The Info List - O Canada

--- Advertisement ---

"O Canada" (French: Ô Canada) is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Théodore Robitaille
Théodore Robitaille
for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavallée
Calixa Lavallée
composed the music, after which, words were written by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The lyrics were originally in French; an English version was created in 1906.[1] Robert Stanley Weir
Robert Stanley Weir
wrote in 1908 another English version, which is the official and most popular version, one that is not a literal translation of the French. Weir's lyrics have been revised three times, most recently when An Act to amend the National Anthem Act (gender) was enacted in 2018,[2] but the French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a de facto national anthem since 1939, officially becoming Canada's national anthem in 1980 when the Act of Parliament making it so received royal assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day (now known as Canada
Day) celebrations.[1][3]


1 Official melody 2 Official lyrics 3 History

3.1 Second and third stanzas: historical refrain 3.2 Original French version

4 Performances 5 Laws and etiquette 6 Adaptations 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Official melody

Official lyrics The Queen-in-Council
established set lyrics for "O Canada" in Canada's two official languages, English and French. The lyrics are as follows:[1][4][5]

Official English Official French Translation from French by the Parliamentary translation bureau

O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all of us command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Ô Canada! Terre de nos aïeux, Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux! Car ton bras sait porter l'épée, Il sait porter la croix! Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. Et ta valeur, de foi trempée, Protégera nos foyers et nos droits. Protégera nos foyers et nos droits.

O Canada! Land of our ancestors Glorious deeds circle your brow For your arm knows how to wield the sword Your arm knows how to carry the cross; Your history is an epic Of brilliant deeds And your valour steeped in faith Will protect our homes and our rights, Will protect our homes and our rights.

English (1937)

Edward Johnson singing the original lyrics penned by Weir

French (1918)

First and Fourth verses sung by the Quatuor Octave Pelletier

Instrumental (1927)

"O Canada" and the Royal Anthem, "God Save the King", performed by Percival Price using carillon bell at the Peace Tower
Peace Tower
in Ottawa

Instrumental (1916)

An instrumental version of "O Canada" from 1916.

Instrumental (early 2000s)

"O Canada" performed by the U.S. Third Marine Aircraft Wing Band in the early 2000s.

Instrumental (early 2000s)

"O Canada" performed by the United States Navy
United States Navy
Band in the early 2000s.

Problems playing these files? See media help.

Unofficial bilingual version[6] O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all of us command. Car ton bras sait porter l'épée, Il sait porter la croix! Ton histoire est une épopée Des plus brillants exploits. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. It has been noted that the opening theme of "O Canada" bears a strong resemblance to the "March of the Priests" from the opera The Magic Flute, composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.[7] The line "The True North strong and free" is based on the Lord Tennyson's description of Canada
as "that true North, whereof we lately heard / A strain to shame us". In the context of Tennyson's poem To the Queen, the word true means "loyal" or "faithful".[7] The lyrics and melody of "O Canada" are both in the public domain,[1] a status unaffected by the trademarking of the phrases "with glowing hearts" and "des plus brillants exploits" for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.[8] Two provinces have adopted Latin translations of phrases from the English lyrics as their mottos: Manitoba—Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and Free)[9]—and Alberta—Fortis et Liber (Strong and Free).[10] Similarly, the Canadian Army's motto is Vigilamus pro te (we stand on guard for thee). History

Adolphe-Basile Routhier
Adolphe-Basile Routhier
c. 1890

The original French lyrics of "O Canada" were written by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier, to music composed by Calixa Lavallée, as a French Canadian
French Canadian
patriotic song for the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society
and first performed on June 24, 1880, at a Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day banquet in Quebec City. At that time, the "Chant National", also by Routhier, was popular amongst Francophones as an anthem,[11] while "God Save the Queen" and "The Maple Leaf Forever" had, since 1867, been competing as unofficial national anthems in English Canada. "O Canada" joined that fray when a group of school children sang it for the 1901 tour of Canada
by the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall (later King George V
George V
and Queen Mary).[1] This was the first known performance of the song outside Quebec.[12]

