HOME
The Info List - OECD



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD; French : _Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques_, _OCDE_) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy , providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI ) and are regarded as developed countries . OECD is an official United Nations Observer.

In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), led by Robert Marjolin of France , to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states ). This would be achieved by allocating American financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II . (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea , but not under the name "Marshall Plan". )

In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.

The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris , France . The OECD is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates, and had a total budget of EUR 363 million in 2015.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Organisation for European Economic Co-operation * 1.2 Founding * 1.3 Enlargement to Central Europe * 1.4 Reform and further enlargement

* 2 Objectives and activities

* 2.1 Aim * 2.2 International investments and multinational enterprises * 2.3 PISA * 2.4 Taxation * 2.5 FATF Blacklist

* 2.6 Publishing

* 2.6.1 Books * 2.6.2 Magazine * 2.6.3 Statistics * 2.6.4 Working papers * 2.6.5 Reference works

* 3 Structure

* 3.1 Meetings * 3.2 Secretariat * 3.3 Secretaries-General * 3.4 Committees * 3.5 Special bodies

* 4 Member countries

* 4.1 Current members * 4.2 Former members * 4.3 Countries currently in accession talks

* 5 Relations with non-members * 6 Criticism * 7 Indicators * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

ORGANISATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION

The ORGANISATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II . It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.

In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area , to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.

By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.

FOUNDING

Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community , the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada, with Japan joining three years later. The official founding members are:

* Austria * Belgium * Canada * Denmark * France

* West Germany * Greece * Iceland * Ireland * Italy

* Luxembourg * The Netherlands * Norway * Portugal * Spain

* Sweden * Switzerland * Turkey * United Kingdom * United States

During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country.

The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering .

Unlike the organizations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise / -ize ).

ENLARGEMENT TO CENTRAL EUROPE

In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989 , the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group ) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia , Hungary , and Poland . This programme also included a membership option for these countries. As a result of this, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic , and Slovakia , as well as Mexico and South Korea became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.

REFORM AND FURTHER ENLARGEMENT

OECD members Started or promised accession talks Expressed interest in joining

In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey . In 1996, Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD. Slovenia also applied for membership that same year. In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation. The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states . Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría . In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat.

In 2003, the OECD established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD Seiichiro Noboru to work out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that the selection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on these recommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership. As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile , Estonia, Israel , Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil , China , India , Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement. Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010.

In 2011, President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia expressed the country's willingness to join the organisation during a speech at the OECD headquarters.

In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. It also announced its intention to open talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania in 2015. Latvia became a full member on 1 July 2016.

Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Argentina , Peru , Malaysia , and Kazakhstan .

In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis .

On January 19, 2017, during his visit to the World Economic Forum in Davos , Croatian Prime Minister Andrej Plenković stated that "Croatia wants to be part of a new wave of OECD enlargement", adding that "it would give more legitimacy to Croatia especially in regards to the international investors".

OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES

Propaganda poster created by the Economic Cooperation Administration to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe.

AIM

The OECD defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a setting to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices, and co-ordinate domestic and international policies. Its mandate covers economic, environmental, and social issues. It acts by peer pressure to improve policy and implement "soft law "—non-binding instruments that can occasionally lead to binding treaties. In this work, the OECD cooperates with businesses, with trade unions and with other representatives of civil society. Collaboration at the OECD regarding taxation, for example, has fostered the growth of a global web of bilateral tax treaties .

The OECD promotes policies designed:

* to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability , and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy ; * to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as nonmember countries in the process of economic development; and * to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENTS AND MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

Between 1995 and 1998, the OECD designed the Multilateral Agreement on Investment , which was abandoned because of a widespread criticism from civil society groups and developing countries. In 1976, the OECD adopted the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises, which was rewritten and annexed by the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises in 2000.

Among other areas, the OECD has taken a role in co-ordinating international action on corruption and bribery , creating the OECD Anti- Bribery Convention , which came into effect in February 1999. It has been ratified by thirty-eight countries.

The OECD has also constituted an anti-spam task force, which submitted a detailed report, with several background papers on spam problems in developing countries , best practices for ISPs , e-mail marketers, etc., appended. It works on the information economy and the future of the Internet economy.

