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ORCID
ORCID
(OPEN RESEARCHER AND CONTRIBUTOR ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems . It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).

The ORCID
ORCID
organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing . On 16 October 2012, ORCID
ORCID
launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Development and launch * 2 Uses

* 3 Members, sponsors and registrants

* 3.1 National implementations

* 4 Integrations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

DEVELOPMENT AND LAUNCH

ORCID
ORCID
was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative". A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system. The registry is now an independent nonprofit organization, ORCID, Inc., incorporated in August 2010 in Delaware, United States of America, with an international board of directors. Its executive Director, Laure Haak , was appointed in April 2012. As of 2015 , the board is chaired by Ed Pentz of CrossRef . ORCID
ORCID
is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems. ORCID
ORCID
launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 October 2012. Formally, ORCID
ORCID
IDs are specified as URIs, for example, the ORCID
ORCID
for John Wilbanks is http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4510-0385. However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385". (As a URN )

ORCID
ORCID
is a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI), under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729) and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books , television programmes , and newspapers , and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID, in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID
ORCID
– effectively, two ISNIs.

Both ORCID
ORCID
and ISNI use 16-character identifiers, using the digits 0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens. The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Nick Jennings ' ORCID
ORCID
is http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0166-248X ), is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.

An ORCID
ORCID
account for a fictitious person, Josiah Carberry , exists as http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097, for use in testing and as an example in documentation and training material.

USES

The aim of ORCID
ORCID
is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature". Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list." The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID
ORCID
database to build their own services.

It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of entries and much else besides".

In April 2014, ORCID
ORCID
announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review .

In an open letter dated 1 January 2016 eight publishers, including the Royal Society
Royal Society
, the American Geophysical Union
American Geophysical Union
, Hindawi , the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , PLOS , and Science , committed to requiring all authors in their journals to have an ORCID
ORCID
iD.

MEMBERS, SPONSORS AND REGISTRANTS

By the end of 2013 ORCID
ORCID
had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants. On 15 November 2014, ORCID
ORCID
announced the one-millionth registration. As of 21 July 2017, the number of registered accounts reported by ORCID
ORCID
was 3,650,875. The organizational members include many research institutions such as Caltech
Caltech
and Cornell University , and publishers such as Elsevier
Elsevier
, Springer , Wiley and Nature Publishing Group . There are also commercial companies including Thomson Reuters , academic societies and funding bodies.

Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID
ORCID
identifier.

NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATIONS

In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the universities, research institutions, and the Ministry of Education. In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all researchers applying for funding to have an ORCID
ORCID
identifier".

INTEGRATIONS

Nick Jennings' ORCID
ORCID
in his Wikidata
Wikidata
entry

In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID
ORCID
in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience , Springer Publishing , the Hindawi Publishing Corporation , Europe PMC , the Japanese National Institute of Informatics 's Researcher Name Resolver, , and Wikidata
Wikidata
.

Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus , Figshare , Thomson Reuters' ResearcherID system, Researchfish , the British Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue), ProQuest (for their ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service), and Frontiers Loop .

In October 2015, DataCite , CrossRef and ORCID
ORCID
announced that the former organisations would update ORCID
ORCID
records, "when an ORCID identifier is found in newly registered DOI names".

Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley .

Some ORCID
ORCID
data may also be retrieved as RDF/XML , RDF Turtle , XML or JSON . ORCID
ORCID
uses GitHub as its code repository.

SEE ALSO

* Authority control * Digital Author Identifier * OpenID * VIAF * ResearcherID

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi :10.1038/462825a * ^ ORCID
ORCID
website * ^ News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID
ORCID
scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications.", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi :10.1038/485564a

