ORCID (OPEN RESEARCHER AND CONTRIBUTOR ID) is a nonproprietary
alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic
authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a
particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or
publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most
personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with
marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain
inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different
writing systems . It provides a persistent identity for humans,
similar to that created for content-related entities on digital
networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).
ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry
intended to be the _de facto_ standard for contributor identification
in research and academic publishing . On 16 October 2012, ORCID
launched its registry services and started issuing user
* 1 Development and launch
* 2 Uses
* 3 Members, sponsors and registrants
* 3.1 National implementations
* 4 Integrations
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
DEVELOPMENT AND LAUNCH
ORCID was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor
Identification Initiative". A prototype was developed on software
adapted from that used by
Thomson Reuters for its
The registry is now an independent nonprofit organization, ORCID,
Inc., incorporated in August 2010 in Delaware, United States of
America, with an international board of directors. Its executive
Director, Laure Haak , was appointed in April 2012. As of 2015 , the
board is chaired by Ed Pentz of
ORCID is freely usable and
interoperable with other ID systems.
ORCID launched its registry
services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 October 2012.
ORCID IDs are specified as URIs, for example, the
John Wilbanks is http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4510-0385. However, some
publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385".
ORCID is a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier
(ISNI), under the auspices of the International Organization for
Standardization (as ISO 27729) and the two organizations are
cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books ,
television programmes , and newspapers , and has reserved a block of
identifiers for use by ORCID, in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to
0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to
legitimately have both an ISNI and an
ORCID – effectively, two
ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers, using the digits
0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens. The final
character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10"
(for example, Nick Jennings '
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0166-248X ), is a MOD 11-2 check digit
conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.
ORCID account for a fictitious person,
Josiah Carberry , exists as
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097, for use in testing and as an
example in documentation and training material.
The aim of
ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science,
wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas
hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature". Another
suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated
‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her
contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication
list." The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access
ORCID database to build their own services.
It has been noted in an editorial in _Nature _ that ORCID, in
addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers,
"could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments
on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits
of entries and much else besides".
In April 2014,
ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia
Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record
and acknowledge contributions to peer review .
In an open letter dated 1 January 2016 eight publishers, including
Royal Society , the
American Geophysical Union , Hindawi , the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ,
PLOS , and Science
, committed to requiring all authors in their journals to have an
MEMBERS, SPONSORS AND REGISTRANTS
By the end of 2013
ORCID had 111 member organizations and over
460,000 registrants. On 15 November 2014,
ORCID announced the
one-millionth registration. As of 21 July 2017, the number of
registered accounts reported by
ORCID was 3,650,875. The
organizational members include many research institutions such as
Cornell University , and publishers such as
Springer , Wiley and
Nature Publishing Group . There are also
commercial companies including
Thomson Reuters , academic societies
and funding bodies.
Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable
foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding
In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as
partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For
example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are
collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian
University Rectors (CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation
of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project
implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the
universities, research institutions, and the Ministry of Education.
In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC) and
Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all
researchers applying for funding to have an
ORCID in his
In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other
services have included
ORCID in their workflows or databases. For
example, the _
Journal of Neuroscience _,
Springer Publishing , the
Hindawi Publishing Corporation , Europe PMC , the Japanese National
Institute of Informatics 's Researcher Name Resolver, ,
Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or
importing data from, ORCID. These include
ResearcherID system, Researchfish , the British
Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue),
ProQuest (for their
ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service), and Frontiers Loop .
In October 2015,
ORCID announced that the
former organisations would update
ORCID records, "when an ORCID
identifier is found in newly registered DOI names".
Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services
into ORCID, for example Mendeley2ORCID, for
ORCID data may also be retrieved as
RDF/XML , RDF Turtle , XML
GitHub as its code repository.
Digital Author Identifier
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_
Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due".
_Nature_. 462: 825. doi :10.1038/462825a
* ^ News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up:
will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of
publications.", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi :10.1038/485564a
* ^ "Ten things you need to know about
ORCID right now".
_ImpactStory_. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
* ^ Interview with Alice Meadows, Director of Communications for
ORCID (2015). "
ORCID – Unique Author Identifier". 'ChemViews
magazine_. doi :10.1002/chemv.201500088 _
CrossRef & ORCID
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
ORCID Launches Registry". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
* ^ "
ORCID vs ISNI;
ORCID lanceert vandaag hun Author Register -
Artikel - SURFspace". Retrieved 24 October 2012.
