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OS/2
OS/2
is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft
Microsoft
and IBM
IBM
under the leadership of IBM
IBM
software designer Ed Iacobucci.[2] As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2
OS/2
relative to Microsoft's new Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1
operating environment,[3] the two companies severed the relationship in 1992 and OS/2
OS/2
development fell to IBM
IBM
exclusively.[4] The name stands for "Operating System/2", because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version of OS/2
OS/2
was released in December 1987 and newer versions were released until December 2001. OS/2
OS/2
was intended as a protected mode successor of PC DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modelled after MS-DOS
MS-DOS
calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications: text mode applications that could work on both systems.[5] Because of this heritage, OS/2
OS/2
shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT
Windows NT
in many ways. IBM
IBM
discontinued its support for OS/2
OS/2
on 31 December 2006.[6] Since then, it has been updated, maintained and marketed under the name eComStation. In 2015 it was announced[7] that a new OEM distribution of OS/2
OS/2
would be released that was to be called ArcaOS.[8] ArcaOS
ArcaOS
is available for purchase.[9]

Contents

1 Development history

1.1 1985–1989: Joint development 1.2 1990: Breakup 1.3 1992: 32-bit
32-bit
era

1.3.1 DOS
DOS
compatibility 1.3.2 Windows 3.x compatibility

1.4 1994–1996: The "Warp" years 1.5 Workplace OS 1.6 Downsizing 1.7 2001: Fading out

1.7.1 Virtualization 1.7.2 ATMs

1.8 Security niche 1.9 Petitions for open source

2 Summary of releases 3 Technology

3.1 Problems

4 Historical uses 5 Awards 6 IBM
IBM
products utilizing OS/2 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Development history[edit] 1985–1989: Joint development[edit] The development of OS/2
OS/2
began when IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
signed the "Joint Development Agreement" in August 1985.[10][11] It was code-named "CP/DOS" and it took two years for the first product to be delivered. OS/2
OS/2
1.0 was announced in April 1987 and released in December. The original release is textmode-only, and a GUI was introduced with OS/2 1.1 about a year later. OS/2
OS/2
features an API for controlling the video display (VIO) and handling keyboard and mouse events so that programmers writing for protected-mode need not call the BIOS
BIOS
or access hardware directly. In addition, development tools include a subset of the video and keyboard APIs as linkable libraries so that family mode programs are able to run under MS-DOS. A task-switcher named Program Selector is available through the Ctrl-Esc hotkey combination, allowing the user to select among multitasked text-mode sessions (or screen groups; each can run multiple programs).[12] Communications and database-oriented extensions were delivered in 1988, as part of OS/2
OS/2
1.0 Extended Edition: SNA, X.25/APPC/LU 6.2, LAN Manager, Query Manager, SQL. The promised user interface, Presentation Manager, was introduced with OS/2
OS/2
1.1 in October 1988.[13] It had a similar user interface to Windows 2.1, which was released in May of that year. (The interface was replaced in versions 1.2 and 1.3 by a look closer in appearance to Windows 3.1). The Extended Edition of 1.1, sold only through IBM
IBM
sales channels, introduced distributed database support to IBM
IBM
database systems and SNA communications support to IBM
IBM
mainframe networks. In 1989, Version 1.2 introduced Installable Filesystems and notably the HPFS filesystem. HPFS provided a number of improvements over the older FAT file system, including long filenames and a form of alternate data streams called Extended Attributes.[14] In addition, extended attributes were also added to the FAT file system.[15]

Installation Disk A of Microsoft
Microsoft
OS/2
OS/2
1.3 (3½-inch floppy disk)

The Extended Edition of 1.2 introduced TCP/IP and Ethernet
Ethernet
support. OS/2
OS/2
and Windows-related books of the late 1980s acknowledged the existence of both systems and promoted OS/2
OS/2
as the system for the future.[16] 1990: Breakup[edit] The collaboration between IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
unravelled in 1990, between the releases of Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
and OS/2
OS/2
1.3. During this time, Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
became a tremendous success, selling millions of copies in its first year.[17] Much of its success was because Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
(along with MS-DOS) was bundled with most new computers.[18] OS/2, on the other hand, was available only as an additional stand-alone software package. In addition, OS/2
OS/2
lacked device drivers for many common devices such as printers, particularly non- IBM
IBM
hardware.[19] Windows, on the other hand, supported a much larger variety of hardware. The increasing popularity of Windows prompted Microsoft
Microsoft
to shift its development focus from cooperating on OS/2
OS/2
with IBM
IBM
to building its own business based on Windows.[20] Several technical and practical reasons contributed to this breakup. The two companies had significant differences in culture and vision. Microsoft
Microsoft
favored the open hardware system approach that contributed to its success on the PC; IBM
IBM
sought to use OS/2
OS/2
to drive sales of its own hardware, including systems that could not support the features Microsoft
Microsoft
wanted. Microsoft
Microsoft
programmers also became frustrated with IBM's bureaucracy and its use of lines of code to measure programmer productivity.[21] IBM
IBM
developers complained about the terseness and lack of comments in Microsoft's code, while Microsoft
Microsoft
developers complained that IBM's code was bloated.[22] The two products have significant differences in API. OS/2
OS/2
was announced when Windows 2.0
Windows 2.0
was near completion, and the Windows API already defined. However, IBM
IBM
requested that this API be significantly changed for OS/2.[23] Therefore, issues surrounding application compatibility appeared immediately. OS/2
OS/2
designers hoped for source code conversion tools, allowing complete migration of Windows application source code to OS/2
OS/2
at some point. However, OS/2
OS/2
1.x did not gain enough momentum to allow vendors to avoid developing for both OS/2
OS/2
and Windows in parallel. OS/2
OS/2
1.x targets the Intel 80286
Intel 80286
processor and DOS
DOS
fundamentally doesn't. IBM
IBM
insisted on supporting the 80286 processor, with its 16-bit segmented memory mode, because of commitments made to customers who had purchased many 80286-based PS/2s as a result of IBM's promises surrounding OS/2.[24] Until release 2.0 in April 1992, OS/2
OS/2
ran in 16-bit protected mode and therefore could not benefit from the Intel 80386's much simpler 32-bit
32-bit
flat memory model and virtual 8086 mode features. This was especially painful in providing support for DOS applications. While, in 1988, Windows/386 2.1 could run several cooperatively multitasked DOS
DOS
applications, including expanded memory (EMS) emulation, OS/2
OS/2
1.3, released in 1991, was still limited to one 640 kB " DOS
DOS
box". Given these issues, Microsoft
Microsoft
started to work in parallel on a version of Windows which was more future-oriented and more portable. The hiring of Dave Cutler, former VMS architect, in 1988 created an immediate competition with the OS/2
OS/2
team, as Cutler did not think much of the OS/2
OS/2
technology and wanted to build on his work at Digital rather than creating a " DOS
DOS
plus". His "NT OS/2" was a completely new architecture.[25]

