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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD; French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD
OECD
members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. OECD
OECD
is an official United Nations observer.[1] In 1948, the OECD
OECD
originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC),[2] led by Robert Marjolin
Robert Marjolin
of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
(which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states.)[3] This would be achieved by allocating United States
United States
financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China
Republic of China
and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan".)[4] In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[5][6] by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
and membership was extended to non-European states. The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette
Château de la Muette
in Paris, France.[7] The OECD
OECD
is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates,[8] and had a total budget of €363 million in 2015.[9]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Organisation for European Economic Co-operation 1.2 Founding 1.3 Enlargement to Central Europe 1.4 Reform and further enlargement

2 Objectives and activities

2.1 Aim 2.2 International investments and multinational enterprises 2.3 PISA 2.4 Taxation 2.5 FATF blacklist 2.6 Publishing

2.6.1 Books 2.6.2 Magazine 2.6.3 Statistics 2.6.4 Working papers 2.6.5 Reference works

3 Structure

3.1 Meetings 3.2 Secretariat 3.3 Secretaries-General 3.4 Committees 3.5 Special
Special
bodies and entities[58]

4 Member countries

4.1 Current members 4.2 Former members 4.3 Countries currently in accession talks

5 Relations with non-members 6 Criticism 7 Indicators 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Organisation for European Economic Co-operation[edit] The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.[10] It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette
Château de la Muette
in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.[2] In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade
Trade
Area, to bring the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC. By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.[11] Founding[edit] Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD
OECD
officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States
United States
and Canada, with Japan
Japan
joining three years later. The official founding members are:

Austria Belgium Canada Denmark France

West Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy

Luxembourg The Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain

Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States

During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD
OECD
until its dissolution as a country.[12] The OECD
OECD
created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre
OECD Development Centre
(1961), International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
(IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money
Money
Laundering. Unlike the organisations of the United Nations
United Nations
system, OECD
OECD
uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize). Enlargement to Central Europe[edit] In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD
OECD
started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.[12][13] This programme also included a membership option for these countries.[13] As a result of this, Poland,[14] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico
Mexico
and South Korea[15] became members of the OECD
OECD
between 1994 and 2000. Reform and further enlargement[edit]

   OECD
OECD
members   Started or promised accession talks   Expressed interest in joining

In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus
Cyprus
applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey.[16] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Lithuania
signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD.[17] Slovenia
Slovenia
also applied for membership that same year.[18] In 2005, Malta
Malta
applied to join the organisation.[19] The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states.[20] Romania
Romania
reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
to OECD
OECD
Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría.[21] In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat.[22] In 2003, the OECD
OECD
established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD
OECD
Seiichiro Noboru to work out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that the selection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD
OECD
Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on these recommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership.[12] As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia
Slovenia
and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia
Indonesia
and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement.[23] Chile, Slovenia, Israel
Israel
and Estonia
Estonia
all became members in 2010.[24][25] In 2011, President Juan Manuel Santos
Juan Manuel Santos
of Colombia
Colombia
expressed the country's willingness to join the organisation during a speech at the OECD
OECD
headquarters.[26] In 2013, the OECD
OECD
decided to open membership talks with Colombia
Colombia
and Latvia. It also announced its intention to open talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania
Lithuania
in 2015.[27] Latvia
Latvia
became a full member on 1 July 2016.[28] Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD
OECD
membership are Argentina, Peru[29], Malaysia[30] and Brazil.[31] In March 2014, the OECD
OECD
halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[32][33] On January 19, 2017, during his visit to the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
in Davos, Croatian Prime Minister Andrej Plenković
Andrej Plenković
stated that "Croatia wants to be part of a new wave of OECD
OECD
enlargement", adding that "it would give more legitimacy to Croatia
Croatia
especially in regards to the international investors".[34] Objectives and activities[edit]

Propaganda poster created by the Economic Cooperation Administration to promote the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
in Europe.