The house where Lavallée lived on first moving to Quebec City
Quebec City
in 1878

Five years later, the Whaley and Royce company in Toronto
published the music with the French text and a first translation into English by Thomas Bedford Richardson and, in 1908, Collier's
Weekly magazine held a competition to write new English lyrics for "O Canada". The competition was won by Mercy E. Powell McCulloch, but her version never gained wide acceptance.[11] In fact, many made English translations of Routhier's words; however, the most popular version was created in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, a lawyer and Recorder of the City of Montreal. Weir's original lyrics from 1908 contained no religious references and used the phrase "thou dost in us command" before they were changed by Weir in 1914 to read "in all thy sons command".[1][13][14][15] In 1926, a fourth verse of a religious nature was added.[16] A slightly modified version was officially published for the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation in 1927, and gradually it became the most widely accepted and performed version of this song.[1] The tune was thought to have become the de facto national anthem after King George VI
George VI
remained at attention during its playing at the dedication of the National War Memorial in Ottawa, Ontario, on May 21, 1939;[17] though George was actually following a precedent set by his brother, Edward, the previous king of Canada, when he dedicated the Canadian National Vimy Memorial
Canadian National Vimy Memorial
in France in 1936.[18] By-laws and practices governing the use of song during public events in municipalities varied; in Toronto, "God Save the Queen" was employed, while in Montreal
it was "O Canada". Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
in 1964 said one song would have to be chosen as the country's national anthem and the government resolved to form a joint committee to review the status of the two musical works. The next year, Pearson put to the House of Commons a motion that "the government be authorized to take such steps as may be necessary to provide that 'O Canada' shall be the National Anthem of Canada
while 'God Save the Queen' shall be the Royal Anthem of Canada", of which parliament approved. In 1967, the Prime Minister advised Governor General Georges Vanier
Georges Vanier
to appoint the Special
Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons on the National and Royal Anthems; the group first met in February and,[19] within two months, on April 12, 1967, presented its conclusion that "O Canada" should be designated as the national anthem and "God Save the Queen" as the royal anthem of Canada,[1] one verse from each, in both official languages, to be adopted by parliament. The group was then charged with establishing official lyrics for each song. For "O Canada", the Robert Stanley Weir
Robert Stanley Weir
version of 1908 was recommended for the English words, with a few minor changes: two of the "stand on guard" phrases were replaced with "from far and wide" and "God keep our land".[20][1] In 1970 the Queen in Right of Canada
purchased the right to the lyrics and music of "O Canada" from Gordon V. Thompson Music for $1.[21] The song finally became the official national anthem in 1980 with the passage of the National Anthem Act.[18][19] The act replaced two of the repetitions of the phrase "We stand on guard" in the English lyrics, as had been proposed by the Senate Special
Joint Committee. This change was controversial with traditionalists and, for several years afterwards, it was not uncommon to hear people still singing the old lyrics at public events. In contrast, the French lyrics are unchanged from the original version.[22] In June 1990, Toronto
City Council voted 12 to 7 in favour of recommending to the Canadian government that the phrase "our home and native land" be changed to "our home and cherished land" and that "in all thy sons command" be partly reverted to "in all of us command". Councillor Howard Moscoe said that the words "native land" were not appropriate for the many Canadians
who were not native-born and that the word "sons" implied "that women can't feel true patriotism or love for Canada".[23] Senator Vivienne Poy
Vivienne Poy
similarly criticized the English lyrics of the anthem as being sexist and she introduced a bill in 2002 proposing to change the phrase "in all thy sons command" to "in all of us command".[16] In the late 2000s, the anthem's religious references (to God in English and to the Christian cross
Christian cross
in French) were criticized by secularists.[24][25] In the speech from the throne delivered by Governor General Michaëlle Jean on March 3, 2010, a plan to have parliament review the "original gender-neutral wording of the national anthem" was announced.[26] However, three-quarters of Canadians
polled after the speech objected to the proposal and,[27] two days later, the prime minister's office announced that the Cabinet had decided not to restore the original lyrics.[28] In another attempt to make the anthem gender-neutral, Liberal MP Mauril Bélanger
Mauril Bélanger
introduced a private member's bill in September of 2014. His Bill C-624, An Act to amend the National Anthem Act (gender), was defeated at second reading in April 2015.[29] Following the 2015 federal election, Bélanger reintroduced the bill in the new parliament as Bill C-210 in January 2016.[30] In June 2016, the bill passed its third reading with a vote of 225 to 74 in the House of Commons.[31] The bill passed its third reading in the Senate with a voice vote on January 31, 2018 and received royal assent on February 7, 2018.[32][33] Second and third stanzas: historical refrain