The OS/2
OS/2
2.0 upgrade box

IBM
IBM
grew concerned about the delays in development of OS/2
OS/2
2.0. Initially, the companies agreed that IBM
IBM
would take over maintenance of OS/2
OS/2
1.0 and development of OS/2
OS/2
2.0, while Microsoft
Microsoft
would continue development of OS/2
OS/2
3.0. In the end, Microsoft
Microsoft
decided to recast NT OS/2
OS/2
3.0 as Windows NT, leaving all future OS/2
OS/2
development to IBM. From a business perspective, it was logical to concentrate on a consumer line of operating systems based on DOS
DOS
and Windows, and to prepare a new high-end system in such a way as to keep good compatibility with existing Windows applications. While waiting for this new high-end system to develop, Microsoft
Microsoft
would still receive licensing money from Xenix
Xenix
and OS/2
OS/2
sales. Windows NT's OS/2
OS/2
heritage can be seen in its initial support for the HPFS filesystem, text mode OS/2
OS/2
1.x applications, and OS/2
OS/2
LAN Manager network support. Some early NT materials even included OS/2
OS/2
copyright notices embedded in the software.[citation needed] One example of NT OS/2
OS/2
1.x support is in the WIN2K resource kit. Windows NT
Windows NT
could also support OS/2
OS/2
1.x Presentation Manager and AVIO applications with the addition of the Windows NT
Windows NT
Add-On Subsystem for Presentation Manager.[26] 1992: 32-bit
32-bit
era[edit] OS/2
OS/2
2.0 was released in April 1992. It provided a 32-bit
32-bit
API for native programs, though the OS itself still contained some 16-bit code and drivers. It also included a new OOUI (object-oriented user interface) called the Workplace Shell. This was a fully object-oriented interface that was a significant departure from the previous GUI. Rather than merely providing an environment for program windows (such as the Program Manager), the Workplace Shell
Workplace Shell
provided an environment in which a user could manage programs, files and devices by manipulating objects on the screen. With the Workplace Shell, everything in the system is an "object" to be manipulated. DOS
DOS
compatibility[edit] OS/2
OS/2
2.0 was touted by IBM
IBM
as "a better DOS
DOS
than DOS
DOS
and a better Windows than Windows".[27] It managed this by including fully licensed MS-DOS
MS-DOS
5.0 which had been patched and improved upon. For the first time, OS/2
OS/2
was able to run more than one DOS
DOS
application at a time. This was so effective that it allowed OS/2
OS/2
to run a modified copy of Windows 3.0, itself a DOS
DOS
extender, including Windows 3.0 applications. Because of the limitations of the Intel 80286
Intel 80286
processor, OS/2
OS/2
1.x could run only one DOS
DOS
program at a time, and did this in a way that allowed the DOS
DOS
program to have total control over the computer. A problem in DOS
DOS
mode could crash the entire computer. In contrast, OS/2 2.0 could benefit from the virtual 8086 mode of the Intel 80386 processor to create a much safer virtual machine in which to run DOS programs. This included an extensive set of configuration options to optimize the performance and capabilities given to each DOS
DOS
program. Any real mode operating system (such as 8086 Xenix) could also be made to run using OS/2's virtual machine capabilities, subject to certain direct hardware access limitations. Like most 32-bit
32-bit
environments, OS/2
OS/2
could not run protected-mode DOS programs using the older VCPI interface, unlike the Standard mode of Windows 3.1; it only supported programs written according to DPMI. ( Microsoft
Microsoft
discouraged the use of VCPI under Windows 3.1, however, due to performance degradation.[28]) Unlike Windows NT, OS/2
OS/2
also always gave DOS
DOS
programs the possibility of masking real hardware interrupts, so any DOS
DOS
program could deadlock the machine this way. OS/2
OS/2
could however use a hardware watchdog on selected machines (notably IBM
IBM
machines) to break out of such a deadlock. Later, release 3.0 leveraged the enhancements of newer Intel 486 and Intel Pentium processors—the Virtual Interrupt
Interrupt
Flag (VIF), which was part of the Virtual Mode Extensions (VME)—to solve this problem. Further information: VME (CONFIG.SYS directive) Windows 3.x compatibility[edit] Compatibility with Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
(and later Windows 3.1) was achieved by adapting Windows user-mode code components to run inside a virtual DOS machine (VDM). Originally, a nearly complete version of Windows code was included with OS/2
OS/2
itself: Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
in OS/2
OS/2
2.0, and Windows 3.1 in OS/2
OS/2
2.1. Later, IBM
IBM
developed versions of OS/2
OS/2
that would use whatever Windows version the user had installed previously, patching it on the fly, and sparing the cost of an additional Windows license.[29] It could either run full-screen, using its own set of video drivers, or "seamlessly," where Windows programs would appear directly on the OS/2
OS/2
desktop. The process containing Windows was given fairly extensive access to hardware, especially video, and the result was that switching between a full-screen Win OS/2
OS/2
session and the Workplace Shell
Workplace Shell
could occasionally cause issues.[30] Because OS/2
OS/2
only runs the user-mode system components of Windows, it is not compatible with Windows device drivers (VxDs) and applications needing them. Multiple Windows applications run by default in a single Windows session - multitasking cooperatively and without memory protection - just as they would under native Windows 3.x. However, to achieve true isolation between Windows 3.x programs, OS/2
OS/2
also can run multiple copies of Windows in parallel, with each copy residing in a separate VDM. The user can then optionally place each program either in its own Windows session - with preemptive multitasking and full memory protection between sessions, though not within them - or allow some applications to run together cooperatively in a shared Windows session while isolating other applications in one or more separate Windows sessions. At the cost of additional hardware resources, this approach can protect each program in any given Windows session (and each instance of Windows itself) from every other program running in any separate Windows session (though not from other programs running in the same Windows session). Whether Windows applications are running in full-screen or windowed mode, and in one Windows session or several, it is possible to use DDE between OS/2
OS/2
and Windows applications, and OLE between Windows applications only.[31] 1994–1996: The "Warp" years[edit]

OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4 desktop after installation

