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OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 ).

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Software * 4 Research * 5 Advocacy
Advocacy
* 6 Online database: WorldCat * 7 Identifiers and linked data * 8 Company acquisitions * 9 Criticism * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

OCLC
OCLC
began in 1967, as the Ohio
Ohio
College Library Center, through a collaboration of Ohio
Ohio
university presidents, vice presidents, and library directors who wanted to create a cooperative, computerized network for Ohio
Ohio
libraries. The group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio
Ohio
State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour , a former Yale University
Yale University
medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system. Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio
Ohio
libraries electronically through a computer network and database in order to streamline operations, control costs, and increase efficiency in library management. The goal of this network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio
Ohio
University on August 26, 1971. This was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.

Membership in OCLC
OCLC
is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC
OCLC
membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.

As OCLC
OCLC
expanded services in the United States
United States
outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks," organizations that provided training, support and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States
United States
regional service providers. OCLC
OCLC
networks played a key role in OCLC
OCLC
governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC
OCLC
Members Council. During 2008, OCLC
OCLC
commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels; at the same time, the OCLC
OCLC
Members Council approved governance changes that had been recommended by the Board of Trustees which severed the tie between the networks and governance. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center.

SERVICES

OCLC
OCLC
provides bibliographic , abstract and full-text information to anyone.

OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat —the OCLC
OCLC
Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. The Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search, bibliographic, and bookselling sites; Open WorldCat later morphed into WorldCat.org. In October 2005, the OCLC
OCLC
technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was later phased out.

The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; it was replaced by the Classify Service.

Until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC
OCLC
Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania , U.S.

The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users. This around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries.

OCLC
OCLC
has produced catalog cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog; the company printed its last catalog cards on October 1, 2015.

SOFTWARE

OCLC
OCLC
commercially sells software, e.g., CONTENTdm for managing digital collections .

RESEARCH

OCLC
OCLC
has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC
OCLC
makes its research outcomes known through various publications. These publications, including journal articles, reports, newsletters, and presentations, are available through the organization's website.

* OCLC
OCLC
Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC
OCLC
Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly , College & Research Libraries News , Art Libraries Journal, and National Education Association Newsletter. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, starting in 1970, are also available. * Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. * Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community. * Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences, webcasts, and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, and Research staff presentations.

ADVOCACY

Advocacy
Advocacy
has been a part of OCLC's mission since its founding in 1967. OCLC
OCLC
staff members meet and work regularly with library leaders, information professionals, researchers, entrepreneurs, political leaders, trustees, students and patrons to advocate "advancing research, scholarship, education, community development, information access, and global cooperation."

WebJunction is a division of OCLC
OCLC
funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation , which provides training services to librarians.

OCLC's advocacy campaign "Geek the Library," started in 2009, highlights the role of public libraries. The campaign, funded by a grant from the Bill its predecessor, OCLC
OCLC
Passport, was phased out in May 2005.

WorldCat contains records in MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC ) format contributed by library catalogers worldwide who use OCLC
OCLC
as a cataloging tool, and these MARC format records can also be downloaded into other libraries' local catalog systems. This allows libraries to find and download records for materials they are adding to their local catalog, without having to undergo the lengthy process of creating a new catalog entry from scratch for each new item.

As of March 2015, the OCLC
OCLC
database contained over 336 million records with 2.2 billion cataloged items, and is the world's largest bibliographic database covering 72,000 libraries. Connexion is available to professional librarians as a computer program or on the web at connexion.oclc.org.

WorldCat is available to the public for searching via a subscription web-based service called FirstSearch, as well as through the publicly available WorldCat.org.

IDENTIFIERS AND LINKED DATA

OCLC
OCLC
assigns a unique control number (referred to as an "OCN" for " OCLC
OCLC
Control Number") to each new bibliographic record in the WorldCat. Numbers are assigned serially, and as of mid-2013 over a billion OCNs had been created. In September 2013, the OCLC
OCLC
declared these numbers to be in the public domain , removing a perceived barrier to widespread use of OCNs outside of OCLC
OCLC
itself. The control numbers link WorldCat's records to local library system records by providing a common reference key for a record across libraries.

OCNs are particularly useful as identifiers for books and other bibliographic materials that do not have ISBNs (e.g., books published before 1970). OCNs are used as identifiers often in and Wikidata . In October 2013, it was reported that out of 29,673 instances of Infobox
Infobox
Book in, "there were 23,304 ISBNs and 15,226 OCNs"; and regarding Wikidata: "of around 14 million Wikidata items, 28,741 were books. 5403 Wikidata items have an ISBN associated with them, and 12,262 have OCNs."

OCLC
OCLC
also runs the Virtual International Authority File
File
(VIAF), an international name authority file. VIAF numbers are broadly used as standard idenfitiers.

COMPANY ACQUISITIONS

OCLC
OCLC
offices in Leiden
Leiden
(the Netherlands)

OCLC
OCLC
acquired NetLibrary , a provider of electronic books and textbooks in 2002 and sold it in 2010 to EBSCO Industries . OCLC
OCLC
owns 100% of the shares of OCLC PICA , a library automation systems and services company which has its headquarters in Leiden
Leiden
in the Netherlands and which was renamed "OCLC" at the end of 2007. In July 2006, the Research Libraries Group (RLG) merged with OCLC. On January 11, 2008, OCLC
OCLC
announced that it had purchased EZproxy . It has also acquired OAIster . The process started in January 2009 and from 31 October 2009, OAIster records are freely available via WorldCat.org. In January 2015, OCLC
OCLC
acquired Sustainable Collection Services (SCS). SCS offered consulting services based on analyzing library print collection data to help libraries manage and share materials. In 2017, OCLC
OCLC
acquired Relais International, a library interlibrary loan service provider based in Ottawa, Canada.