PISA

Further information: Programme for International Student Assessment

The OECD administers and publishes the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is a regular assessment of the attainment of 15-year-olds in three areas of knowledge, which, it is said, allows the performance of educational systems to be examined and compared on a common measure across countries.

TAXATION

The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for bilateral negotiations regarding tax coordination and cooperation. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be very unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings).

Since 1998, the OECD has led a charge against harmful tax practices , principally targeting the activities of tax havens (while principally accepting the policies of its member countries, which would tend to encourage tax competition ). These efforts have been met with mixed reaction: The primary objection is the sanctity of tax policy as a matter of sovereign entitlement. The OECD maintains a "blacklist" of countries it considers uncooperative in the drive for transparency of tax affairs and the effective exchange of information, officially called "The List of Uncooperative Tax Havens". In May 2009, all remaining countries were removed from the list.

On 22 October 2008, at an OECD meeting in Paris, 17 countries led by France and Germany decided to draw up a new blacklist of tax havens. The OECD has been asked to investigate around 40 new tax havens in the world where undeclared revenue is hidden and that host many of the non-regulated hedge funds that have come under fire during the 2008 financial crisis . Germany, France, and other countries called on the OECD to specifically add Switzerland to a blacklist of countries that encourage tax fraud.

On October 29, 2014, in Berlin, during the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, all OECD and G20 countries, as well as most major international financial centres, signed a “multilateral competent authority agreement” that will activate the automatic sharing of financial data for tax purposes. Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), the United States will automatically exchange information with other countries beginning in 2015. In 2017, 58 jurisdictions of the "early adopters"—the UK, Spain, France, Portugal, Cyprus, Malta, Germany, Italy, Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Ireland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San Marino, Seychelles, Argentina, and South Africa—start to share information automatically. In 2018, another 35 jurisdictions, including Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Monaco, Qatar, Russia, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, and Switzerland begin sharing information.

FATF BLACKLIST

The FATF Blacklist or OECD blacklist was the common shorthand description for the Financial Action Task Force list of "Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories" (NCCTs) issued since 2000, which it perceived to be non-cooperative in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing .

PUBLISHING

The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary .

The OECD Library "> titles include:

* The OECD Economic Outlook , published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries. * The Main Economic Indicators , published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators. * The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks. * The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies. * In 2007 the OECD published _Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life_, the first book in the _OECD Insights_ series. This series uses OECD analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration.

All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library "> The main entrance to the OECD Conference Centre in Paris

Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde (sv) estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat. This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations. In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.

Noteworthy meetings include:

* The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM), with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries. * The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM. * Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.). * The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies.

SECRETARIAT

Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education , agriculture , technology, taxation , and other areas.

The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

* Centre for Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Local Development * Centre for Tax Policy and Administration * Development Co-operation Directorate * Directorate for Education and Skills * Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs * Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs * Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation * Economics Department * Environment Directorate * Public Governance Directorate * Statistics Directorate * Trade and Agriculture Directorate * General Secretariat * Executive Directorate * Public Affairs and Communication Directorate

The work of the secretariat is financed from the OECD's annual budget, which was €363 million in 2015 (around US$400 million). The budget is funded by the member countries based on a formula related to the size of each member's gross national product. The largest contributor is the United States, which contributes about one quarter of the budget, followed by Japan with 16%, Germany with 9% and the UK and France with 7%. The OECD governing council sets the budget and scope of work on a two-yearly basis.

As an international organisation the terms of employment of the OECD Secretariat staff are not governed by the laws of the country in which their offices are located. Agreements with the host country safeguard the organisation's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries. Hiring and firing practices, working hours and environment, holiday time, pension plans, health insurance and life insurance , salaries , expatriation benefits and general conditions of employment are managed according to rules and regulations associated with the OECD. In order to maintain working conditions that are similar to similarly structured organisations, the OECD participates as an independent organisation in the system of co-ordinated European organisations , whose other members include NATO , the European Union and the European Patent Organisation .