Released in 1994, OS/2
OS/2
version 3.0 was labelled as OS/2
OS/2
Warp to highlight the new performance benefits, and generally to freshen the product image. "Warp" had originally been the internal IBM
IBM
name for the release: IBM
IBM
claimed that it had used Star Trek
Star Trek
terms as internal names for prior OS/2
OS/2
releases, and that this one seemed appropriate for external use as well. At the launch of OS/2
OS/2
Warp in 1994, Patrick Stewart was to be the Master of Ceremonies; however Kate Mulgrew[32] of the then-upcoming series Star Trek: Voyager was substituted at the last minute.[33][34]:p. 108 OS/2
OS/2
Warp offers a host of benefits over OS/2
OS/2
2.1, notably broader hardware support, greater multimedia capabilities, Internet-compatible networking, and it includes a basic office application suite known as IBM
IBM
Works. It was released in two versions: the less expensive "Red Spine" and the more expensive "Blue Spine" (named for the color of their boxes). "Red Spine" was designed to support Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows applications by utilizing any existing installation of Windows on the computer's hard drive. "Blue Spine" includes Windows support in its own installation, and so can support Windows applications without a Windows installation. As most computers were sold with Microsoft Windows pre-installed and the price was less, "Red Spine" was the more popular product.[citation needed] OS/2
OS/2
Warp Connect—which has full LAN client support built-in—followed in mid-1995. Warp Connect was nicknamed "Grape".[13] In OS/2
OS/2
2.0, most performance-sensitive subsystems, including the graphics (Gre) and multimedia (MMPM/2) systems, were updated to 32-bit code in a fixpack, and included as part of OS/2
OS/2
2.1. Warp 3 brought about a fully 32-bit
32-bit
windowing system, while Warp 4 introduced the object-oriented 32-bit
32-bit
GRADD display driver model.

Mozilla 1.7.13 for OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4

Firefox 3.5.4 for OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4

In 1996, Warp 4 added Java and speech recognition software. IBM
IBM
also released server editions of Warp 3 and Warp 4 which bundled IBM's LAN Server product directly into the operating system installation. A personal version of Lotus Notes was also included, with a number of template databases for contact management, brainstorming, and so forth. The UK-distributed free demo CD-ROM
CD-ROM
of OS/2
OS/2
Warp essentially contained the entire OS and was easily, even accidentally, cracked[clarification needed], meaning that even people who liked it did not have to buy it. This was seen as a backdoor tactic to increase the number of OS/2
OS/2
users, in the belief that this would increase sales and demand for third-party applications, and thus strengthen OS/2's desktop numbers.[citation needed] This suggestion was bolstered by the fact that this demo version had replaced another which was not so easily cracked, but which had been released with trial versions of various applications.[citation needed] In 2000, the July edition of Australian Personal Computer
Australian Personal Computer
magazine bundled software CD-ROMs, included a full version of Warp 4 that required no activation and was essentially a free release. Special
Special
versions of OS/2
OS/2
2.11 and Warp 4 also included symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) support. OS/2
OS/2
sales were largely concentrated in networked computing used by corporate professionals; however, by the early 1990s, it was overtaken by Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows NT. While OS/2
OS/2
was arguably technically superior to Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows 95, OS/2
OS/2
failed to develop much penetration in the consumer and stand-alone desktop PC segments; there were reports that it could not be installed properly on IBM's own Aptiva series of home PCs.[35] Microsoft
Microsoft
made an offer in 1994 where IBM
IBM
would receive the same terms as Compaq
Compaq
(the largest PC manufacturer at the time) for a license of Windows 95, if IBM
IBM
ended development of OS/2
OS/2
completely. IBM
IBM
refused and instead went with an " IBM
IBM
First" strategy of promoting OS/2
OS/2
Warp and disparaging Windows, as IBM
IBM
aimed to drive sales of its own software as well as hardware. By 1995, Windows 95
Windows 95
negotiations between IBM
IBM
and Microsoft, which were already difficult, stalled when IBM
IBM
purchased Lotus SmartSuite, which would have directly competed with Microsoft
Microsoft
Office. As a result of the dispute, IBM
IBM
signed the license agreement 15 minutes before Microsoft's Windows 95
Windows 95
launch event, which was later than their competitors and this badly hurt sales of IBM
IBM
PCs. IBM
IBM
officials later conceded that OS/2
OS/2
would not have been a viable operating system to keep them in the PC business.[36][37] Workplace OS[edit]

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Main article: Workplace OS In 1991 IBM
IBM
started development on an intended replacement for OS/2 called Workplace OS. This was an entirely new product, brand new code, that borrowed only a few sections of code from both the existing OS/2 and AIX products. It used an entirely new microkernel code base, intended (eventually) to host several of IBM's operating systems (including OS/2) as microkernel "personalities". It also included major new architectural features including a system registry, JFS, support for UNIX graphics libraries, and a new driver model.[38] Workplace OS was developed solely for POWER platforms, and IBM intended to market a full line of PowerPCs in an effort to take over the market from Intel. A mission was formed to create prototypes of these machines and they were disclosed to several Corporate customers, all of whom raised issues with the idea of dropping Intel. Advanced plans for the new code base would eventually include replacement of the OS/400 operating system by Workplace OS, as well as a microkernel product that would have been used in industries such as telecommunications and set-top television receivers. A partial pre-alpha version of Workplace OS was demonstrated at Comdex where a bemused Bill Gates
Bill Gates
stopped by the booth. The second and last time it was shown in public was at an OS/2
OS/2
user group in Phoenix AZ, where the pre-alpha code refused to boot. It was released in 1995. But with $990 million being spent per year on development of this as well as Workplace OS, and no possible profit or widespread adoption, the end of the entire Workplace OS and OS/2 product line was near. Downsizing[edit]

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A project was launched internally by IBM
IBM
to evaluate the looming competitive situation with Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows 95. Primary concerns included the major code quality issues in the existing OS/2
OS/2
product (resulting in over 20 service packs, each requiring more diskettes than the original installation), and the ineffective and heavily matrixed development organization in Boca Raton (where the consultants reported that "basically, everybody reports to everybody") and Austin. That study, tightly classified as "Registered Confidential" and printed only in numbered copies, identified untenable weaknesses and failures across the board in the Personal Systems Division as well as across IBM
IBM
as a whole. This resulted in a decision being made at a level above the Division to cut over 95% of the overall budget for the entire product line, end all new development (including Workplace OS), eliminate the Boca Raton development lab, end all sales and marketing efforts of the product, and lay off over 1,300 development individuals (as well as sales and support personnel). $990 million had been spent in the last full year. Warp 4 became the last distributed version of OS/2. 2001: Fading out[edit]