Aim[edit] The OECD
OECD
defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a setting to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices, and co-ordinate domestic and international policies.[35] Its mandate covers economic, environmental, and social issues. The organisation works through consensus to develop policy recommendations and other "soft law" instruments to encourage policy reform in member countries. Occasionally, these instruments do lead to binding treaties. While many of the organisation's legal instruments are non-binding, a rigorous peer review process helps ensure that members live up to their commitments. In this work, the OECD
OECD
cooperates with businesses, with trade unions and with other representatives of civil society. Collaboration at the OECD
OECD
regarding taxation, for example, has fostered the growth of a global web of bilateral tax treaties.[citation needed] The OECD
OECD
promotes policies designed:

to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as nonmember countries in the process of economic development; and to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.

International investments and multinational enterprises[edit] Between 1995 and 1998, the OECD
OECD
designed the Multilateral Agreement on Investment, which was abandoned because of a widespread criticism from civil society groups and developing countries. In 1976, the OECD adopted the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises, which includes policy recommendations in four areas: multinational enterprises, national treatment, conflicting requirements, and international investment incentives and disincentives. The decision has been revised several times. The most recent review in 2011 updated the OECD
OECD
Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.[citation needed] Another investment-related instrument from the OECD
OECD
is the Policy Framework for Investment, which looks across 12 dimensions to provide policy recommendations for improving a country's investment climate. The Policy Framework for Investment was updated in 2015 under the co-chairmanship of Finland
Finland
and Myanmar.[36] Among other areas, the OECD
OECD
has taken a role in co-ordinating international action on corruption and bribery, creating the OECD Anti- Bribery
Bribery
Convention, which came into effect in February 1999. It has been ratified by forty-three countries, including all OECD
OECD
Members plus Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Costa Rica, Lithuania, Russia, and South Africa.[37] The OECD
OECD
has also constituted an anti-spam task force, which submitted a detailed report, with several background papers on spam problems in developing countries, best practices for ISPs, e-mail marketers, etc., appended. It works on the information economy[38] and the future of the Internet economy.[39] PISA[edit] Further information: Programme for International Student Assessment The OECD
OECD
administers and publishes the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is a regular assessment of the attainment of 15-year-olds in three areas of knowledge, which, it is said, allows the performance of educational systems to be examined and compared on a common measure across countries. Taxation[edit] The OECD
OECD
publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for bilateral negotiations regarding tax coordination and cooperation. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD
OECD
member countries), but can be very unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD
OECD
and non- OECD
OECD
pairings). Since 1998, the OECD
OECD
has led a charge against harmful tax practices, principally targeting the activities of tax havens (while principally accepting the policies of its member countries, which would tend to encourage tax competition). These efforts have been met with mixed reaction: The primary objection is the sanctity of tax policy as a matter of sovereign entitlement.[40] The OECD
OECD
maintains a "blacklist" of countries it considers uncooperative in the drive for transparency of tax affairs and the effective exchange of information, officially called "The List of Uncooperative Tax
Tax
Havens".[41] In May 2009, all remaining countries were removed from the list.[42] On 22 October 2008, at an OECD
OECD
meeting in Paris, 17 countries led by France
France
and Germany
Germany
decided to draw up a new blacklist of tax havens. The OECD
OECD
has been asked to investigate around 40 new tax havens in the world where undeclared revenue is hidden and that host many of the non-regulated hedge funds that have come under fire during the 2008 financial crisis. Germany, France, and other countries called on the OECD
OECD
to specifically add Switzerland
Switzerland
to a blacklist of countries that encourage tax fraud.[43] On October 29, 2014, in Berlin, during the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax
Tax
Purposes, all OECD and G20 countries, as well as most major international financial centres, signed a “multilateral competent authority agreement” that will activate the automatic sharing of financial data for tax purposes.[44][45] Under the Foreign Account Tax
Tax
Compliance Act (FATCA), the United States
United States
will automatically exchange information with other countries beginning in 2015. In 2017, 58 jurisdictions of the "early adopters"—the UK, Spain, France, Portugal, Cyprus, Malta, Germany, Italy, Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Ireland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San Marino, Seychelles, Argentina, and South Africa—start to share information automatically. In 2018, another 35 jurisdictions, including Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Monaco, Qatar, Russia, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, and Switzerland
Switzerland
begin sharing information. FATF blacklist[edit] The FATF blacklist
FATF blacklist
or OECD
OECD
blacklist was the common shorthand description for the Financial Action Task Force list of "Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories" (NCCTs) issued since 2000, which it perceived to be non-cooperative in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. Publishing[edit] The OECD
OECD
publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD
OECD
iLibrary. The OECD
OECD
Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD
OECD
premises by appointment. Books[edit] The OECD
OECD
releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD
OECD
iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD
OECD
flagship[vague] titles include:

