gall, and spangle gall. A number of species of fungus cause powdery mildew on oak species. In Europe
Europe
the species Erysiphe alphitoides
Erysiphe alphitoides
is the most common cause.[33] A new and yet little understood disease of mature oaks, acute oak decline, has been reported in parts of the UK since 2009.[34] Oak
Oak
processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) has become a serious threat in the UK since 2006. The caterpillars of this species defoliate the trees, and are hazardous to human health; their bodies are covered with poisonous hairs which can cause rashes and respiratory problems.[35] In California, oaks are affected by the fungal disease Foamy bark canker. Toxicity The leaves and acorns of the oak tree are poisonous to cattle, horses, sheep, and goats in large amounts due to the toxin tannic acid, and cause kidney damage and gastroenteritis. Symptoms of poisoning include lack of appetite, depression, constipation, diarrhea (which may contain blood), blood in urine, and colic. The exception to livestock and oak toxicity is the domestic pig, which may be fed entirely on acorns in the right conditions, and has traditionally been pastured in oak woodlands (such as the Spanish dehesa and the English system of pannage) for hundreds of years. Acorns are also edible to humans, after leaching of the tannins.[36] Cultural significance

Oak
Oak
branches on the coat of arms of Estonia

National symbol The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of many countries. Already an ancient Germanic symbol (in the form of the Donar Oak, for instance), certainly since the early nineteenth century, it stands for the nation of Germany
Germany
and oak branches are thus displayed on some German coins, both of the former Deutsche Mark
Deutsche Mark
and the current Euro
Euro
currency.[37] In 2004 the Arbor Day Foundation[38] held a vote for the official National Tree
Tree
of the United States
United States
of America. In November 2004, the United States
United States
Congress passed legislation designating the oak as America's National Tree.[39] Other countries have also designated the oak as their national tree including Bulgaria, Cyprus
Cyprus
(Golden Oak), England, Estonia, France, Germany, Moldova, Jordan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Wales.[40] Oaks as regional and state symbols The oak is the emblem of County Londonderry
County Londonderry
in Northern Ireland, as a vast amount of the county was covered in forests of the tree until relatively recently. The name of the county comes from the city of Derry, which originally in Irish was known as Doire meaning oak. The Irish County Kildare
County Kildare
derives its name from the town of Kildare which originally in Irish was Cill Dara meaning the Church of the Oak or Oak
Oak
Church. Iowa
Iowa
designated the oak as its official state tree in 1961; and the White Oak
Oak
is the state tree of Connecticut, Illinois
Illinois
and Maryland. The Northern Red Oak
Northern Red Oak
is the provincial tree of Prince Edward Island, as well as the state tree of New Jersey. The Live Oak
Oak
is the state tree of Georgia, USA. The oak is a national symbol from the Basque Country, specially in the province of Biscay. The oak is a symbol of the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area; the coat-of-arms and flag of Oakland, California
Oakland, California
feature the oak and the logo of the East Bay Regional Park District
East Bay Regional Park District
is an oak leaf. The coat-of-arms of Vest-Agder, Norway, and Blekinge, Sweden, features oak trees. The coat-of-arms of the municipality Eigersund, Norway
Norway
features an oak leaf. Oak
Oak
leaves are traditionally an important part of German Army regalia.[citation needed] The Nazi party used the traditional German eagle, standing atop of a swastika inside a wreath of oak leaves. It is also known as the Iron Eagle. During the Third Reich of Nazi Germany, oak leaves were used for military valor decoration on the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross. They also symbolize rank in the United States
United States
Armed Forces. A gold oak leaf indicates an O-4 (Major or Lt. Commander), whereas a silver oak leaf indicates an O-5 (Lt. Colonel or Commander). Arrangements of oak leaves, acorns and sprigs indicate different branches of the United States
United States
Navy Staff corps officers.[41] Oak
Oak
leaves are embroidered onto the covers (hats) worn by field grade officers and flag officers in the United States
United States
armed services. If a member of the United States
United States
Army or Air Force earns multiple awards of the same medal, then instead of wearing a ribbon or medal for each award, he or she wears one metal representation of an "oak leaf cluster" attached to the appropriate ribbon for each subsequent award.[42] Political use The oak tree is used as a symbol by a number of political parties. It is the symbol of Toryism (on account of the Royal Oak) and the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom,[43] and formerly of the Progressive Democrats in Ireland[44] and the Democrats of the Left
Democrats of the Left
in Italy. In the cultural arena, the oakleaf is the symbol of the National Trust (UK), The Woodland Trust, and The Royal Oak Foundation.[41] Religious