An ATM in Australia
Australia
running OS/2
OS/2
Warp

A small and dedicated community remained faithful to OS/2
OS/2
for many years after its final mainstream release,[39] but overall, OS/2
OS/2
failed to catch on in the mass market and is little used outside certain niches where IBM
IBM
traditionally had a stronghold. For example, many bank installations, especially automated teller machines, run OS/2 with a customized user interface; French SNCF
SNCF
national railways used OS/2
OS/2
1.x in thousands of ticket selling machines.[citation needed] Telecom companies such as Nortel
Nortel
use OS/2
OS/2
in some voicemail systems. Also, OS/2
OS/2
was used for the host PC used to control the Satellite Operations Support System equipment installed at NPR
NPR
member stations from 1994 to 2007, and used to receive the network's programming via satellite.[citation needed] Although IBM
IBM
began indicating shortly after the release of Warp 4 that OS/2
OS/2
would eventually be withdrawn, the company did not end support until December 31, 2006.[40] Sales of OS/2
OS/2
stopped on December 23, 2005. The latest IBM
IBM
version is 4.52, which was released for both desktop and server systems in December 2001. Serenity Systems has been reselling OS/2
OS/2
since 2001, calling it eComStation. Version 1.2 was released in 2004. After a series of preliminary "release candidates," version 2.0 GA (General Availability) was released on 15 May 2010.[41] eComStation version 2.1 GA was released on May 20, 2011.[42] IBM
IBM
is still delivering defect support for a fee.[40][43] IBM
IBM
urges customers to migrate their often highly complex applications to e-business technologies such as Java in a platform-neutral manner. Once application migration is completed, IBM
IBM
recommends migration to a different operating system, suggesting Linux
Linux
as an alternative.[44][45][46] Virtualization[edit]

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As of 2008[update], support for running OS/2
OS/2
under virtualization appears to be improving in several third-party products. OS/2
OS/2
has historically been more difficult to run in a virtual machine than most other legacy x86 operating systems because of its extensive reliance on the full set of features of the x86 CPU; in particular, OS/2's use of ring 2 prevented it from running in VMware.[47] Emulators such as QEMU
QEMU
and Bochs
Bochs
don't suffer from this problem and can run OS/2.[citation needed] A beta of VMWare Workstation 2.0 released in January 2000 was the first hypervisor that could run OS/2
OS/2
at all. Later, the company decided to drop official OS/2
OS/2
support. VirtualPC
VirtualPC
from Microsoft
Microsoft
(originally Connectix) has been able to run OS/2
OS/2
without hardware virtualization support for many years. It also provided “additions” code which greatly improves host-guest OS interactions in OS/2. The additions are not provided with the current version of VirtualPC, but the version last included with a release may still be used with current releases. At one point, OS/2
OS/2
was a supported host for VirtualPC
VirtualPC
in addition to a guest. Note that OS/2 runs only as a guest on those versions of VirtualPC
VirtualPC
that use virtualization (x86 based hosts) and not those doing full emulation ( VirtualPC
VirtualPC
for Mac). VirtualBox
VirtualBox
from Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation
(originally InnoTek, later Sun) supports OS/2
OS/2
Warp 3, 4 and 4.5 as well as eComStation as guests. However, attempting to run OS/2
OS/2
and eComStation can still be difficult, if not impossible, because of the strict requirements of VT-x/AMD-V hardware-enabled virtualization and only ACP2/MCP2 is reported to work in a reliable manner.[48] The difficulties in efficiently running OS/2
OS/2
have, at least once, created an opportunity for a new virtualization company. A large bank in Moscow needed a way to use OS/2
OS/2
on newer hardware that OS/2
OS/2
did not support. As virtualization software is an easy way around this, the company desired to run OS/2
OS/2
under a hypervisor. Once it was determined that VMware
VMware
was not a possibility, it hired a group of Russian software developers to write a host-based hypervisor that would officially support OS/2. Thus, the Parallels, Inc.
Parallels, Inc.
company and their Parallels Workstation was born.[49] ATMs[edit] ATM vendors NCR Corporation
NCR Corporation
and Diebold
Diebold
Incorporated have both adopted Windows XP
Windows XP
as their migration path from OS/2.[citation needed] Diebold
Diebold
Incorporated initially shipped XP Embedded Edition exclusively, but following extensive pressure from customer banks to support a common OS, switched to XP Professional to match their primary competitor NCR Corporation.[citation needed] Security niche[edit] OS/2
OS/2
has few native computer viruses;[50] while it is not invulnerable by design, its reduced market share appears to have discouraged virus writers. There are, however, OS/2-based antivirus programs, dealing with DOS
DOS
viruses and Windows viruses that could pass through an OS/2 server.[citation needed] Petitions for open source[edit] Many people hoped that IBM
IBM
would release OS/2
OS/2
or a significant part of it as open source. Petitions were held in 2005 and 2007, but IBM refused them, citing legal and technical reasons.[51] It is unlikely that the entire OS will be open at any point in the future because it contains third-party code to which IBM
IBM
does not have copyright, and much of this code is from Microsoft. IBM
IBM
also once engaged in a technology transfer with Commodore, licensing Amiga
Amiga
technology for OS/2
OS/2
2.0 and above, in exchange for the REXX
REXX
scripting language.[52] This means that OS/2
OS/2
may have some code that was not written by IBM, which can therefore prevent the OS from being re-announced as open-sourced in the future.[53][54] On the other hand, IBM
IBM
donated Object REXX
REXX
for Windows and OS/2
OS/2
to the Open Object REXX
REXX
project maintained by the REXX
REXX
Language Association on Sourceforge.[55] There was a petition, arranged by OS2World, to open parts of the OS. Open source
Open source
operating systems such as Linux
Linux
have already profited from OS/2
OS/2
indirectly through IBM's release of the improved JFS file system, which was ported from the OS/2
OS/2
code base. As IBM
IBM
didn't release the source of the OS/2
OS/2
JFS driver, developers ported the Linux
Linux
driver back to eComStation and added the functionality to boot from a JFS partition. This new JFS driver has been integrated into eComStation v2.0, the successor of OS/2. Summary of releases[edit] Release dates refer to the US English editions unless otherwise noted.[56] [57]

Date Version

December 1987 OS/2
OS/2
1.0

November 1988 OS/2
OS/2
1.1

October 1989 OS/2
OS/2
1.2

December 1990 OS/2
OS/2
1.3

October 1991 OS/2
OS/2
2.0 LA (Limited Availability)

April 1992 OS/2
OS/2
2.0

October 1992 OS/2
OS/2
2.00.1

November 1993 OS/2
OS/2
for Windows

February 1994 OS/2
OS/2
2.11

July 1994 OS/2
OS/2
2.11 SMP

October 1994 OS/2
OS/2
Warp

May 1995 OS/2
OS/2
Warp Connect

December 1995 OS/2
OS/2
Warp, PowerPC
PowerPC
Edition

February 1996 OS/2
OS/2
Warp Server 4

September 1996 OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4

September 1996 OS/2
OS/2
Warp Server Advanced SMP

November 1997 WorkSpace On-Demand 1.0

October 1998 WorkSpace On-Demand 2.0

April 1999 OS/2
OS/2
Warp Server for e-Business (version 4.50)