The OECD
OECD
Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD
OECD
member countries. The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators. The OECD
OECD
Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks. The OECD
OECD
Communications Outlook and the OECD
OECD
Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD
OECD
member countries and non-member economies. In 2007 the OECD
OECD
published Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life, the first book in the OECD
OECD
Insights series. This series uses OECD
OECD
analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration.

All OECD
OECD
books are available on the OECD
OECD
iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD
OECD
Library & Archives.[n 1] Magazine[edit] OECD
OECD
Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] launched in 1962.[46] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD
OECD
Yearbook,[n 3] launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.[47] The online and mobile[48] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD
OECD
books, plus ordering information.[49] An OECD
OECD
Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.[50] Statistics[edit] The OECD
OECD
is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. OECD
OECD
statistics are available in several forms:

as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables, as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD
OECD
Statistics portal, as StatLinks (in most OECD
OECD
books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data).

Working papers[edit] There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD
OECD
Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals. Reference works[edit] The OECD
OECD
is responsible for the OECD
OECD
Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law). It has published the OECD
OECD
Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable. Structure[edit] The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:

The OECD
OECD
member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD
OECD
Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation. The OECD
OECD
Substantive Committees, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals. The OECD
OECD
Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organised into Directorates, which include about 2,500 staff.

Meetings[edit]

The main entrance to the OECD
OECD
Conference Centre in Paris

Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde (sv) estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD
OECD
meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat.[51] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.[citation needed] In other words, the OECD
OECD
is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration. The OECD
OECD
regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD
OECD
charter, members and non-member states.[52] Noteworthy meetings include:

The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries. The annual OECD
OECD
Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD
OECD
Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM. Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.). The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies. OECD
OECD
Eurasia
Eurasia
Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.[53]

Secretariat[edit] Exchanges between OECD
OECD
governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD
OECD
Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas. The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

Centre for Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Local Development Centre for Tax
Tax
Policy and Administration Development Co-operation Directorate Directorate for Education
Education
and Skills Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation Economics
Economics
Department Environment Directorate Public Governance Directorate Statistics Directorate Trade
Trade
and Agriculture
Agriculture
Directorate General Secretariat Executive Directorate Public Affairs and Communication Directorate

The work of the secretariat is financed from the OECD's annual budget, which was €374 million in 2017 (around US$442 million). This includes a core "Part I" budget funded by all members and a "Part II" budget for programs of more limited interest to members. The budget is funded by the member countries based on a formula related to the size of each member's gross national product. The largest contributor is the United States, which contributes about one fifth of the budget, followed by Japan
Japan
with 9.4%, Germany
Germany
with 7.4% and the UK and France
France
with around 5.5%.[54] The OECD
OECD
governing Council sets the budget and scope of work on a biennial basis. As an international organisation the terms of employment of the OECD Secretariat staff are not governed by the laws of the country in which their offices are located. Agreements with the host country safeguard the organisation's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries. Hiring and firing practices, working hours and environment, holiday time, pension plans, health insurance and life insurance, salaries, expatriation benefits and general conditions of employment are managed according to rules and regulations associated with the OECD. In order to maintain working conditions that are similar to similarly structured organisations, the OECD
OECD
participates as an independent organisation in the system of co-ordinated European organisations, whose other members include NATO, the European Union and the European Patent Organisation. Secretaries-General[edit]