Grīdnieku ancient oak in Rumbas parish, Latvia, girth 8.27m, 2015

In Greek mythology, the oak is the tree sacred to Zeus, king of the gods. In Zeus's oracle in Dodona, Epirus, the sacred oak was the centerpiece of the precinct, and the priests would divine the pronouncements of the god by interpreting the rustling of the oak's leaves.[45] In Baltic and Slavic mythology, the oak is the sacred tree of Latvian Pērkons, Lithuanian Perkūnas, Prussian Perkūns and Slavic Perun,[46] the god of thunder and one of the most important deities in the Baltic and Slavic pantheons. In Celtic polytheism, the name of the oak tree was part of the Proto-Celtic word for 'druid': *derwo-weyd- > *druwid- ; however, Proto-Celtic *derwo- (and *dru-) can also be adjectives for 'strong' and 'firm', so Ranko Matasovic interprets that *druwid- may mean 'strong knowledge'. As in other Indo-European faiths, Taranis, being a thunder god, was associated with the oak tree.[47] The Indo-Europeans worshiped the oak and connected it with a thunder or lightning god; "tree" and drus may also be cognate with "Druid," the Celtic priest to whom the oak was sacred. There has even been a study that shows that oaks are more likely to be struck by lightning than any other tree of the same height.[48] In Norse mythology, the oak was sacred to the thunder god, Thor. Thor's Oak
Thor's Oak
was a sacred tree of the Germanic Chatti
Chatti
tribe. In the Bible, the oak tree at Shechem
Shechem
is the site where Jacob buries the foreign gods of his people (Gen. 35:4) . In addition, Joshua erects a stone under an oak tree as the first covenant of the Lord (Josh. 24.25–7). In Isaiah 61, the prophet refers to the Israelites as "Oaks of Righteousness." Absalom's long hair (2 Samuel 18:9) gets caught in an oak tree, and allows Joab to kill him. The badnjak is central tradition in Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
Christmas celebration where young and straight oak, is ceremonially felled early on the morning of Christmas
Christmas
Eve. In some traditions of Wicca, the Oak
Oak
King is one of the two faces of the Sun God. He is born on Yule and rules from Ostara to Mabon.[citation needed] Historical Several singular oak trees, such as the Royal Oak
Royal Oak
in Britain and the Charter Oak
Charter Oak
in the United States, are of great historical or cultural importance; for a list of important oaks, see Individual oak trees. "The Proscribed Royalist, 1651", a famous painting by John Everett Millais, depicted a Royalist fleeing from Cromwell's forces and hidden in an oak. Millais painted the picture in Hayes, Kent, from a local oak tree that became known as the Millais Oak.[49][50] Approximately 50 km west of Toronto, Canada is the town of Oakville, ON, famous for its history as a shipbuilding port on Lake Ontario.[clarification needed] The city of Raleigh, N.C., is known as "The City of Oaks." The Jurupa Oak
Jurupa Oak
tree – a clonal colony of Quercus palmeria or Palmer’s oak found in Riverside County, California – is an estimated 13,000 years old.[51] Large groups of very old oak trees are rare[why?]. One of the oldest groups of oak trees, found in Poland, is about 480 years old, which was assessed by dendrochronological methods.[52] In the Roman Republic, a crown of oak leaves was given to those who had saved the life of a citizen in battle; it was called the "civic oak crown".[48] Famous oak trees Main article: List of notable trees

Tamme-Lauri oak
Tamme-Lauri oak
is the thickest and oldest tree in Estonia.

The Big Oak, by Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
(1843).