November 2000 OS/2
OS/2
Convenience Pack 1 (version 4.51)

November 2001 OS/2
OS/2
Convenience Pack 2 (version 4.52)

Technology[edit] The graphic system has a layer named Presentation Manager that manages windows, fonts, and icons. This is similar in functionality to a non-networked version of X11
X11
or the Windows GDI. On top of this lies the Workplace Shell
Workplace Shell
(WPS) introduced in OS/2
OS/2
2.0. WPS is an object-oriented shell allowing the user to perform traditional computing tasks such as accessing files, printers, launching legacy programs, and advanced object oriented tasks using built-in and third-party application objects that extended the shell in an integrated fashion not available on any other mainstream operating system. WPS follows IBM's Common User Access user interface standards. Hardware vendors were reluctant to support device drivers for alternative operating systems including OS/2
OS/2
and Linux, leaving users with few choices from a select few vendors. To relieve this issue for video cards, IBM
IBM
licensed a reduced version of the Scitech display drivers, allowing users to choose from a wide selection of cards supported through Scitech's modular driver design.[58] WPS represents objects such as disks, folders, files, program objects, and printers using the System Object Model
System Object Model
(SOM), which allows code to be shared among applications, possibly written in different programming languages. A distributed version called DSOM allowed objects on different computers to communicate. DSOM is based on CORBA. The object oriented aspect of SOM is similar to, and a direct competitor to, Microsoft's Component Object Model, though it is implemented in a radically different manner; for instance, one of the most notable differences between SOM and COM is SOM's support for inheritance (one of the most fundamental concepts of OO programming)—COM does not have such support. SOM and DSOM are no longer being developed. OS/2
OS/2
also includes a radical advancement in application development with compound document technology called OpenDoc, which was developed with Apple. OpenDoc proved interesting as a technology, but was not widely used or accepted by users or developers. OpenDoc is also no longer being developed. The multimedia capabilities of OS/2
OS/2
are accessible through Media Control Interface commands. The last update (bundled with the IBM version of Netscape Navigator
Netscape Navigator
plugins) added support for MPEG
MPEG
files. Support for newer formats like PNG, progressive JPEG, DivX, Ogg, MP3 comes from third parties. Sometimes it is integrated with the multimedia system, but in other offers it comes as standalone applications. The TCP/IP stack
TCP/IP stack
is based on the open source BSD
BSD
stack as visible with SCCS what compatible tools. Problems[edit] Some problems were classic subjects of comparison with other operating systems:

Synchronous input queue (SIQ): if a GUI application was not servicing its window messages, the entire GUI system could get stuck and a reboot was required. This problem was considerably reduced with later Warp 3 fixpacks and refined by Warp 4, by taking control over the application after it had not responded for several seconds.[59] No unified object handles ( OS/2
OS/2
v2.11 and earlier): The availability of threads probably led system designers to overlook mechanisms which allow a single thread to wait for different types of asynchronous events at the same time, for example the keyboard and the mouse in a "console" program. Even though select was added later, it only worked on network sockets. In case of a console program, dedicating a separate thread for waiting on each source of events made it difficult to properly release all the input devices before starting other programs in the same "session". As a result, console programs usually polled the keyboard and the mouse alternately, which resulted in wasted CPU and a characteristic "jerky" reactivity to user input. In OS/2
OS/2
3.0 IBM
IBM
introduced a new call for this specific problem.[60]

Historical uses[edit]

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OS/2
OS/2
has been widely used in Iran Export Bank (Bank Saderat Iran) in their teller machines, ATMs and local servers (over 30,000 working stations). As of 2011, the bank moved to virtualize and renew their infrastructure by moving OS/2
OS/2
to Virtual Machines running over Windows. OS/2
OS/2
was widely used in Brazilian banks. Banco do Brasil
Banco do Brasil
had a peak 10,000 machines running OS/2
OS/2
Warp in the 1990s. OS/2
OS/2
was used in automated teller machines until 2006. The workstations and automated teller machines and attendant computers have been migrated to Linux.[61] OS/2
OS/2
has been used in the banking industry. Suncorp
Suncorp
bank in Australia still ran its ATM network on OS/2
OS/2
as late as 2002. ATMs in Perisher Blue used OS/2
OS/2
as late as 2009, and even the turn of the decade.[62] OS/2
OS/2
was widely adopted by accounting professionals and auditing companies. In mid-1990s native 32-bit
32-bit
accounting software were well developed and serving corporate markets. OS/2
OS/2
ran the faulty baggage handling system at Denver International Airport. The OS was eventually scrapped, but the software written for the system led to massive delays in the opening of the new airport. The OS itself was not at fault, but the software written to run on the OS. The baggage handling system was eventually removed. OS/2
OS/2
was used by radio personality Howard Stern. He once had a 10-minute on-air rant about OS/2
OS/2
versus Windows 95
Windows 95
and recommended OS/2. He also used OS/2
OS/2
on his IBM
IBM
760CD laptop. OS/2
OS/2
was used as part of the Satellite Operations Support System (SOSS) for NPR's Public Radio Satellite System. SOSS was a computer-controlled system using OS/2
OS/2
that NPR
NPR
member stations used to receive programming feeds via satellite. SOSS was introduced in 1994 using OS/2
OS/2
3.0, and was retired in 2007, when NPR
NPR
switched over to its successor, the ContentDepot. OS/2
OS/2
was used to control the SkyTrain automated light rail system in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada until the late 2000s when it was replaced by Windows XP. OS/2
OS/2
was used in the London Underground
London Underground
Jubilee Line Extension
Jubilee Line Extension
Signals Control System (JLESCS) in London, UK. This control system delivered by Alcatel was in use from 1999 to 2011 i.e. between abandonment before opening of the line's unimplemented original automatic train control system and the present SelTrac system. JLESCS did not provide automatic train operation only manual train supervision. Six OS/2 local site computers were distributed along the railway between Stratford and Westminster, the shunting tower at Stratford depot, and several formed the central equipment located at Neasden. It was once intended to cover the rest of the line between Green Park and Stanmore but this was never introduced. OS/2
OS/2
has been used by The Co-operative Bank
The Co-operative Bank
in the UK for its domestic call centre staff, using a bespoke program created to access customer accounts which cannot easily be migrated to Windows. OS/2
OS/2
has been used by the Stop & Shop supermarket chain (and has been installed in new stores as recently as March 2010). OS/2
OS/2
has been used on ticket machines for Croydon Tramlink
Croydon Tramlink
in outer-London (UK). OS/2
OS/2
has been used in New York City’s subway system for MetroCards.[63] OS/2
OS/2
was used in checkout systems at Safeway supermarkets.[63] OS/2
OS/2
was used by Trenitalia, both for the desktops at Ticket Counters and for the Automatic Ticket Counters up to 2011. Incidentally, the Automatic Ticket Counters with OS/2
OS/2
were more reliable than the current ones running a flavor of Windows.[citation needed] OS/2
OS/2
was used as the main operating system for Abbey National General Insurance motor and home direct call centre products using the PMSC Series III insurance platform on DB2.2 from 1996-2001 Awards[edit] BYTE
BYTE
in 1989 listed OS/2
OS/2
as among the "Excellence" winners of the BYTE Awards, stating that it "is today where the Macintosh was in 1984: It's a development platform in search of developers". The magazine predicted that "When it's complete and bug-free, when it can really use the 80386, and when more desktops sport OS/2-capable PCs, OS/2 will—deservedly—supersede DOS. But even as it stands, OS/2
OS/2
is a milestone product".[64] In March 1995 OS/2
OS/2
won seven awards[65]

InfoWorld Product of the Year.[66] Five Awards at CeBIT.