Secretary-General of the OEEC

№ Secretary-General Time served Country of origin

1 Robert Marjolin 1948 – 1955 France

2 René Sergent 1955 – 1960 France

3 Thorkil Kristensen 1960 – September 1961 Denmark

Secretary-General of the OECD

№ Secretary-General Time served Country of origin

1 Thorkil Kristensen 30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969 Denmark

2 Emiel van Lennep 1 October 1969 – September 1984 Netherlands

3 Jean-Claude Paye 1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994 France

— Staffan Sohlman (interim)[55] 1 October 1994 – November 1994 Sweden

3 Jean-Claude Paye[56] November 1994 – 30 May 1996 France

4 Donald Johnston 1 June 1996 – 30 May 2006 Canada

5 José Ángel Gurría 1 June 2006 – present Mexico

See source. Committees[edit] Representatives of the 35  OECD
OECD
member countries and a number of observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.[57] Special
Special
bodies and entities[58][edit]

Africa Partnership Forum Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) Development Assistance Committee OECD
OECD
Development Centre International Transport Forum (ITF)
International Transport Forum (ITF)
(formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport) International Energy Agency Nuclear Energy Agency Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN) Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG) Sahel and West Africa Club Trade Union Advisory Committee
Trade Union Advisory Committee
(TUAC)

Member countries[edit] Current members[edit] There are currently 35 members of the OECD. The list includes 22 of the 28 European Union
European Union
member states. The EU states not in the OECD are Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Lithuania, Malta, and Romania.

Country Application Negotiations Invitation Membership[59] Geographic location Notes

 Australia

000000001971-06-07-00007 June 1971 Oceania

 Austria

000000001961-09-29-000029 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Belgium

000000001961-09-13-000013 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Canada

000000001961-04-10-000010 April 1961 North America

 Chile 000000002003-11-01-0000November 2003[60][61] 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007[62] 000000002009-12-15-000015 December 2009[63] 000000002010-05-07-00007 May 2010 South America

 Czech Republic 000000001994-01-01-0000January 1994[64] 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994[65] 000000001995-11-24-000024 November 1995[64] 000000001995-12-21-000021 December 1995 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.

 Denmark

000000001961-05-30-000030 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Estonia

000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007[62] 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010[66] 000000002010-12-09-00009 December 2010 Europe

 Finland

000000001969-01-28-000028 January 1969 Europe

 France

000000001961-08-07-00007 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Germany

000000001961-09-27-000027 September 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany).[67] Previously represented by the Trizone.[2] The OECD
OECD
was expanded to include the former East Germany, which was a member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1950–1990 after German reunification in October 1990.

 Greece

000000001961-09-27-000027 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Hungary 000000001993-12-01-0000December 1993[68] 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994[65]

000000001996-05-07-00007 May 1996 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949–1991.

 Iceland

000000001961-06-05-00005 June 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Ireland

000000001961-08-17-000017 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Israel 000000002004-03-15-000015 March 2004[69] 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007[62] 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010[66] 000000002010-09-07-00007 September 2010 Middle East (Asia)

 Italy

000000001962-03-29-000029 March 1962 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Japan 000000001962-11-01-0000November 1962[70]

000000001963-07-01-0000July 1963[70] 000000001964-04-28-000028 April 1964 Asia

 South Korea 000000001995-03-29-000029 March 1995[71]

000000001996-10-25-000025 October 1996[72] 000000001996-12-12-000012 December 1996 Asia Officially Republic of Korea (ROK)

 Latvia 000000002006-11-07-00007 November 2006[citation needed] 000000002013-10-16-000016 October 2013[citation needed] 000000002016-05-11-000011 May 2016[73] 000000002016-07-01-00001 July 2016 Europe