SECRETARIES-GENERAL

Secretary-General of the OEEC № SECRETARY-GENERAL TIME SERVED COUNTRY OF ORIGIN

1 Robert Marjolin 1948 – 1955 France

2 René Sergent 1955 – 1960 France

3 Thorkil Kristensen 1960 - September 1961 Denmark

Secretary-General of the OECD № SECRETARY-GENERAL TIME SERVED COUNTRY OF ORIGIN

1 Thorkil Kristensen 30 September 1961 - 30 September 1969 Denmark

2 Emiel van Lennep 1 October 1969 - September 1984 Netherlands

3 Jean-Claude Paye 1 October 1984 - 30 September 1994 France

— Staffan Sohlman (interim) 1 October 1994 - November 1994 Sweden

3 Jean-Claude Paye November 1994 - 30 May 1996 France

4 Donald Johnston 1 June 1996 - 30 May 2006 Canada

5 José Ángel Gurría 1 June 2006 – present Mexico

See source.

COMMITTEES

Representatives of the 35 OECD member countries and a number of observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.

SPECIAL BODIES

* Africa Partnership Forum * Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) * Development Assistance Committee * OECD Development Centre * International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport) * International Energy Agency * Nuclear Energy Agency * Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG) * Sahel and West Africa Club * Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC)

MEMBER COUNTRIES

CURRENT MEMBERS

There are currently 35 members of the OECD. The list includes 22 of the 28 European Union member states. The EU states not in the OECD are Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Lithuania, Malta, and Romania.

COUNTRY APPLICATION NEGOTIATIONS INVITATION MEMBERSHIP GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION NOTES

_ Australia

000000001971-06-07-00007 June 1971 Oceania

Austria

000000001961-09-29-000029 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Belgium

000000001961-09-13-000013 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Canada

000000001961-04-10-000010 April 1961 North America

Chile 000000002003-11-01-0000November 2003 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007 000000002009-12-15-000015 December 2009 000000002010-05-07-00007 May 2010 South America

Czech Republic 000000001994-01-01-0000January 1994 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994 000000001995-11-24-000024 November 1995 000000001995-12-21-000021 December 1995 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia .

Denmark

000000001961-05-30-000030 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Estonia

000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010 000000002010-12-09-00009 December 2010 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991 as part of the Soviet Union .

Finland

000000001969-01-28-000028 January 1969 Europe

France

000000001961-08-07-00007 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Germany

000000001961-09-27-000027 September 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany ). Previously represented by the Trizone . The OECD was expanded to include the former East Germany , which was a member of the rival Comecon from 1950–1990 after German reunification in October 1990.

Greece

000000001961-09-27-000027 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Hungary 000000001993-12-01-0000December 1993 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994

000000001996-05-07-00007 May 1996 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991.

Iceland

000000001961-06-05-00005 June 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Ireland

000000001961-08-17-000017 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Israel 000000002004-03-15-000015 March 2004 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010 000000002010-09-07-00007 September 2010 Middle East ( Asia )

Italy

000000001962-03-29-000029 March 1962 Europe OEEC member.

Japan 000000001962-11-01-0000November 1962

000000001963-07-01-0000July 1963 000000001964-04-28-000028 April 1964 Asia

South Korea 000000001995-03-29-000029 March 1995

000000001996-10-25-000025 October 1996 000000001996-12-12-000012 December 1996 Asia Officially Republic of Korea (ROK)

Latvia 000000002006-11-07-00007 November 2006 000000002013-10-16-000016 October 2013 000000002016-05-11-000011 May 2016 000000002016-07-01-00001 July 2016 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991 as part of the Soviet Union .

Luxembourg

000000001961-12-07-00007 December 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Mexico

000000001994-04-14-000014 April 1994 000000001994-05-18-000018 May 1994 North America

Netherlands

000000001961-11-13-000013 November 1961 Europe OEEC member.

New Zealand

000000001973-05-29-000029 May 1973 Oceania

Norway

000000001961-07-04-00004 July 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Poland 000000001994-02-01-00001 February 1994 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994 000000001996-07-11-000011 July 1996 000000001996-11-22-000022 November 1996 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991.

Portugal

000000001961-08-04-00004 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Slovakia 000000001994-02-01-0000February 1994 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994 000000002000-07-01-0000July 2000 000000002000-12-14-000014 December 2000 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia .

Slovenia 000000001996-03-01-0000March 1996 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010 000000002010-07-21-000021 July 2010 Europe

Spain

000000001961-08-03-00003 August 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1958.

Sweden

000000001961-09-28-000028 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Switzerland

000000001961-09-28-000028 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.

Turkey

000000001961-08-02-00002 August 1961 Transcontinental Middle East ( Asia ) / Europe OEEC member.