PC Professional Magazine - Innovation of the Year award. CHIP Magazine named OS/2
OS/2
Warp the Operating System of the Year. DOS
DOS
International named OS/2
OS/2
Warp the Operating System of the Year. 1+1 Magazine awarded it with the Software Marketing Quality award. Industrie Forum awarded it with its Design Excellence.

SPA Best Business Software Award.

IBM
IBM
products utilizing OS/2[edit] IBM
IBM
has used OS/2
OS/2
in a wide variety of hardware products, effectively as a form of embedded operating system.

Product Nature of Product How was OS/2
OS/2
used?

IBM
IBM
3494 Tape Library Used as the operating system for the Library Manager (LM) that controlled the tape accessor (robot)[67]

IBM
IBM
3745 Communications Controller Used as the operating system for the Service Processor (SP) and if installed, the Network Node Processor (NNP).[68]

IBM
IBM
3890 Document Processor The 3890/XP1 was announced November 12, 1988. It initially used OS/2 1.1 Extended Edition[69] on a PS/2 Model 80 to emulate the stacker control software that previously ran on a System 360. IBM
IBM
later switched to OS/2
OS/2
Warp.[70]

IBM
IBM
473x ATM Used in a range of Automatic Teller Machines manufactured by IBM. Was also used in later 478x ATMs manufactured with Diebold.

IBM
IBM
9672 Mainframe Used as the operating system for the Support Element (SE).[71] Was also used in later mainframe models such as the IBM
IBM
2064 and 2074.[72]

See also[edit]

History of the graphical user interface Multiple Virtual DOS Machine (MVDM) - OS/2
OS/2
virtual DOS
DOS
machine and seamless Windows integration Team OS/2

References[edit]