 Luxembourg

000000001961-12-07-00007 December 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Mexico

000000001994-04-14-000014 April 1994[74] 000000001994-05-18-000018 May 1994 North America

 Netherlands

000000001961-11-13-000013 November 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 New Zealand

000000001973-05-29-000029 May 1973 Oceania

 Norway

000000001961-07-04-00004 July 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Poland 000000001994-02-01-00001 February 1994[75] 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994[65] 000000001996-07-11-000011 July 1996[76] 000000001996-11-22-000022 November 1996 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949–1991.

 Portugal

000000001961-08-04-00004 August 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Slovakia 000000001994-02-01-0000February 1994[77] 000000001994-06-08-00008 June 1994[65] 000000002000-07-01-0000July 2000[77] 000000002000-12-14-000014 December 2000 Europe Was member of the rival Comecon
Comecon
from 1949–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.

 Slovenia 000000001996-03-01-0000March 1996[78] 000000002007-05-16-000016 May 2007[62] 000000002010-05-10-000010 May 2010[66] 000000002010-07-21-000021 July 2010 Europe

 Spain

000000001961-08-03-00003 August 1961 Europe Joined OEEC in 1958.[79]

 Sweden

000000001961-09-28-000028 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

  Switzerland

000000001961-09-28-000028 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 Turkey

000000001961-08-02-00002 August 1961 Eurasia OEEC member.[2]

 United Kingdom

000000001961-05-02-00002 May 1961 Europe OEEC member.[2]

 United States

000000001961-04-12-000012 April 1961 North America

The European Commission
European Commission
participates in the work of the OECD
OECD
alongside the EU Member States.[80] Former members[edit]

Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste
(Zone A) (member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity).[2]

Countries currently in accession talks[edit]

Colombia: In May 2013, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Colombia.[81] On October 25, 2013, the OECD
OECD
officially launched Colombia's accession process.[82] Costa Rica: In May 2013, the OECD
OECD
declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica
Costa Rica
in 2015.[81] On 9 April 2015, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica.[83] Lithuania: In May 2013, the OECD
OECD
declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Lithuania
Lithuania
in 2015.[81] On 9 April 2015, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Lithuania.[83] Russia: In May 2007, the OECD
OECD
decided to open accession negotiations with Russia.[23] In March 2014, the OECD
OECD
halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[32][33]

Relations with non-members[edit]

   OECD
OECD
members   Accession candidate countries   Enhanced engagement countries

Currently[when?], 25 non-members participate as regular observers or full participants in OECD
OECD
Committees. About 50 non-members are engaged in OECD
OECD
working parties, schemes or programmes.[citation needed] The OECD
OECD
conducts a policy dialogue and capacity building activities with non-members (Country Programmes, Regional Approaches and Global Forums) to share their views on best policy practices and to bear on OECD's policy debate. The OECD's Global Relations Secretariat develops and oversees the strategic orientations of the relations with non-members.[citation needed] On 16 May 2007, the OECD
OECD
Ministerial Council decided to strengthen OECD's co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia
Indonesia
and South Africa, through a process of enhanced engagement.[23] The countries listed are key partners to the OECD. The countries contribute to the OECD's work in a sustained and comprehensive manner by direct and active participation in substantive bodies of the Organisation determined by mutual interest.[84] On 30 May 2017, Brazil
Brazil
formalised a request to join the organisation.[85][86] The OECD
OECD
explores the possibilities for enhanced co-operation with selected countries and regions of strategic interest to the OECD, giving priority to South East Asia with a view to identifying countries for possible membership.[citation needed] It has country programmes with Kazakhstan, Morocco, Peru, and Thailand.[87] Criticism[edit] See also: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development controversy The OECD
OECD
has been criticised by several civil society groups and developing countries. The main criticism has been the narrowness of the OECD
OECD
because of its limited membership to a select few rich nations.[88] In 1997–1998, the draft Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) was heavily criticised by several non-governmental organisations and developing countries. Many critics argued that the agreement would threaten protection of human rights, labor and environmental standards, and the least developed countries. A particular concern was that the MAI would result in a race to the bottom among countries willing to lower their labor and environmental standards to attract foreign investment. Also the OECD's actions against competitive tax practices has raised criticism. The primary objection is the sanctity of tax policy as a matter of sovereign entitlement.[40] Indicators[edit] The following table shows various data for OECD
OECD
member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.