The Emancipation Oak
Emancipation Oak
is designated one of the 10 Great Trees of the World by the National Geographic Society and is part of the National Historic Landmark district of Hampton University. The Ivenack Oak
Ivenack Oak
which is one of the largest trees in Europe
Europe
is located in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, and is approximately 800 years old.[53] The Bowthorpe Oak, located in Bourne, Lincolnshire, is thought to be 1,000 years old. It was featured in the Guinness Book of World Records and was filmed for a TV documentary for its astonishing longevity.[53] The Minchenden (or Chandos) Oak, in Southgate, London, is said to be the largest oak tree in England
England
(already 27 feet or 8.2 meters in girth in the nineteenth century), and is perhaps 800 years old.[54] The Seven Sisters Oak
Seven Sisters Oak
is the largest certified southern live oak tree. Located in Mandeville, Louisiana, it is estimated to be up to 1,500 years old with a trunk that measures 38 ft (11.6 meters).[55][56] The Major Oak
Major Oak
is an 800 to 1000-year-old tree located in Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire. According to folklore, it was used by Robin Hood for shelter. Friendship Oak
Oak
is a 500-year-old southern live oak located in Long Beach, Mississippi. The Crouch Oak
Oak
is believed to have originated in the 11th Century and is located in Addlestone, Surrey. It is an important symbol of the town with many local businesses adopting its name. It used to mark the boundary of Windsor Great Park. Legend says that Queen Elizabeth I stopped by it and had a picnic. The Angel Oak
Angel Oak
is a southern live oak located in Angel Oak
Angel Oak
Park on John's Island
John's Island
near Charleston, South Carolina. The Angel Oak
Angel Oak
is estimated to be in excess of 400–500 years old, stands 66.5 ft (20.3 m) tall, and measures 28 ft (8.5 m) in circumference. The Kaiser's Oak, located at the village of Gommecourt in Artois, France, named in honour of Kaiser Wilhelm II, symbolically marked from late 1914 to April 1917 the furthest point in the West of the German Imperial Army during World War One. The Wye Oak
Wye Oak
in Maryland
Maryland
was the United States' largest white oak tree before it blew down in a storm in 2002, at an estimated age of 460 years.

Historical note on Linnaean species Linnaeus described only five species of oak from eastern North America, based on general leaf form. These were white oak, Quercus alba; chestnut oak, Q. montana; red oak, Q. rubra; willow oak Q. phellos; and water oak, Q. nigra. Because he was dealing with confusing leaf forms, the Q. montana and Q. rubra specimens actually included mixed foliage of more than one species. See also