* ^ "Ten things you need to know about ORCID
ORCID
right now". ImpactStory. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014. * ^ Interview with Alice Meadows, Director of Communications for ORCID
ORCID
(2015). " ORCID
ORCID
– Unique Author Identifier". 'ChemViews magazine. doi :10.1002/chemv.201500088 * ^ CrossRef & ORCID * ^ A B " ORCID
ORCID
Launches Registry". Retrieved 18 October 2012. * ^ " ORCID
ORCID
vs ISNI; ORCID
ORCID
lanceert vandaag hun Author Register - Artikel - SURFspace". Retrieved 24 October 2012. * ^ "Register for an ORCID
ORCID
iD". Retrieved 18 October 2012. * ^ "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". Retrieved 1 June 2017 – via internet archive. * ^ "Press Release: ORCID
ORCID
funding and development efforts on target". 15 August 2011. ORCID
ORCID
also announced today that Thomson Reuters has provided ORCID
ORCID
with a perpetual license and royalty free use of ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving ORCID
ORCID
the critical technology to create its system * ^ Craig Van Dyck. "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing News: An Update on the Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)". Retrieved 23 October 2012. * ^ "Certificate of Incorporation of ORCID
ORCID
Inc." (PDF). State of Delaware. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2015. * ^ Butler, Declan (30 May 2012). "Scientists: your number is up". Nature . Retrieved 31 May 2014. * ^ "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. Retrieved 21 August 2013. * ^ "Structure of the ORCID
ORCID
Identifier". ORCID. * ^ "Template ORCID". . Retrieved 16 February 2015. * ^ A B C D "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing Corporation . Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ A B "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013. * ^ A B "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?". Retrieved 23 October 2012. * ^ "Structure of the ORCID
ORCID
Identifier". ORCID. Retrieved 23 July 2014. * ^ "ISNI 0000000031979523". ISNI. Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ " ORCID
ORCID
0000-0001-5882-6823". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ "Nick Jennings". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ "Josiah Carberry". Biography. ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 22 December 2014. Josiah Carberry is a fictitious person. * ^ ORCID: About us * ^ "Latest news on the stm publishing industry from scope e knowledge center pvt ltd". 9 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014. * ^ various (1 January 2016). "Requiring ORCID
ORCID
in Publication Workflows: Open Letter". Retrieved 8 January 2016. * ^ "Why Some Publishers are Requiring ORCID
ORCID
iDs for Authors: An Interview with Stuart Taylor, The Royal Society". The Scholarly Kitchen . 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016. * ^ "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 1 February 2014. * ^ "Members". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013. * ^ O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 15 April 2014. * ^ "Tweet". ORCID. 2014-11-15. Retrieved 15 November 2014. It’s official! 1M of you have an ORCID
ORCID
iD! We thank the community, and look forward to continued collaboration. * ^ " ORCID
ORCID
Statistics". ORCID. 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2017-07-27. * ^ ORCID
ORCID
Sponsors * ^ Wilsdon; et al. (July 2015). "The Metric Tide" (PDF). Retrieved 10 July 2015. * ^ Meadows, Alice (22 June 2015). "Italy Launches National ORCID Implementation". ORCID. Retrieved 29 June 2015. * ^ "NHMRC and ARC Statement on Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)". National Health and Medical Research Council. 10 April 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015. * ^ "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ "The Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out ORCID
ORCID
Integration". Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ "Author Zone 16 - ORCID". Springer Publishing . Retrieved 21 April 2014. * ^ " ORCID
ORCID
Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. Retrieved 16 May 2014. * ^ " ORCID
ORCID
integration". Researcher Name Resolver. National Institute of Informatics . Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ authors. "Category:articles with ORCID identifiers". . Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ Wikidata
Wikidata
contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"". Wikdiata. Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved 20 April 2014. * ^ "Scopus2Orcid - Use the Scopus to Orcid Author details and documents wizard to collect all your Scopus records in one unique author profile". Scopus . Retrieved 7 May 2014. * ^ "figshare ORCID
ORCID
integration". Figshare . Retrieved 7 May 2014. * ^ "RID - ORCID
ORCID
Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 29 March 2013. * ^ "Researchfish now integrating with the ORCID
ORCID
registry". Researchfish . 4 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015. * ^ " British Library
British Library
EThOS - about searching and ordering theses online". British Library
British Library
. Retrieved 15 October 2015. * ^ "Connected from the Beginning: Adding ORCID
ORCID
to ETDs". ProQuest. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015. * ^ Ponto, Michelle (7 October 2015). " ORCID
ORCID
and Loop: A New Researcher Profile System Integration". ORCID. Retrieved 7 September 2016. * ^ "Explaining the DataCite/ ORCID
ORCID
Auto-update". DataCite . 29 October 2015. * ^ "Auto-Update Has Arrived! ORCID
ORCID
Records Move to the Next Level". CrossRef . 26 October 2015. * ^ "