United Kingdom

000000001961-05-02-00002 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.

United States

000000001961-04-12-000012 April 1961 North America

The European Commission participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU Member States.

FORMER MEMBERS

* Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) (member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity).

COUNTRIES CURRENTLY IN ACCESSION TALKS

* Colombia: In May 2013, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Colombia. On October 25, 2013, the OECD officially launched Colombia's accession process. * Costa Rica: In May 2013, the OECD declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica in 2015. On 9 April 2015, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica. * Lithuania: In May 2013, the OECD declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Lithuania in 2015. On 9 April 2015, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Lithuania. * Russia: In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in the 2014 Crimean crisis .

RELATIONS WITH NON-MEMBERS

OECD members Accession candidate countries Enhanced engagement countries

Currently, 25 non-members participate as regular observers or full participants in OECD Committees. About 50 non-members are engaged in OECD working parties, schemes or programmes. The OECD conducts a policy dialogue and capacity building activities with non-members (Country Programmes, Regional Approaches and Global Forums) to share their views on best policy practices and to bear on OECD's policy debate. The OECD's Global Relations Secretariat develops and oversees the strategic orientations of the relations with non-members.

On 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to strengthen OECD's co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa, through a process of enhanced engagement. The countries listed are key partners to the OECD. The countries contribute to the OECD's work in a sustained and comprehensive manner by direct and active participation in substantive bodies of the Organisation determined by mutual interest.

The OECD explores the possibilities for enhanced co-operation with selected countries and regions of strategic interest to the OECD, giving priority to South East Asia with a view to identifying countries for possible membership.

CRITICISM

See also: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development controversy

The OECD has been criticised by several civil society groups and developing countries. The main criticism has been the narrowness of the OECD because of its limited membership to a select few rich nations. In 1997–1998, the draft Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) was heavily criticized by several non-governmental organisations and developing countries. Many critics argued that the agreement would threaten protection of human rights, labor and environmental standards, and the least developed countries . A particular concern was that the MAI would result in a race to the bottom among countries willing to lower their labor and environmental standards to attract foreign investment. Also the OECD\'s actions against competitive tax practices has raised criticism. The primary objection is the sanctity of tax policy as a matter of sovereign entitlement.

INDICATORS

The following table shows various data for OECD member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.

COUNTRY Area (km²) 2015 Population 2015 GDP (PPP) (Intl. $ ) 2015 GDP (PPP) per capita (Intl. $ ) 2015 Income inequality 2008-2014 (latest available) HDI 2015 FSI 2016 RLI 2016 CPI 2016 IEF 2017 GPI 2016 WPFI 2016 DI 2016

Australia 7,741,220 23,781,169 1,100,770,841,127 46,271 34.94 0.939 22.5 0.81 79 81.0 1.465 17.84 9.01

Austria 83,879 8,611,088 426,990,592,028 49,430 30.48 0.893 27.5 0.83 75 72.3 1.278 13.18 8.41

Belgium 30,530 11,285,721 514,744,610,151 45,757 27.59 0.896 29.0 0.79 77 67.8 1.528 14.18 7.77

Canada 9,984,670 35,851,774 1,584,404,628,378 44,197 33.68 0.920 23.8 0.81 82 78.5 1.388 15.26 9.15

Chile 756,096 17,948,141 419,386,742,725 23,367 50.45 0.847 41.9 0.68 66 76.5 1.635 19.23 7.78

Czech Republic 78,870 10,551,219 356,145,431,593 33,770 26.13 0.878 40.8 0.75 55 73.3 1.360 16.66 7.82

Denmark 42,922 5,676,002 272,858,449,286 48,009 29.08 0.925 21.5 0.89 90 75.1 1.246 8.89 9.20

Estonia 45,230 1,311,998 38,107,539,022 28,988 33.15 0.865 43.4 0.79 70 79.1 1.732 14.31 7.85

Finland 338,420 5,482,013 231,435,036,876 42,236 27.12 0.895 18.8 0.87 89 74.0 1.429 8.59 9.03

France 549,087 66,808,385 2,729,181,995,185 41,017 33.10 0.897 34.5 0.72 69 63.3 1.829 23.83 7.92

Germany 357,380 81,413,145 3,924,035,073,873 48,042 30.13 0.926 28.6 0.83 81 73.8 1.486 14.80 8.63