Country Area[89] (km²) 2015 Population[89] 2015 GDP (PPP)[89] (Intl. $) 2015 GDP (PPP) per capita[89] (Intl. $) 2015 Income inequality[89] 2008-2014 (latest available) HDI[90] 2015 FSI[91] 2016 RLI[92] 2016 CPI[93] 2016 IEF[94] 2017 GPI[95] 2016 WPFI[96] 2016 DI[97] 2016

 Australia 7,741,220 23,781,169 1,100,770,841,127 46,271 34.94 0.939 22.5 0.81 79 81.0 1.465 17.84 9.01

 Austria 83,879 8,611,088 426,990,592,028 49,430 30.48 0.893 27.5 0.83 75 72.3 1.278 13.18 8.41

 Belgium 30,530 11,285,721 514,744,610,151 45,757 27.59 0.896 29.0 0.79 77 67.8 1.528 14.18 7.77

 Canada 9,984,670 35,851,774 1,584,404,628,378 44,197 33.68 0.920 23.8 0.81 82 78.5 1.388 15.26 9.15

 Chile 756,096 17,948,141 419,386,742,725 23,367 50.45 0.847 41.9 0.68 66 76.5 1.635 19.23 7.78

 Czech Republic 78,870 10,551,219 356,145,431,593 33,770 26.13 0.878 40.8 0.75 55 73.3 1.360 16.66 7.82

 Denmark 42,922 5,676,002 272,858,449,286 48,009 29.08 0.925 21.5 0.89 90 75.1 1.246 8.89 9.20

 Estonia 45,230 1,311,998 38,107,539,022 28,988 33.15 0.865 43.4 0.79 70 79.1 1.732 14.31 7.85

 Finland 338,420 5,482,013 231,435,036,876 42,236 27.12 0.895 18.8 0.87 89 74.0 1.429 8.59 9.03

 France 549,087 66,808,385 2,729,181,995,185 41,017 33.10 0.897 34.5 0.72 69 63.3 1.829 23.83 7.92

 Germany 357,380 81,413,145 3,924,035,073,873 48,042 30.13 0.926 28.6 0.83 81 73.8 1.486 14.80 8.63

 Greece 131,960 10,823,732 285,446,924,293 26,379 36.68 0.866 55.9 0.60 44 55.0 2.044 30.35 7.23

 Hungary 93,030 9,844,686 260,422,734,757 26,458 30.55 0.836 52.7 0.57 48 65.8 1.534 28.17 6.72

 Iceland 103,000 330,823 15,615,202,511 47,202 26.94 0.921 22.8 N/A 78 74.4 1.192 15.30 9.50

 Ireland 70,280 4,640,703 318,161,081,932 68,514 32.52 0.923 22.5 N/A 73 76.7 1.433 12.40 9.15

 Israel 22,070 8,380,400 306,510,048,625 36,576 42.78 0.899 N/A N/A 64 69.7 2.656 32.58 7.85

 Italy 301,340 60,802,085 2,260,233,411,039 37,217 35.16 0.887 43.1 0.64 47 62.5 1.774 28.93 7.98

 Japan 377,962 126,958,472 5,175,259,447,160 40,763 32.11 0.903 35.1 0.78 72 69.6 1.395 28.67 7.99

 Korea, South 100,280 50,617,045 1,753,732,543,473 34,647 N/A 0.901 36.1 0.73 53 74.3 1.858 28.58 7.92