CRITICISM

OCLC
OCLC
has been criticized for monopolistic practices. In July 2010, the company was sued by SkyRiver, a rival startup, in an antitrust suit . Library automation company Innovative Interfaces joined SkyRiver in the suit. The suit was dropped in March 2013, however, following the acquisition of SkyRiver by Innovative Interfaces.

SEE ALSO

* Library and information science portal

* Dynix (software) * Open Library * Public library advocacy
Public library advocacy

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _2015/2016 OCLC
OCLC
annual report_. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 2014. OCLC
OCLC
15601580 . * ^ _A_ _B_ " OCLC
OCLC
Consolidated Financial Statements 2015–16" (PDF). OCLC. September 12, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ "Certificate of Amendment of Articles of Incorporation of OCLC, Inc. and Amended Articles of Incorporation of OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated". Ohio
Ohio
Secretary of State . February 6, 1981. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ "About OCLC". OCLC. Retrieved 2017-05-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ "In the beginning". Retrieved 2012-08-28. * ^ Intner, Sheila (March–April 2007). "The Passing of an Era". _Technicalities_. 27: 1–14. ISSN 0272-0884 . * ^ Bates, Marcia J; Maack, Mary Niles, eds. (2010). _Encyclopedia of library and information sciences_. V (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 3924. ISBN 9780849397127 . OCLC
OCLC
769480033 . * ^ Bailey-Hainer, Brenda (2009-10-19). "The OCLC
OCLC
Network of Regional Service Providers: The Last 10 Years". _Journal of Library Administration_. 49 (6): 621–629. ISSN 0193-0826 . doi :10.1080/01930820903238792 . * ^ O'Neill, Nancy (Nov–Dec 2004). "Open WorldCat Pilot: A User\'s Perspective". _Searcher_. 12 (10): 54–60. ISSN 1070-4795 . OCLC
OCLC
201889986 . * ^ "WikiD". OCLC. Retrieved March 5, 2015. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
DeweyBrowser". _deweybrowser.oclc.org_. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ "Preservation Service Center". OCLC. Archived from the original on 2003-12-29. * ^ "QuestionPoint". OCLC. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
prints last library catalog cards". _www.oclc.org_. October 1, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015. * ^ "CONTENTdm". OCLC. Retrieved May 28, 2017. * ^ Hyatt, Shirley; Young, Jeffrey A. " OCLC
OCLC
Research Publications Repository". _D-Lib Magazine_. 11 (3). doi :10.1045/march2005-hyatt . * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
Publications". Retrieved 2012-08-28. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
Membership Reports". Retrieved 2012-08-28. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
Newsletters". Retrieved 2012-08-28. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
Presentations". Retrieved 2012-08-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rosa, Cathy De (October 22, 2009). " Advocacy
Advocacy
and OCLC". _Journal of Library Administration_. 49 (7): 719–726. ISSN 0193-0826 . doi :10.1080/01930820903260572 . * ^ Grossman, Wendy M. (2009-01-21). "Why you can\'t find a library book in your search engine". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-05-28. * ^ "WebJunction". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. * ^ "Advocacy: From Awareness to Funding, the next chapter". * ^ "A global library resource". _oclc.org_. * ^ "First search". * ^ "Open WorldCat". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2014-04-30. * ^ Wallis, Richard (24 September 2013). " OCLC
OCLC
Declare OCLC
OCLC
Control Numbers Public Domain". * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
Control Number". Retrieved 2014-01-03. * ^ HangingTogether.org (11 October 2013). " OCLC
OCLC
Control Numbers in the Wild". * ^ Jordan, Jay (17 March 2010). "Letter to members 2010". OCLC. Archived from the original on 2010-03-26. * ^ Rogers, Michael (30 October 2007). "CLC/ OCLC
OCLC
Pica Merge". _Library Journal_. New York. * ^ Wilson, Lizabeth; Neal, James; Jordan, Jay (October 2006). "RLG and OCLC: Combining for the Future" (guest editorial). _Library and Information Science_. Vol. 6, no. 4. Retrieved via _Project Muse_ database, 2017-06-21. * ^ "RLG to Combine with OCLC" (press release). OCLC
OCLC
Worldwide. May 3, 2006. worldcat.org. Retrieved 2017-06-22. * ^ http://www.oclc.org/news/releases/200690.htm * ^ Price, Gary (13 January 2015). "Print Collections: OCLC Acquires Sustainable Collection Services". _Infodocket_. Retrieved 6 March 2015. * ^ " OCLC
OCLC
agrees to acquire Relais International to provide library consortia more options for resource sharing". 17 January 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017. * ^ Beall, Jeffrey (2008). "OCLC: A Review". In Roberto, K.R. _Radical Cataloging: Essays at the Front_ (PDF). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company . pp. 85–93. ISBN 0786435437 . OCLC
OCLC
173241123 . * ^ Coyle, Karen (29 July 2010). "SkyRiver Sues OCLC
OCLC
over Anti-Trust". Karen Coyle. * ^ Breeding, Marshall (29 July 2010). "SkyRiver and Innovative Interfaces File
File
Major Antitrust Lawsuit Against OCLC". _Library Journal _. Archived from the original on 2010-08-02. * ^ Price, Gary (4 March 2013). "III Drops OCLC
OCLC
Suit, Will Absorb SkyRiver". _ Library Journal _.

FURTHER READING

* Coyle, Karen (Dec 22, 2011). "National Library of Sweden and OCLC fail to agree". _Coyle's InFormation_. * Spalding, Tim (February 23, 2009). "Research libraries clobber OCLC
OCLC
Policy". _Thingology Blog_. Library Thing.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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