A page from Hymns of the Christian Life, 1962, depicting then long-standing refrain lyrics to "O Canada", but not the original

Below are some slightly different versions of the second and third stanzas and the chorus, plus an additional fourth stanza.[1] These are rarely sung.[34]

O Canada! Where pines and maples grow. Great prairies spread and lordly rivers flow. How dear to us thy broad domain, From East to Western sea. Thou land of hope for all who toil! Thou True North, strong and free!


God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies May stalwart sons, and gentle maidens rise, To keep thee steadfast through the years From East to Western sea. Our own beloved native land! Our True North, strong and free!


Ruler supreme, who hearest humble prayer, Hold our Dominion in thy loving care; Help us to find, O God, in thee A lasting, rich reward, As waiting for the better Day, We ever stand on guard.


Original French version The first verse is the same. The other verses follow.

Sous l'œil de Dieu, près du fleuve géant, Le Canadien grandit en espérant. Il est né d'une race fière, Béni fut son berceau. Le ciel a marqué sa carrière Dans ce monde nouveau. Toujours guidé par sa lumière, Il gardera l'honneur de son drapeau, Il gardera l'honneur de son drapeau.

De son patron, précurseur du vrai Dieu, Il porte au front l'auréole de feu. Ennemi de la tyrannie Mais plein de loyauté, Il veut garder dans l'harmonie, Sa fière liberté; Et par l'effort de son génie, Sur notre sol asseoir la vérité, Sur notre sol asseoir la vérité.

Amour sacré du trône et de l'autel, Remplis nos cœurs de ton souffle immortel! Parmi les races étrangères, Notre guide est la loi : Sachons être un peuple de frères, Sous le joug de la foi. Et répétons, comme nos pères, Le cri vainqueur : "Pour le Christ et le roi!" Le cri vainqueur : "Pour le Christ et le roi!"


Under the eye of God, near the giant river, The Canadian grows hoping. He was born of a proud race, Blessed was his birthplace. Heaven has noted his career In this new world. Always guided by its light, He will keep the honour of his flag, He will keep the honour of his flag.

From his patron, the precursor of the true God, He wears the halo of fire on his brow. Enemy of tyranny But full of loyalty, He wants to keep in harmony, His proud freedom; And by the effort of his genius, Set on our ground the truth, Set on our ground the truth.

Sacred love of the throne and the altar, Fill our hearts with your immortal breath! Among the foreign races, Our guide is the law: Let us know how to be a people of brothers, Under the yoke of faith. And repeat, like our fathers, The battle cry: "For Christ and King!" The battle cry: "For Christ and King!"


'O Canada
we stand on guard for thee' Stained glass, Royal Military College of Canada