List of Quercus species

References

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Oak
Archived 23 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. ed. Arthur Dawson. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC ^ Conrad, Jim. " Oak
Oak
Flowers" Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. backyardnature.com. 2011-12-12. Retrieved 2013-11-03. ^ Tull, Delena (1 January 1999). Edible and Useful Plants of Texas and the Southwest: A Practical Guide. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292781641. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017.  ^ Hipp, Andrew (2004). Oak
Oak
Trees Inside and Out. Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 4.  ^ a b Williams, Joseph H.; Boecklen, William J.; Howard, Daniel J. (2001). "Reproductive processes in two oak (Quercus) contact zones with different levels of hybridisation". Heredity. 87 (6): 680–690. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2001.00968.x.  ^ Arnold, M. L. (1997). Natural Hybridization and Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509974-5.  ^ Conte, L.; Cotti, C.; Cristofolini, G. (2007). "Molecular evidence for hybrid origin of Quercus crenata Lam. (Fagaceae) from Q-cerris L. and Q-suber L". Plant
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Biosystems. 141 (2): 181–193. doi:10.1080/11263500701401463.  ^ Gomory, D.; Schmidtova, J. (2007). "Extent of nuclear genome sharing among white oak species (Quercus L. subgen. Lepidobalanus (Endl.) Oerst.) in Slovakia estimated by allozymes". Plant
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Species
distinction in Irish populations of Quercus petraea and Q. robur: Morphological versus molecular analyses". Annals of Botany. 96 (7): 1237–1246. doi:10.1093/aob/mci275. PMID 16199484.  ^ Frascaria, N.; Maggia, L.; Michaud, M.; Bousquet, J. (1993). "The RBCL Gene Sequence from Chestnut
Chestnut
Indicates a Slow Rate of Evolution in the Fagaceae". Genome. 36 (4): 668–671. doi:10.1139/g93-089. PMID 8405983.  ^ Manos, P. S.; Stanford, A. M. (2001). "The historical biogeography of Fagaceae: Tracking the tertiary history of temperate and subtropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere". International Journal of Plant
Plant
Sciences. 162 (Suppl. 6): S77–S93. doi:10.1086/323280.  ^ Raven, Peter H.; Johnson, George B.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Singer, Susan R. (2005). Biology (Seventh ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-111182-4.  ^ Baugh, Daniel A. (1965). British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole. Princeton University Press. p. 242. OCLC 610026758.  ^ Cheese. swaledalecheese.co.uk ^ Kala, C.P. (2004). Studies on the indigenous knowledge, practices and traditional uses of forest products by human societies in Uttarakhand state of India. GBPIHED, Almora, India ^ Kala, C.P. (2010). Medicinal Plants of Uttarakhand: Diversity Livelihood and Conservation. BioTech Books, Delhi, ISBN 8176222097. ^ The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.3), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2010 Archived 15 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Dcr.virginia.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-10. ^ Schafale, M. P. and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation. ^ "Truffle Glossary: Black Truffles". thenibble.com. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 April 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.  ^ "Truffle Glossary: White Truffles". thenibble.com. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.  ^ Kappelle, M. (2006). "Neotropical montane oak forests: overview and outlook", pp 449–467 in: Kappelle, M. (ed.). Ecology and conservation of neotropical montane oak forests. Ecological Studies No. 185. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, doi:10.1007/3-540-28909-7_34 ISBN 978-3-540-28908-1. ^ Lorimer, C.G. (2003) Editorial: The decline of oak forests Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. American Institute of Biological Sciences. ^ Oldfield, S. & Eastwood, A. (2007) The Red List of Oaks Flora & Fauna International (FFI) and Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) ISBN 978-1-903703-25-0 ^ Kala, C.P. (2012). Biodiversity, communities and climate change. Teri Publications, New Delhi, ISBN 817993442X. ^ Carpenter, Paul (1990). Plants in the Landscape. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p. 73. ISBN 0716718081.  ^ "Up to your ankles in acorns? Here's why". The Mercury News. 13 October 2007. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ "What's causing an abundance of acorns this year?". The Mercury News. 6 October 2016. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.  ^ Waymer, Jim (3 December 2016). "That's nuts: Acorn
Acorn
onslaught hits Florida". Florida Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1A, 11A. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ "Quercus Portal". Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ Plomion, C., Aury, J.-M., Amselem, J., Alaeitabar, T., Barbe, V., Belser, C., Bergès, H., Bodénès, C., Boudet, N., Boury, C., Canaguier, A., Couloux, A., Da Silva, C., Duplessis, S., Ehrenmann, F., Estrada-Mairey, B., Fouteau, S., Francillonne, N., Gaspin, C., Guichard, C., Klopp, C., Labadie, K., Lalanne, C., Le Clainche, I., Leplé, J.-C., Le Provost, G., Leroy, T., Lesur, I., Martin, F., Mercier, J., Michotey, C., Murat, F., Salin, F., Steinbach, D., Faivre-Rampant, P., Wincker, P., Salse, J., Quesneville, H. and Kremer, A. (2016), Decoding the oak genome: public release of sequence data, assembly, annotation and publication strategies. Mol Ecol Resour, 16: 254–265. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12425 ^ "Trees: Oak
Oak
Insects and Diseases: Gypsy Moth". TreeHelp.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Mougou, A.; Dutech, C.; Desprez-Loustau, M. -L. (2008). "New insights into the identity and origin of the causal agent of oak powdery mildew in Europe". Forest Pathology. 38 (4): 275. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2008.00544.x.  ^ Kinver, Mark (28 April 2010). " Oak
Oak
disease 'threatens landscape'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.  ^ "Invasion of toxic moths". The Northern Echo. July 10, 2012.  ^ Bainbridge, D. A. (12–14 November 1986), Use of acorns for food in California: past, present and future, San Luis Obispo, CA.: Symposium on Multiple-use Management of California's Hardwoods, archived from the original on 27 October 2010  ^ Schierz, Kai Uwe (2004). "Von Bonifatius bis Beuys, oder: Vom Umgang mit heiligen Eichen". In Hardy Eidam; Marina Moritz; Gerd-Rainer Riedel; Kai-Uwe Schierz. Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult (in German). Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. pp. 139–45.  ^ "Trees – Arbor Day Foundation". Arborday.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ " Oak
Oak
Trees". arborday.org. Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ " Oak
Oak
as a Symbol". Venables Oak. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ a b "Political or Symbolic". Extended Definition: oak. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ "Army Regulation 670-1 Wear of appurtenances Section 29.12 Page 278". ar670.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Pickles, Eric. "The Conservative Party". Conservatives.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Coalition Government 1989 To 1992. progressivedemocrats.ie ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough. Chapter XV: The Worship of the Oak. Archived 21 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Ąžuolas paprastasis". Zolininkas.lt (in Lithuanian). 21 February 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2018.  ^ Taylor, John W. (September 1979). " Tree
Tree
Worship" Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Mankind Quarterly, pp. 79–142. ^ a b Oak. A Dictionary of Literary Symbols. Cambridge.  ^ Millais, J.G. (1899) Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, vol. 1, p. 166, London : Methuen. ^ Arborecology, containing a photograph of the Millais oak Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. arborecology.co.uk ^ Yong, Ed. "The 13,000-year old tree that survives by cloning itself". www.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.  ^ Ufnalski K. The oldest groups of oak trees in Poland. Proceedings of EuroDendro 2008 "The long history of wood utilization" News of Forest History Nr. V (39)/2008:83–84 ^ a b Bermosa, Nobert. "Famous Oak
Oak
Trees in the World". Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.  ^ "Geograph:: Minchenden Oak, Garden of Remembrance,... (C) Christine Matthews". Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ Seven Sisters Oak
Seven Sisters Oak
Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. americanforests.org ^ "Seven Sisters Oak". 100 Oaks Project. 4 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. 