* ^ "Register for an
ORCID iD". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
* ^ "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification
Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". Retrieved 1 June 2017
– via internet archive.
* ^ "Press Release:
ORCID funding and development efforts on
target". 15 August 2011.
ORCID also announced today that Thomson
Reuters has provided
ORCID with a perpetual license and royalty free
ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving
critical technology to create its system
* ^ Craig Van Dyck. "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing News: An Update on
the Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)". Retrieved 23
* ^ "Certificate of Incorporation of
ORCID Inc." (PDF). State of
Delaware. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
* ^ Butler, Declan (30 May 2012). "Scientists: your number is up".
_Nature _. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
* ^ "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. Retrieved 21
* ^ "Structure of the
ORCID Identifier". ORCID.
* ^ "Template ORCID". __. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing
Corporation . Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. Archived from the original on
March 4, 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?".
Retrieved 23 October 2012.
* ^ "Structure of the
ORCID Identifier". ORCID. Retrieved 23 July
* ^ "ISNI 0000000031979523". ISNI. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ "
ORCID 0000-0001-5882-6823". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ "Nick Jennings". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ "Josiah Carberry". _Biography_. ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 22
Josiah Carberry is a fictitious person.
* ^ ORCID: About us
* ^ "Latest news on the stm publishing industry from scope e
knowledge center pvt ltd". 9 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
* ^ various (1 January 2016). "Requiring
ORCID in Publication
Workflows: Open Letter". Retrieved 8 January 2016.
* ^ "Why Some Publishers are Requiring
ORCID iDs for Authors: An
Interview with Stuart Taylor, The Royal Society". _The Scholarly
Kitchen _. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
* ^ "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
* ^ "Members". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
* ^ O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. Retrieved
15 April 2014.
* ^ "Tweet". ORCID. 2014-11-15. Retrieved 15 November 2014. It’s
official! 1M of you have an
ORCID iD! We thank the community, and look
forward to continued collaboration.
* ^ "
ORCID Statistics". ORCID. 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
* ^ Wilsdon; et al. (July 2015). "The Metric Tide" (PDF). Retrieved
10 July 2015.
* ^ Meadows, Alice (22 June 2015). "Italy Launches National ORCID
Implementation". ORCID. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
* ^ "NHMRC and ARC Statement on Open Researcher and Contributor ID
(ORCID)". National Health and Medical Research Council. 10 April 2015.
Retrieved 29 June 2015.
* ^ "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. April 2014. Retrieved
20 April 2014.
* ^ "The
Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out
Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ "Author Zone 16 - ORCID".
Springer Publishing . Retrieved 21
* ^ "
ORCID Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. Retrieved 16
* ^ "
ORCID integration". _Researcher Name Resolver_. National
Institute of Informatics . Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ authors. "Category:articles with ORCID
Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved 20 April
Wikidata contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"".
Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved 20 April 2014.
* ^ "Scopus2Orcid - Use the
Scopus to Orcid Author details and
documents wizard to collect all your
Scopus records in one unique
Scopus . Retrieved 7 May 2014.
* ^ "figshare
Figshare . Retrieved 7 May 2014.
* ^ "RID -
ORCID Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters.
Retrieved 29 March 2013.
* ^ "Researchfish now integrating with the
Researchfish . 4 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
* ^ "
British Library EThOS - about searching and ordering theses
British Library _. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
* ^ "Connected from the Beginning: Adding
ORCID to ETDs". ProQuest.
12 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
* ^ Ponto, Michelle (7 October 2015). "
ORCID and Loop: A New
Researcher Profile System Integration". _ORCID_. Retrieved 7 September
* ^ "Explaining the DataCite/
DataCite . 29
* ^ "Auto-Update Has Arrived!
ORCID Records Move to the Next
CrossRef . 26 October 2015.
* ^ "
Mendeley to ORCID". Retrieved 7 May 2014.
* ^ "Q&D RDF Browser". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
* ^ Archer, Phil. "Proposal for the Improvement of the Semantics of
ORCIDs". W3C. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
* ^ "ORCID, Inc". Retrieved 19 April 2015.