^ Matthew Nawrocki (26 February 2013). "Preview: eComStation 2.2 Beta, the legacy of OS/2
OS/2
lives on". TechRepublic. TechRepublic. Retrieved 22 September 2013.  ^ Nuska, Andrew (June 21, 2013). "Ed Iacobucci, co-founder of Citrix, dies of cancer". ZD Net. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^ McCracken, Harry (April 2, 2012). "25 Years of IBM's OS/2: The Strange Days and Surprising Afterlife of a Legendary Operating System". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^ Markoff, John (June 28, 1992). "I.B.M. and Microsoft
Microsoft
Settle Operating-System Feud". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^ Michal Necasek (2001-09-08). " OS/2
OS/2
1.3: Ten Years Ago". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.  ^ IBM
IBM
(12 July 2005). "Changes in support for IBM
IBM
OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4 and OS/2 Warp Server for e-business". ibm.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.  ^ James Sanders (2015). "OS/2: Blue Lion to be the next distro of the 28-year-old OS".  ^ James Sanders (2016). " OS/2
OS/2
resurrected: Blue Lion becomes ArcaOS, details emerge for upcoming release".  ^ Sharwood, Simon (19 May 2017). "What is dead may never die: a new version of OS/2
OS/2
just arrived". The Register.  ^ IBM
IBM
and Microsoft
Microsoft
(1985). "Joint Development Agreement Between IBM and Microsoft" (PDF). Retrieved March 25, 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ Michal Necasek (April 2, 1987). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Operating System/2 With Windows Presentation Manager Provides Foundation for Next Generation of Personal Computer Industry". The History of OS/2
OS/2
(Press release). Archived from the original on April 10, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2013.  ^ Michal Necasek (2001-07-16). " OS/2
OS/2
1.0". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2010-08-11.  ^ a b David Both (May 2, 2012) [originally published December 19, 1996]. "A Short History of OS/2". Data Book
Book
for OS/2
OS/2
Warp. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ H. Gilbert (1995). "HPFS". Das Boot. PC Lube and Tune. Archived from the original on 2006-07-14.  ^ Bob Eager (28 October 2000). "Implementation of extended attributes on the FAT file system". Tavi Systems.  ^ Iacobucci, Ed; foreword by Bill Gates
Bill Gates
(1988). "Foreword". OS/2 Programmer's Guide. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 0-07-881300-X. I believe OS/2
OS/2
is destined to be the most important operating system, and possibly program, of all time. As the successor to DOS, which has over 10,000,000 systems in use, it creates incredible opportunities for everyone involved with PCs.  ^ Mary Bellis. "The Unusual History of the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows". about.com.  ^ Thomas Hormby (25 May 2005). "Windows History (1985–1994)". osviews.com. Archived from the original on March 12, 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ Michal Necasek (2001-10-29). " OS/2
OS/2
1.1 and 1.2: The Early Years". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13.  ^ Paul Thurrott (24 January 2003). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2003: The Road To Gold". winsupersite.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010.  ^ Gates, Bill; Myhrvold, Nathan; Rinearson, Peter. The Road Ahead. ISBN 0-670-77289-5.  ^ Michael Lee Vasu; Debra W. Stewart; G. David Garson (1998-03-03). Organizational behavior and public management. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-8247-0135-2.  ^ Gordon Letwin. ""What's happening to OS/2," a Usenet post by Gordon Letwin from August 1995, the point of view of a Microsoft
Microsoft
employee". Google Groups.  ^ Gates, Bill. " Bill Gates
Bill Gates
Interview". Computer History Collection (transcript of a Video History interview). Interview with David Allison. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 10, 2013.  ^ Microsoft
Microsoft
(2000). Inside Out, Microsoft—In Our Own Words. Warner Business Books. ISBN 0-446-52739-4.  ^ Microsoft. "Compatibility of OS/2-based Applications and APIs". Microsoft
Microsoft
TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ Robert X. Cringely (27 April 2006). "Killer Apps: For Apple's Windows Strategy to Work, It Must Replace Microsoft
Microsoft
Office and Buy Adobe Systems". pbs.org.  ^ Microsoft
Microsoft
(6 November 1999). " Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1
Standard Mode and the VCPI". support.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013.  ^ Christian Alice Scarborough (15 September 1998). "Team OS/2 Frequently Asked Questions".  ^ " OS/2
OS/2
Games Setting Archive". Game Zero magazine. 6 March 1995.  ^ Timothy F. Sipples (20 February 1995). " OS/2
OS/2
Warp Frequently Asked Questions List".  ^ "Biography for Kate Mulgrew". Internet
Internet
Movie Database. In 1996, was contracted by IBM
IBM
to help promote the latest release of OS/2
OS/2
Warp, version 4 (previously codenamed Merlin), due to associations with Star Trek.  ^ "In Search of Stupidity, Excerpts from Chapter 6". Insearchofstupidity.com. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ Chapman, Merrill R. In Search of Stupidity: Over 20 Years of High-tech Marketing Disasters (paperback) (2nd ed.). Berkeley, California: Apress. ISBN 9781590597217. OCLC 71275572. Lay summary – Amazon. They rented a hall in New York City
New York City
and invited hundreds to see Patrick Stewart, the then current captain of the Starship Enterprise to help roll out the product in a gala event. (Stewart was a no-show.)  ^ Lewis, Peter H. (8 August 1995). "PERSONAL COMPUTERS; OS/2
OS/2
No Longer at Home at Home". The New York Times.  ^ Wasserman, Elizabeth (June 8, 1999). "MS/DoJ: Microsoft
Microsoft
urged IBM
IBM
to yank Smart Suite". PC World.  ^ "C. The Similar Experiences of Other Firms in Dealing with Microsoft". Albion.com. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ Fleisch, Brett D; Allan, Mark (September 23, 1997). "Workplace Microkernel
Microkernel
and OS: A Case Study". John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2013.  ^ "OS2 World Community Forum – Index". Os2world.com. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ a b IBM. "End of Standard Support".  ^ "News :: eComStation 2.0 GA to be Released for Warpstock Europe 2010". eComStation. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ "News :: eComStation 2.1 GA available". eComStation. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ " OS/2
OS/2
Warp: Warranties and Licenses". IBM. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ "Migration Station". Archived from the original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ " IBM
IBM
Redbooks OS/2
OS/2
Server Transition". Redbooks.ibm.com. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ "3346/GEN/K (1–32) (Page 1)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-20.  ^ The VMware
VMware
Team. "A Notice to OS/2
OS/2
Users". Archived from the original on 2006-04-20.  ^ VirtualBox. " VirtualBox
VirtualBox
Guest_OSes".  ^ Timothy Prickett Morgan. "Breaking News—Parallels Joins the PC and Server Virtualization Fray". itjungle.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03.  ^ John F. Morar, David M. Chess. "the effect of computer viruses on OS/2
OS/2
and Warp". research.ibm.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04.  ^ "Slashdot: IBM
IBM
Won't Open-Source OS/2".  ^ " OS/2
OS/2
Warp History". Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ " IBM
IBM
OS/2
OS/2
Warp History". 2004-06-24. [not in citation given] ^ The Art of Unix
Unix
Programming p. 66 ISBN 0-13-142901-9, ISBN 978-0-13-142901-7 ^ "Open Object REXX
REXX
FAQ". Retrieved 2011-07-05.  ^ " OS/2
OS/2
Timeline". OS/2
OS/2
Museum. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "PC Magazine (archives scanned by Google)" (PDF). PC Magazine. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " OS/2
OS/2
to Linux
Linux
Client Transition" (PDF). IBM
IBM
redbook. 2004. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2011-07-05.  ^ see IBM
IBM
Developer Connection for OS/2, Internal Fixpack 12J ^ KbdGetConsole() and DosWaitMuxWaitSem(), see Control Program Programming Guide and Reference, IBM
IBM
OS/2
OS/2
Toolkit ^ "Brazilian banks look to Linux
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for ATMs". [permanent dead link] ^ "NetIQ Manages Over 1000 Windows Servers for One of Australia's Largest Banks; ANZ Bank Completes Roll Out of NetIQ Management Software to 1,300 Servers" (fee). Business Wire. January 24, 2002. Retrieved 2010-01-24.  ^ a b McCracken, Harry (April 2, 2012). "25 Years of IBM's OS/2: The Strange Days and Surprising Afterlife of a Legendary Operating System". Technologizer. Time.com. Retrieved April 9, 2013.  ^ "The BYTE
BYTE
Awards". BYTE. January 1989. p. 327.  ^ "IBM's Developer Support News 1995 Issue 4".  ^ "InfoWorld 25 Mar 1996".  ^ IBM
IBM
TotalStorage 3494 Tape Library: A Practical Guide to Tape Drives and Tape Automation. IBM. 2009. p. 420. ISBN 0-7384-3222-9.  ^ " IBM
IBM
3746 Software Plan" (PDF). IBM.  ^ " IBM
IBM
Announcement Letter". IBM. Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ " IBM
IBM
Announcement Letter". Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ "Support Element Operations Guide". Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ " IBM
IBM
2074 Model 2 Console Support Controller — Consolidating and Streamlining Console Support Function". Retrieved 19 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Harvey M. Deitel and Michael S. Kogan (1992). The Design of OS/2. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-54889-5.  Letwin, Gordon (1988). Inside OS/2. Microsoft
Microsoft
Press. ISBN 1-55615-117-9.  Pascal, Zachary (1994). Showstopper! The Breakneck Race to Create Windows NT
Windows NT
and the Next Generation at Microsoft. Warner Books. ISBN 0-02-935671-7.  Peter Moylan (2004-07-23). "Some fundamental OS/2
OS/2
concepts".  Michal Necasek (2005-12-03). " OS/2
OS/2
Warp, PowerPC
PowerPC
Edition". The History of OS/2. Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2013. —Necasek discusses an aborted port to PowerPC machines. Reimer, Jeremy. "Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2". Retrieved 12 December 2013. 