Bibliography

Byfield, Liz (1990) An oak tree, Collins book bus, London : Collins Educational, ISBN 0-00-313526-8 Philips, Roger. Trees of North America
North America
and Europe, Random House, Inc., New York ISBN 0-394-50259-0, 1979. Logan, William B. (2005) Oak : the frame of civilization, New York ; London : W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04773-3 Paterson, R.T. (1993) Use of trees by livestock, 5: Quercus, Chatham : Natural Resources Institute, ISBN 0-85954-365-X Royston, Angela (2000) Life cycle of an oak tree, Heinemann first library, Oxford : Heinemann Library, ISBN 0-431-08391-6 Savage, Stephen (1994) Oak
Oak
tree, Observing nature series, Hove : Wayland, ISBN 0-7502-1196-2 Tansley, Arthur G., Sir (1952) Oaks and oak woods, Field study books, London : Methuen. Żukow-Karczewski, Marek (1988) Dąb – król polskich drzew ( Oak
Oak
– the king of the Polish trees), AURA (A Monthly for the protection and shaping of human environment), 9, 20–21.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quercus.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Quercus

Flora of China
Flora of China
– Cyclobalanopsis Oak
Oak
diseases Flora Europaea: Quercus Oaks from Bialowieza Forest Common Oaks of Florida Oaks of the world The Global Trees Campaign The Red List of Oaks and Global Survey of Threatened Quercus Latvia
Latvia
– the land of oaks Janka Hardness Scale – The Janka Hardness Scale for many Exotic and Domestic species Eichhorn, Markus (May 2010). " Oak
Oak
– A Very English Tree". Test Tube. Brady Haran
Brady Haran
for the University of Nottingham. 

v t e

Sources of tannins

Sources of condensed tannins

Areca catechu
Areca catechu
seed

arecatannins

Broad bean

Vicia faba

Grape

Vitis vinifera

Mimosa bark

Acacia mollissima

Myrtan or black marlock

Eucalyptus redunca

Quebracho wood

Sources of hydrolysable tannins

Chestnut
Chestnut
wood Dhawa

Anogeissus latifolia

Myrobalan fruit

Terminalia chebula

Oak
Oak
bark Oak
Oak
wood Valonia oak

Quercus macrolepis

Sumac

Tanner's sumach leaves - Rhus coriaria
Rhus coriaria
or Chinese gall on Rhus chinensis

Tara pod

Tara spinosa

Other sources by organ

Barks

General : Tanbark Acacias (most notably Acacia pycnantha
Acacia pycnantha
and Acacia decurrens) Alder

Alnus sp

Avaram

Senna auriculata

Babul

Acacia nilotica

Birch

Betula sp

Button mangrove

Conocarpus erectus

Hemlock

Tsuga
Tsuga
sp

Larch

Larix sp

Mangrove Pine

Pinus sp

Spruce

Picea sp

Urunday

Myracrodruon urundeuva

Willow

Salix caprea

Leaves

Badan

Bergenia crassifolia

Gambier

Uncaria gambir

Redoul

Coriaria myrtifolia

Roots

Canaigre

Rumex hymenosepalus

Garouille

Quercus coccifera

Sea lavender

Limonium
Limonium
sp

Woods

Cutch

Senegalia catechu

Fruit

Divi-divi pod

Libidibia coriaria

Sant pod

Acacia nilotica

Teri pod

Moullava digyna

Galls

Gall
Gall
oak

Quercus lusitanica Quercus infectoria

Whole plant

Prosopis
Prosopis
sp. bark and wood

Prosopis
Prosopis
humilis Prosopis
Prosopis
nigra

Tanoak

Notholithocarpus

Tizra heartwood and root

Rhus pentaphylla

Undetermined organ

Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina
(vilca)

v t e

National symbols of the United States

Symbols

Flag of the United States Seal of the United States Bald eagle Uncle Sam Columbia General Grant (tree) American's Creed Pledge of Allegiance Rose Oak American bison Phrygian cap