Greece 131,960 10,823,732 285,446,924,293 26,379 36.68 0.866 55.9 0.60 44 55.0 2.044 30.35 7.23

Hungary 93,030 9,844,686 260,422,734,757 26,458 30.55 0.836 52.7 0.57 48 65.8 1.534 28.17 6.72

Iceland 103,000 330,823 15,615,202,511 47,202 26.94 0.921 22.8 N/A 78 74.4 1.192 15.30 9.50

Ireland 70,280 4,640,703 318,161,081,932 68,514 32.52 0.923 22.5 N/A 73 76.7 1.433 12.40 9.15

Israel 22,070 8,380,400 306,510,048,625 36,576 42.78 0.899 N/A N/A 64 69.7 2.656 32.58 7.85

Italy 301,340 60,802,085 2,260,233,411,039 37,217 35.16 0.887 43.1 0.64 47 62.5 1.774 28.93 7.98

Japan 377,962 126,958,472 5,175,259,447,160 40,763 32.11 0.903 35.1 0.78 72 69.6 1.395 28.67 7.99

Korea, South 100,280 50,617,045 1,753,732,543,473 34,647 N/A 0.901 36.1 0.73 53 74.3 1.858 28.58 7.92

Latvia 64,490 1,978,440 49,238,809,758 24,899 35.48 0.830 47.4 N/A 57 74.8 1.680 17.38 7.31

Luxembourg 2,590 569,676 59,146,295,788 103,838 34.79 0.898 24.1 N/A 81 75.9 N/A 14.43 8.81

Mexico 1,964,380 127,017,224 2,157,817,248,941 16,988 48.21 0.762 70.4 0.46 30 63.6 2.557 49.33 6.47

Netherlands 41,540 16,936,520 840,000,049,665 49,587 27.99 0.924 28.2 0.86 83 75.8 1.541 8.76 8.80

New Zealand 267,710 4,595,700 172,687,704,026 37,576 N/A 0.915 21.3 0.83 90 83.7 1.287 10.01 9.26

Norway 385,178 5,195,921 322,230,084,771 62,084 25.90 0.949 21.2 0.88 85 74.0 1.500 8.79 9.93

Poland 312,680 37,999,494 1,020,401,192,046 26,862 32.08 0.855 40.7 0.71 62 68.3 1.557 23.89 6.83

Portugal 92,225 10,348,648 307,525,396,646 29,689 36.04 0.843 29.2 0.71 62 62.6 1.356 17.27 7.86

Slovakia 49,035 5,424,050 162,341,127,270 29,931 26.12 0.845 44.9 N/A 51 65.7 1.603 13.26 7.29

Slovenia 20,270 2,063,768 66,013,339,415 31,990 25.59 0.890 33.9 0.67 61 59.2 1.408 22.26 7.51

Spain 505,940 46,418,269 1,621,190,833,560 34,906 35.89 0.884 39.8 0.70 58 63.6 1.604 19.92 8.30

Sweden 447,420 9,798,871 468,941,444,842 47,855 27.32 0.913 22.6 0.86 88 74.9 1.461 12.33 9.39

Switzerland 41,290 8,286,976 518,065,485,290 62,557 31.64 0.939 21.8 N/A 86 81.5 1.370 11.76 9.09

Turkey 785,350 78,665,830 1,574,017,857,488 20,009 40.18 0.767 77.3 0.43 41 65.2 2.710 50.76 5.04

United Kingdom 243,610 65,138,232 2,719,516,715,925 41,756 32.57 0.909 32.4 0.81 81 76.4 1.830 21.70 8.36

United States 9,831,510 321,418,820 18,036,648,000,000 56,116 41.06 0.920 34.0 0.74 74 75.1 2.154 22.49 7.98

zzzOECDB 36,263,444 1,282,975,040 52,069,223,919,464 40,585 33.13 0.887 35.0 0.74 69 71.5 1.644 19.89 8.15

COUNTRY Area (km²) 2015 Population 2015 GDP (PPP) (Intl. $ ) 2015 GDP (PPP) per capita (Intl. $ ) 2015 Income inequality 2008-2014 (latest available) HDI 2015 FSI 2016 RLI 2016 CPI 2016 IEF 2017 GPI 2016 WPFI 2016 DI 2016

* a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel per se, but rather supplies an average (79.7) for " Israel (and West Bank )." * b OECD total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.

Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).

Highest quartile

Upper-mid (3rd quartile )

Lower-mid (2nd quartile )

Lowest quartile

SEE ALSO

* Paris portal * Sustainable development portal

* Frascati Manual * German Marshall Fund * Good Laboratory Practice * International organisations in Europe * OECD Better Life Index * Official development assistance * OECD iLibrary (replaced SourceOECD in July 2010) * Transfer pricing * List of country groupings * List of multilateral free-trade agreements

NOTES

* ^ oecd.org/libraryandarchives * ^ Highly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article . * ^ The yearbook's website is oecd.org/yearbook.

REFERENCES

* ^ https://www.un.org/en/sections/member-states/intergovernmental-organizations/index.html * ^ "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ " Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance This Day in History — 7/2/1947". History.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ "The Economic Cooperation Authority". Marshallfoundation.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ "Getting to the OECD". _OECD_. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016. * ^ "Member Countries\' Budget Contributions for 2015". _OECD_. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016. * ^ "OECD Budget". _OECD_. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016. * ^ Christopher, Warren (1998). _In the stream of history: shaping foreign policy for a new era_. Stanford University Press . p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8047-3468-4 . * ^ "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation". OECD. Retrieved 2008-07-26. * ^ "A majestic start: How the OECD was won, in OECD Yearbook 2011". _OECD Observer_. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "History of relations between Slovenia and the OECD". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia . Retrieved 2010-10-31.