External links[edit]

os2world.com – Community of OS/2
OS/2
users ecomstation.ru – Community of eComStation and OS/2
OS/2
users netlabs.org – OpenSource Software for OS/2
OS/2
and eCS OS/2
OS/2
FAQ hobbes.nmsu.edu – The OS/2
OS/2
software repository EDM/2 – The source for OS/2
OS/2
developers eCSoft/2 – The OS/2
OS/2
and eComstation software guide osFree an open source project to build an OS/2
OS/2
clone operating system Voyager Project, a defunct project to reimplement OS/2
OS/2
on modern technology OS/2
OS/2
to Linux
Linux
API porting project Open Source OS/2
OS/2
API implementation for Windows Microsoft
Microsoft
documentation of OS/2
OS/2
API compatibility with Windows NT The History of OS/2 Technical details of OS/2 OS/2
OS/2
Warp 4 Installation and Update Manual; with boot disks and many links

v t e

IBM

History

History of IBM Mergers and acquisitions Think (motto) Operating Systems

Products

Cell microprocessor Mainframe Personal Computer IBM
IBM
Power Systems Information Management Software Lotus Software Rational Software SPSS ILOG Tivoli Software: Service Automation Manager WebSphere alphaWorks Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History Mashup Center PureQuery Redbooks FlashSystem Fortran Connections

Business entities

Center for The Business of Government Cloud computing Global Services International subsidiaries jStart Kenexa Research The Weather Company
The Weather Company
(Weather Underground)

Facilities

Towers

1250 René-Lévesque, Montreal, QC One Atlantic Center, Atlanta, GA

Software Labs

Rome Software Lab Toronto Software Lab

IBM
IBM
Buildings

330 North Wabash, Chicago, IL Johannesburg Seattle

Research Labs

Africa Almaden Austin Laboratory Australia Brazil China Laboratory Haifa Laboratory India Laboratory Ireland Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Center, New York Tokyo Zurich Laboratory

Facilities

Hakozaki Facility Yamato Facility

Cambridge Scientific Center IBM
IBM
Hursley Canada Head Office Building IBM
IBM
Rochester Somers Office Complex

Initiatives

Academy of Technology Centers for Advanced Studies: CASCON Deep Thunder IBM
IBM
Fellow Pulse conference The Great Mind Challenge DeveloperWorks: Develothon Linux
Linux
Technology Center IBM
IBM
Virtual Universe Community Smarter Planet World Community Grid

Inventions

Automated teller machine Electronic keypunch Hard disk drive Floppy disk DRAM Relational model Selectric typewriter Financial swaps Universal Product Code Magnetic stripe card Sabre airline reservation system Scanning tunneling microscope

Terminology

Globally Integrated Enterprise Commercial Processing Workload Consumability e-business

CEOs

Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
(1914–1956) Thomas Watson Jr.
Thomas Watson Jr.
(1956–1971) T. Vincent Learson
T. Vincent Learson
(1971–1973) Frank T. Cary (1973–1981) John R. Opel (1981–1985) John Fellows Akers (1985–1993) Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
(1993–2002) Samuel J. Palmisano
Samuel J. Palmisano
(2002–2011) Ginni Rometty
Ginni Rometty
(2012–present)

Board of directors

Alain Belda William R. Brody Kenneth Chenault Michael L. Eskew David Farr Shirley Ann Jackson Andrew N. Liveris James McNerney James W. Owens Samuel J. Palmisano Virginia M. Rometty Joan E. Spero Sidney Taurel Lorenzo Zambrano

Other

A Boy and His Atom Common Public License/ IBM
IBM
Public License Customer engineer Deep Blue Deep Thought Dynamic infrastructure GUIDE International IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust IBM
IBM
international chess tournament Lucifer cipher Mathematica IBM
IBM
Plex SHARE computing ScicomP Watson Quantum Experience

v t e

Operating systems by Microsoft

Desktop

Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows

9x NT CE

MS-DOS MSX-DOS OS/2 Xenix

Mobile

Nokia Asha platform KIN OS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Zune Windows 10
Windows 10
Mobile

Console

Xbox Xbox 360 Xbox One

Projects

Barrelfish Bigtop Cairo HomeOS Linux
Linux
distros MIDAS Midori Singularity Verve

v t e

Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows family

Components History Timeline Criticism

DOS-based

Windows 1.0 Windows 2.0 Windows 2.1x Windows 3.0 Windows 3.1x

Windows 9x

Windows 95
Windows 95
(Development) Windows 98 Windows ME

Windows NT

Windows NT
Windows NT
3.1 Windows NT
Windows NT
3.5 Windows NT
Windows NT
3.51 Windows NT
Windows NT
4.0 Windows 2000

Client versions

Windows XP

editions x64 Media Center Fundamentals

Windows Vista

editions

Windows 7

editions

Windows 8

editions RT

8.1 Windows 10

editions version history

Windows Server

Server 2003

Home Server

Server 2008

EBS 2008 HPC Server 2008

Server 2008 R2

Home Server 2011

Server 2012 Server 2012 R2 Server 2016 Server 2019 MultiPoint Server Server Essentials

Specialized

Windows Preinstallation Environment

Windows Embedded

Embedded Compact

CE 5.0 Embedded CE 6.0 Embedded Compact 7

Embedded Automotive Embedded Industry

Windows Mobile

Pocket PC 2000 Pocket PC 2002 Mobile 2003 Mobile 5.0 Mobile 6.0 Mobile 6.1 Mobile 6.5

Windows Phone

Phone 7 Phone 8 Phone 8.1 Windows 10
Windows 10
Mobile

Cancelled

Cairo Nashville Neptune Odyssey

List of versions Comparison Book Category

v t e

Operating systems by IBM

Desktop / Workstation

OS/2 PC DOS AOS AIX

Server / Mainframe

IBSYS BOS/360 TOS/360 TSS/360 DOS/360 and successors

VSE

OS/360 and successors

OS/VS1 SVS MVS OS/390 z/OS

VM line ACP TPF CPF IBM
IBM
i AIX zLinux DPCX DPPX SSP SRTOS

Point of Sale

4680 OS 4690 OS

Projects

Taligent Workplace OS Project Monterey Project Trillian K42

v t e

Operating systems

General

Advocacy Comparison Forensic engineering History Hobbyist development List Timeline Usage share

Kernel

Architectures

Exokernel Hybrid Microkernel Monolithic Rump kernel Unikernel

Components

Device driver Loadable kernel module Microkernel User space

Process management

Concepts

Context switch Interrupt IPC Process Process control block Real-time Thread Time-sharing

Scheduling algorithms

Computer multitasking Fixed-priority preemptive Multilevel feedback queue Preemptive Round-robin Shortest job next

Memory management
Memory management
and resource protection

Bus error General protection fault Memory protection Paging Protection ring Segmentation fault Virtual memory

Storage access and file systems

Boot loader Defragmentation Device file File
File
attribute Inode Journal Partition Virtual file system Virtual tape library

List

AmigaOS Android BeOS BSD Chrome OS CP/M DOS GNU Haiku illumos IncludeOS iOS Linux Macintosh

Classic Mac OS macOS

MINIX MorphOS MUSIC/SP Nemesis NeXTSTEP NOS OpenVMS ORVYL OS/2 OSv Pick QNX ReactOS RISC OS RSTS/E RSX-11 RT-11 Solaris TOPS-10/TOPS-20 TPF tvOS Unix Visi On VM/CMS VS/9 watchOS webOS Windows Xinu z/OS

Miscellaneous concepts

API Computer network HAL Live CD Live USB OS shell

CLI GUI

.