Songs

"The Star-Spangled Banner" "Dixie" "America the Beautiful" "The Stars and Stripes Forever" "Hail to the Chief" "Hail, Columbia" "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" "God Bless America" "Lift Every Voice and Sing" "The Army Goes Rolling Along" "Anchors Aweigh" "Marines' Hymn" "Semper Fidelis" "The Air Force Song" "Semper Paratus" "National Emblem" "The Washington Post March" "Battle Hymn of the Republic" "Yankee Doodle" "You're a Grand Old Flag" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" "This Land Is Your Land"

Mottos

In God We Trust E Pluribus Unum Novus ordo seclorum Annuit cœptis

Landmarks

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World) Liberty Bell Mount Rushmore National Mall

West Potomac Park

v t e

Woodworking

Overviews

History Glossary Wood
Wood
(lumber)

Forms

Boat building Bow and arrow Bush carpentry Cabinetry Caning Carpentry Certosina Chainsaw
Chainsaw
carving Chip carving Clogs Ébéniste Fretwork Intarsia Japanese carpentry Khatam Kohlrosing Log building Marquetry Millwork Parquetry Pyrography Relief carving Root
Root
carving Sawdust Segmented turning Shingle weaving Shipbuilding Spindle turning Timber framing Treen Whittling Wood
Wood
carving Woodturning Wood
Wood
flour

Woods

Soft

Cedar (Calocedrus, Cedrus) Cypress Douglas fir Fir Juniper Larch Pine Spruce Yew

Hard

Ash Alder Aspen Balsa Beech Birch Cherry Chestnut Cocobolo Ebony Elm Hazel Lignum vitae Linden (lime, basswood) Mahogany Maple Oak Padauk Plum Poplar Teak Totara Walnut Willow

Tools

Abrasives Axe Adze Chisel Clamp Drawknife Drill Float Mallet Milling machine Mitre box Moulding plane Plane Rasp Router Sandpaper Spokeshave Timber-framing Vise Winding sticks Wood
Wood
scribe Workbench

Saws

Backsaw Bandsaw Bow Bucksaw Chainsaw Circular Compass Coping Crosscut Frame Fretsaw Jigsaw Keyhole Miter Rip Scroll Table Veneer Whipsaw

Geometry

Joints

Birdsmouth Bridle Butt Butterfly Coping Crown of thorns Dado Dovetail Finger Groove Halved Hammer-headed tenon Knee Lap Mason's mitre Miter Mortise and tenon Rabbet/Rebate Scarf Splice Tongue and groove

Profiles

Bead Bevel Chamfer Molding Ogee Ogive

Treatments

French polish Heat bending Paint Paint
Paint
stripper Steam bending Thermal Varnish Wood
Wood
drying Wood
Wood
preservation Wood
Wood
stain Wood
Wood
finishing

Organizations

American Association of Woodturners Architectural Woodwork Institute British Woodworking
Woodworking
Federation Building and Wood
Wood
Workers' International Caricature Carvers of America International Federation of Building and Wood
Wood
Workers National Wood
Wood
Carvers Association Society of Wood
Wood
Engravers Timber Framers Guild

Conversion

Chainsaw
Chainsaw
mill Hewing Sawmill Whipsaw Wood
Wood
splitting

Techniques

Frame and panel Frameless construction

Category WikiProject Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q12004 APDB: 194255 EoL: 32233 EPPO: 1QUEG FNA: 127839 FoC: 127839 Fossilworks: 54594 GBIF: 2877951 GRIN: 10203 iNaturalist: 47851 IPNI: 13507-1 ITIS: 19276 NCBI: 3511 PLANTS: QUERC Tropicos: 40021776 VASCAN: 1609

Authority control

LCCN: sh85093565 GND: 4151140-2 BNF:

.