"O Canada" is routinely played before sporting events involving Canadian teams. Singers at such public events often mix the English and French lyrics to represent Canada's linguistic duality.[35] Other linguistic variations have also been performed: During the opening ceremonies of the 1988 Winter Olympics
1988 Winter Olympics
in Calgary, "O Canada" was sung in the southern Tutchone language by Yukon native Daniel Tlen.[36][37] At a National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL) game in Calgary, in February 2007, Cree
singer Akina Shirt
Akina Shirt
became the first person ever to perform "O Canada" in the Cree
language at such an event.[38] Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, the National Basketball Association, and the NHL all require venues to perform both the Canadian and American national anthems at games that involve teams from both countries, with the away team's anthem being performed first, followed by the host country.[39] The NHL's Buffalo Sabres
Buffalo Sabres
play both anthems before every home game, regardless of the opponent, in recognition of the team's significant Canadian fanbase.[citation needed] Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
teams have played the song at games involving the Toronto
Blue Jays and the former Montreal
Expos,[40] and National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
teams do so for games involving the Toronto
Raptors, and previously, the Vancouver Grizzlies. Major League Soccer has the anthem performed at matches involving Toronto
FC, Montreal
Impact, and Vancouver Whitecaps FC. Laws and etiquette The National Anthem Act specifies the lyrics and melody of "O Canada", placing both of them in the public domain, allowing the anthem to be freely reproduced or used as a base for derived works, including musical arrangements.[41][42] There are no regulations governing the performance of "O Canada", leaving citizens to exercise their best judgment. When it is performed at an event, traditional etiquette is to either start or end the ceremonies with the anthem, including situations when other anthems are played, and for the audience to stand during the performance. Civilian men usually remove their hats, while women and children are not required to do so.[43] Military men and women in uniform traditionally keep their hats on and offer the military salute during the performance of the anthem, with the salute offered in the direction of the Maple Leaf Flag
Maple Leaf Flag
if one is present, and if not present it is offered standing at attention.[43] Adaptations In the 1950s, "O Canada's" melody was adapted for the school anthem of the Ateneo de Manila University. Titled "A Song for Mary" or simply "The Ateneo de Manila Graduation Hymn", the song’s lyrics were written by James B. Reuter
James B. Reuter
SJ, and the tune was adapted by Col. José Campaña.[44] See also

Music of Canada
portal History of Canada

Anthems and nationalistic songs of Canada Honours music List of national anthems Music of Canada