* ^ _A_ _B_ "The Czech Republic in the OECD". Permanent Delegation of the Czech Republic to the OECD. * ^ "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 2006-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-03. * ^ " South Korea joins OECD: South Korea was formally invited... - Chicago Tribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. 1996-10-25. Retrieved 2013-08-03. * ^ "International Organisations – Turkey\'s attempts to exclude Cyprus\' membership" (in Greek). Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-11-04. * ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: Co-operation between the OECD and Latvia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-04. * ^ " Slovenia and the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2012-03-31. * ^ " Malta applies to join OECD as full member". Maltamedia. 2005-09-24. Retrieved 2011-11-04. * ^ Beatty, Andrew. "EU gives ground in OECD membership battle". European Voice. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ "Romania\'s candidacy for OECD membership" (Press release). Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ "Bulgarian Govt to Confirm OECD Membership Bid". _ Novinite _. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2012-09-25. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Chair\'s summary of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris, 15–16 May 2007 – Innovation: Advancing the OECD Agenda for Growth and Equity" (Press release). OECD. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-26. * ^ "Chile\'s accession to the OECD". OECD.org. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07. * ^ "Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2010-07-22. * ^ "Demanda de Santos para que Colombia entre en OCDE fue bien recibida" . _El Pais_ (in Spanish). 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2012-03-31. * ^ "Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow" (Press release). OECD. 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2013-07-12. * ^ " Latvia becomes full-fledged OECD member". LETA . 1 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016. * ^ " Peru eager to become an OECD member". Andina.com.pe. 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ " Malaysia has applied to become a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". _Daily Express_. 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2013-05-30. * ^ "2014) Kazakhstan and the OECD: prospects for cooperation in the field of Education and Science (Message of the President of Kazakhstan - 2014)". * ^ _A_ _B_ "Statement by the OECD regarding the status of the accession process with Russia & co-operation with Ukraine". * ^ _A_ _B_ "OECD halts membership talks with Russia". Archived from the original on 2014-03-13. * ^ Twitter. "PLENKOVIĆ U DAVOSU Sastao se s Federicom Mogherini, gruzijskim premijerom, švicarskom predsjednicom i šefom OECD-a -Jutarnji List". Jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 2017-01-20. * ^ "About OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2010-01-16. * ^ "OECD Anti- Bribery Convention". OECD. Retrieved 2010-01-16. * ^ "Information and Communications Policy". OECD. Retrieved 2010-01-16. * ^ "Shaping Policies for a Digital World". OECD. Retrieved 2010-01-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ Christians, Allison (August 29, 2008). "Sovereignty, Taxation, and Social Contract". Minnesota Journal of International Law . 18. SSRN 1259975  _. * ^ "Sanctions threat to \'tax havens\'". BBC News. 2000-06-26. Retrieved 2008-07-26. * ^ "List of Unco-operative Tax Havens". OECD. Retrieved 2009-05-29. * ^ "17 countries call for new \'tax haven blacklist\'". EuroNews. 2008-10-22. Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. * ^ "No Hiding Place As 50 Countries Sign Deal To Share Your Information". Belvins Franks News. 2014-11-06. Retrieved 2014-11-10. * ^ Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information in Tax Matters_. OECD Publishing. 2014-09-05. * ^ "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 1962-11-28. Retrieved 2014-01-13. * ^ "OECD Yearbook 2011". OECD Observer. Retrieved 2014-01-13. * ^ "OECD Observer". M.oecdobserver.org. Retrieved 2014-01-13. * ^ "Subscribe to OECD Observer". * ^ "Crossword No.2 2013". OECD Observer. Retrieved 2014-01-13. * ^ "The Power of Peer-Learning, chapter 3: OECD\'s Basic Rules of Conduct – A Sociology of its Institutional Culture". IRDC. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-06-02. Retrieved 2008-07-31. * ^ "OECD.org". OECD.org. Retrieved 2010-10-23. * ^ http://www.joc.com/after-battle-oecd-settles-swede-be-interim-leader_19941002.html ; http://www.nytimes.com/1994/10/29/business/worldbusiness/29iht-oecd_1.html * ^ ; Richard Woodward, _The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)_ (2009, Routledge) * ^ "On-Line Guide to OECD Intergovernmental Activity". .oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04. * ^ "List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-11-29. * ^ "Países industrializados alaban avances económicos de Chile" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 2004-06-18. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ " Chile está entre los mejores aspirantes para entrar a la OCDE" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Brazil:- OECD Council Resolution on Enlargement and Enhanced Engagement - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ " Chile invited to become a member of the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ _A_ _B_ http://carolina.cuni.cz/archive-en/Carolina-E-No-181.txt * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Christopher pitches for new role for former communist countries with PM-France-OECD". Associated Press. 1994-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-02. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ _Adenauer und die Hohen Kommissare_, Munich 1989, p. 465. Available here. * ^ Zsófia Árvai (November 2005). "Capital Account Liberalization, Capital Flow Patterns, and Policy Responses in the EU’s New Member States" (PDF). _IMF Working Paper_. International Monetary Fund . * ^ "Israel: Ready for the OECD" (PDF). Israel Ministry of Finance. March 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ F. C. Langdon (2011-11-01). _Japan\'s Foreign Policy_. ISBN 9780774843546 . * ^ Woong Shik Shin. "LIBERALIZATION OF LEGAL SERVICES MARKET IN KOREA" (PDF). * ^ " South Korea joins OECD: South Korea was formally invited...". Chicago Tribune. 1996-10-25. * ^ ""Accession: Latvia invited to join OECD - OECD"". 2016-05-11. * ^ "MEXICO FORMALLY INVITED TO JOIN OECD AS 25TH MEMBER". Associated Press. 1994-04-14. * ^ "ORGANIZACJA WSPÓŁPRACY GOSPODARCZEJ I ROZWOJU" (in Polish). * ^ "POLAND JOINS THINK TANK OF RICHEST NATIONS". Associated Press. 1996-07-11. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Slovakia politics: Slovakia officially joins OECD". BBC Monitoring. 2000-12-18. * ^ "Accession Process Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mzz.gov.si. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ Julio Crespo MacLennan: _ Spain and the process of European integration, 1957–85_, Basingstoke 2000, p. 31. Available here. * ^ "Member Countries". Oecd.org. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-10-23.

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Colombia:- Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-31. * ^ "Colombia:- Launch of Colombia’s Accession Process to the OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2014-01-13. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Costa Rica". * ^ "Members and Partners". OECD. Retrieved 4 October 2012. * ^ Jorma Julin (December 2003). "The OECD: Securing the future". _The OECD Observer_. OECD (240/241). Retrieved 2010-01-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "World Development Indicators". World Bank . 2017-03-23. * ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme . 2017-03-21. * ^ " Fragile States Index 2016". The Fund for Peace . 2016-06-28. * ^ " Rule of Law Index 2016". World Justice Project . 2016-10-20. * ^ " Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". Transparency International . 2017-01-25. * ^ "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation . 2017-02-15. * ^ " Global Peace Index 2016". Vision of Humanity. 2016-06-08. * ^ "2016 World Press Freedom Index".