 Latvia 64,490 1,978,440 49,238,809,758 24,899 35.48 0.830 47.4 N/A 57 74.8 1.680 17.38 7.31

 Luxembourg 2,590 569,676 59,146,295,788 103,838 34.79 0.898 24.1 N/A 81 75.9 N/A 14.43 8.81

 Mexico 1,964,380 127,017,224 2,157,817,248,941 16,988 48.21 0.762 70.4 0.46 30 63.6 2.557 49.33 6.47

 Netherlands 41,540 16,936,520 840,000,049,665 49,587 27.99 0.924 28.2 0.86 83 75.8 1.541 8.76 8.80

 New Zealand 267,710 4,595,700 172,687,704,026 37,576 N/A 0.915 21.3 0.83 90 83.7 1.287 10.01 9.26

 Norway 385,178 5,195,921 322,230,084,771 62,084 25.90 0.949 21.2 0.88 85 74.0 1.500 8.79 9.93

 Poland 312,680 37,999,494 1,020,401,192,046 26,862 32.08 0.855 40.7 0.71 62 68.3 1.557 23.89 6.83

 Portugal 92,225 10,348,648 307,525,396,646 29,689 36.04 0.843 29.2 0.71 62 62.6 1.356 17.27 7.86

 Slovakia 49,035 5,424,050 162,341,127,270 29,931 26.12 0.845 44.9 N/A 51 65.7 1.603 13.26 7.29

 Slovenia 20,270 2,063,768 66,013,339,415 31,990 25.59 0.890 33.9 0.67 61 59.2 1.408 22.26 7.51

 Spain 505,940 46,418,269 1,621,190,833,560 34,906 35.89 0.884 39.8 0.70 58 63.6 1.604 19.92 8.30

 Sweden 447,420 9,798,871 468,941,444,842 47,855 27.32 0.913 22.6 0.86 88 74.9 1.461 12.33 9.39

  Switzerland 41,290 8,286,976 518,065,485,290 62,557 31.64 0.939 21.8 N/A 86 81.5 1.370 11.76 9.09

 Turkey 785,350 78,665,830 1,574,017,857,488 20,009 40.18 0.767 77.3 0.43 41 65.2 2.710 50.76 5.04

 United Kingdom 243,610 65,138,232 2,719,516,715,925 41,756 32.57 0.909 32.4 0.81 81 76.4 1.830 21.70 8.36

 United States 9,831,510 321,418,820 18,036,648,000,000 56,116 41.06 0.920 34.0 0.74 74 75.1 2.154 22.49 7.98

zzzOECDb 36,263,444 1,282,975,040 52,069,223,919,464 40,585 33.13 0.887 35.0 0.74 69 71.5 1.644 19.89 8.15

Country Area (km²) 2015 Population 2015 GDP (PPP) (Intl. $) 2015 GDP (PPP) per capita (Intl. $) 2015 Income inequality 2008-2014 (latest available) HDI 2015 FSI 2016 RLI 2016 CPI 2016 IEF 2017 GPI 2016 WPFI 2016 DI 2016

a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel
Israel
per se, but rather supplies an average (79.7) for " Israel
Israel
(and West Bank)." b OECD
OECD
total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD
OECD
weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD
OECD
unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.

Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).

Highest quartile

Upper-mid (3rd quartile)

Lower-mid (2nd quartile)

Lowest quartile

See also[edit]

Paris portal Sustainable development portal

Frascati Manual German Marshall Fund Good laboratory practice International organisations in Europe OECD
OECD
Better Life Index Official development assistance OECD iLibrary (replaced SourceOECD in July 2010)[98] Transfer pricing List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements

Notes[edit]

^ oecd.org/libraryandarchives ^ Highly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article [1]. ^ The yearbook's website is oecd.org/yearbook.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136637910 LCCN: n79045354 ISNI: 0000 0001 2159 0079 GND: 5157-3 SELIBR: 27207

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