^ a b c d e f g h i j Department of Canadian Heritage. "Full history of 'O Canada'". Government of Canada. Retrieved June 2, 2016.  ^ Marshall, Alex (February 9, 2018). "The women who fought to make Canada's national anthem gender-neutral". BBC News. Retrieved February 9, 2018.  ^ DeRocco, David (2008). From sea to sea to sea : a newcomer's guide to Canada. Full Blast Productions. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-9784738-4-6.  ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Patrimoine canadien – Hymne national du Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 26, 2008.  ^ Canada. Parliament, House of Commons. (1964). House of Commons debates, official report. 11. Queen's Printer. p. 11806.  ^ http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/celebrate/pdf/National_Anthem_e.pdf ^ a b Colombo, John Robert (February 1995). Colombo's All-Time Great Canadian Quotations. Stoddart. ISBN 0-7737-5639-6.  ^ "Olympic mottoes borrow lines from O Canada". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. September 25, 2008. Retrieved September 25, 2008.  ^ Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(July 27, 1993). "The Coat of Arms, Emblems and the Manitoba Tartan Amendment Act". Schedule A.1 [subsection 1(3)]. Winnipeg: Queen's Printer for Manitoba. Retrieved July 7, 2010.  ^ "Alberta Culture and Community Spirit – Provincial Motto, Colour and Logos". Culture.alberta.ca. June 1, 1968. Retrieved April 15, 2011.  ^ a b Bélanger, Claude. "The Quebec History Encyclopedia". In Marianopolis College. National Anthem of Canada. Montreal: Marianopolis College. Retrieved July 5, 2010.  ^ Kuitenbrouwer, Peter (June 27, 2017). "The Strange History of 'O Canada'". The Walrus. Retrieved July 7, 2017.  ^ Hymns of the Christian Life. Harrisburg: Christian Publications Inc. 1962. Number 565.  ^ Weir, Recorder; Lavellée, C.; Grant-Schaefer, G.A. (1908). "O Canada! A National Song for Canadians" (PDF). The Delmar Music Co. Retrieved June 16, 2010.  ^ Senate of Canada
(February 21, 2002). "Original O Canada
Text 'an Amazing Discovery'". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2010.  ^ a b "Bill to Amend—Second Reading—Debate Adjourned". Hansard. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. 1st Session, 37th Parliament. February 21, 2002. Retrieved October 10, 2014.  ^ Bethune, Brian (July 7, 2011). "A gift fit for a king". Maclean's. Toronto: Rogers Communications. ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved July 9, 2011.  ^ a b Galbraith, William (1989). "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit". Canadian Parliamentary Review. Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. 12 (3): 10. Retrieved March 10, 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Potvin, Gilles; Kallmann, Helmut. "The Canadian Encyclopedia". In Marsh, James Harley. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada
> Songs > 'O Canada'. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved November 10, 2015.  ^ Kallmann, Helmut. "The Canadian Encyclopedia". In Marsh, James Harley. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada
> Musical Genres > National and royal anthems. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved June 25, 2010.  ^ Helmut Kallmann, Marlene Wehrle. "Gordon V. Thompson Music". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 2, 2013.  ^ "National anthem: O Canada". Canoe. May 26, 2004. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ Byers, Jim (June 6, 1990). "'O Canada' offensive, Metro says". Toronto
Star. p. A.2.  ^ Thomas, Doug (May 17, 2006). "Is Canada
a Secular Nation? Part 3: Post-Charter Canada". Institute for Humanist Studies. Retrieved March 27, 2010.  ^ Byfield, Ted (July 1, 2007). "Secular anthem lost in translation". WorldNetDaily. Retrieved May 5, 2008.  ^ "O Canada
lyrics to be reviewed". MSN. March 3, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.  ^ "English-Speaking Canadians
Reject Changing Verse from "O Canada"". Angus Reid Public Opinion. March 5, 2010: 1.  ^ " National anthem
National anthem
won't change: PMO". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. March 5, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2016.  ^ "Private Member's Bill C-624 (41–2)". LEGISinfo. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved March 3, 2018.  ^ "Private Member's Bill C-210 (42–1)". LEGISinfo. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved June 6, 2016.  ^ "Dying MP's gender-neutral O Canada
bill passes final Commons vote". CBC News. The Canadian Press. June 15, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.  ^ Tasker, John Paul (January 31, 2018). "'In all of us command': Senate passes bill approving gender neutral anthem wording". CBC News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ Tasker, John Paul (February 7, 2018). "O Canada
now officially gender neutral after bill receives royal assent". CBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. "O Canada" (PDF). Queen's Printer for Alberta. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2008.  ^ "Turin Bids Arrivederci to Winter Olympics". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 26, 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2008.  ^ "Daniel Tlen". Yukon First Nations. Retrieved March 31, 2010.  ^ O Canada
( Canada
National Anthem) // Calgary 1988 Version on YouTube ^ "Edmonton girl to sing anthem in NHL first at Saddledome". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 1, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2008.  ^ Allen, Kevin (March 23, 2003). "NHL Seeks to Stop Booing For a Song". USA Today. Retrieved October 29, 2008.  ^ Wayne C. Thompson (2012). Canada
2012. Stryker Post. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-61048-884-6.  ^ Department of Justice (2011). "National Anthem Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. N-2)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved April 15, 2011.  ^ National Anthem Act, RSC 1985, c N-2, available with schedule at http://canlii.ca/t/7vjb ^ a b Department of Canadian Heritage. "Anthems of Canada". Government of Canada. Retrieved June 2, 2016.  ^ "A Song For Mary". ateneo.edu. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 

External links

Anthems of Canada, Department of Canadian Heritage O Canada
without lyrics Canadiana — The Bizarre History of "O Canada"

v t e

Canadian identity

Canadians Constitutional debate in Canada Culture of Canada

Canadian cultural protectionism

Demographics of Canada Multiculturalism in Canada Canadian values

National identities in Canada

Annexationism Canadian nationalism Quebec nationalism Western alienation

Alberta separatism

Relations between English and French Canada

Acadian movement Anti-Quebec sentiment National question (Quebec) Federalism Sovereigntism Distinct society État québécois Two Solitudes Notable events: Manitoba Schools Question
Manitoba Schools Question
(1890–96) Regulation 17 (1912) Conscription Crisis of 1917 Conscription Crisis of 1944 Quiet Revolution Vive le Québec libre
Vive le Québec libre
speech (1967) October Crisis
October Crisis
(1970) Quebec referendum, 1980 Quebec referendum, 1995

Unity Rally

Québécois nation motion (2006)

Multicultural politics

Canadian Multiculturalism Act Cultural mosaic Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Reasonable accommodation Global Centre for Pluralism Multicultural media in Canada 1976 separate schools case 1985 and 1986 Sunday shopping cases 1985 day-of-rest case 1986 separate schools case 1986 homeschooling case 1990 RCMP turban controversy 2001 religious university case 2004 succah case 2006 Kirpan case 2006 school etiquette case Quebec Charter of Values
Quebec Charter of Values
(2013) 2015 niqab case

Language politics

Official bilingualism in Canada Gendron Commission Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories

Legal dispute over Quebec's language policy

Official bilingualism in the public service of Canada Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism Timeline of official languages policy in Canada

Immigration to Canada

Canadian nationality law Economic impact of immigration to Canada History of immigration to Canada Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Permanent residency see also :Template:Canadian citizenship

Race and ethnicity

Canadian Anti-racism Education and Research Society Canadian Race Relations Foundation Ethnic origins of people in Canada List of ethnic interest groups in Canada Visible minority Racism cases

1899 coalminers' case 1903 voting rights case 1914 employment case 1939 tavern case 1946 Japanese deportation case 1951 housing case 1970 liquor law case Quebec historical anti-Semitism controversy

Saskatoon freezing deaths Carding (police policy)

Indigenous politics

National organizations Métis Red River Rebellion
Red River Rebellion
(1869) North-West Rebellion
North-West Rebellion
(1885) Indian Act (1876-present) Indian Register 1969 White Paper Oka Crisis
Oka Crisis
(1990) Self-Government Inuit territories

Inuvialuit (1984) NunatuKavut
claimed Nunavik
(no final agreement) Nunavut

agreement 1993 establishment 1999

First Nations territories

Eeyou Istchee James Bay Nitassinan claimed

Royal Commission (1991–96) Kelowna Accord (2005) Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission (2008–) Idle No More
Idle No More
protest movement (2012–) Missing and murdered Indigenous women see also Template:Canadian Aboriginal case law

Federal–Provincial– Territorial relations

Province building Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations
Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations
(1937–40) Royal Commission of Inquiry on Constitutional Problems (1953–56) Patriation
debate (1960s to 1982) Fulton–Favreau formula (to 1965) Canada
Act 1982 and Constitution Act, 1982 Canada
Health Act (1984) Victoria Charter (1971) Meech Lake Accord
Meech Lake Accord
(1987–90) Citizen's Forum on National Unity (1990–91) Charlottetown Accord
Charlottetown Accord
(1992) Calgary Declaration (1997) See also template:Constitution of Canada, Category:Federalism in Canada, and Category: Canadian federalism
Canadian federalism
case law

Symbols in Canada

National Provincial and territorial Royal Flags Heraldry Debates and legislation: Name (1867) Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 Great Canadian Flag Debate
Great Canadian Flag Debate
(1963–64) National Anthem Act (1980) Debate on the monarchy in Canada
(Monarchism in Canada
and Republicanism in Canada)

v t e

National anthems of North America

Independent countries

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States


American West Indies

Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

British West Indies

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

Dutch Caribbean

Aruba Bonaire Curaçao Saba Sint Eustatius (Statia) Sint Maarten

French West Indies

Guadeloupe Martinique Saint-Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Kingdom of Denmark


Find out more on's Sister projects

Media from Commons Source texts from Wikisource