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The Info List - Nymphaeales



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Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
Hydatellaceae
Hydatellaceae
Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae

The NYMPHAEALES are an order of flowering plants , consisting of three families of aquatic plants, the Hydatellaceae
Hydatellaceae
, the Cabombaceae , and the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
(water lilies). It is one of the three orders of basal angiosperms , an early-diverging grade of flowering plants . At least 10 morphological characters unite the Nymphaeales. Molecular synapomorphies are also known.

The Plant
Plant
List , created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
and Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
recognizes about 70 species in 11 genera within the order, but a phylogenetic study of the genus Nymphaea implies that the number of species could be more than 90. The difference in species numbers is due almost entirely to the difficulty of delineating species in the genus Nymphaea.

All of the species are rhizomatous aquatic herbs with a broad leaf base and large, showy flowers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Fossils * 2 Classification * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links

FOSSILS

The fossil record consists especially of seeds, but also pollen, stems, leaves, and flowers. It extends back to the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. The crown group of the Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
has been estimated to be about 112 million years old. Some have suggested that this age might be too old.

The aquatic plant fossil Archaefructus possibly belongs to this group.

CLASSIFICATION

The Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
currently include three families and about 70 to 90 species.

order NYMPHAEALES CABOMBACEAE

* Brasenia (one species) * Cabomba (five species)

HYDATELLACEAE

* Trithuria (12 species)

NYMPHAEACEAE

* Barclaya (three or four species) * Euryale (one species) * Nuphar (10-12 species) * Nymphaea
Nymphaea
(35-50 species) * Victoria (two species)

Angiosperms

Amborella
Amborella

NYMPHAEALES

Hydatellaceae
Hydatellaceae

Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae

Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae

Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales

magnoliids

Chloranthales
Chloranthales

monocots

Ceratophyllum
Ceratophyllum

eudicots

The classification of Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
and phylogeny within the flowering plants, as of APG III (2009).

This order was not part of the APG II system\'s 2003 plant classification (unchanged from the APG system of 1998), which instead had a broadly circumscribed family Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
(including Cabombaceae ) unplaced in any order. The APG III system did separate the Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
from the Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
and placed them in the order Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
together with the Hydatellaceae. The family Hydatellaceae was placed among the monocots in previous systems, but a 2007 study found that the family belongs to the Nymphaeales. In the APG IV system , Hydatellaceae, Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
and Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
are the three families included in the Nymphaeales.

Some earlier systems, such as Cronquist's system of 1981, often included the Ceratophyllaceae and Nelumbonaceae in the Nymphaeales. Although, the Takhtajan system of 1980 separated the Nelumbonales , the new order was retained alongside the Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
in the superorder Nymphaeanae.

The Cronquist system
Cronquist system
placed the Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
in subclass Magnoliidae , in class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
. In addition, Cronquist included the Ceratophyllaceae and split the family Barclayaceae from the Nymphaeaceae. Under the APG II system
APG II system
, the family Cabombaceae
Cabombaceae
was included within the Nymphaeaceae, but could optionally be recognized separately. As of APG III , the two families are recognized separately.

The Dahlgren system placed the Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
with the Piperales in superorder Nymphaeanae, within subclass Magnoliideae (dicotyledons). Thorne\'s 1992 system (and 2000 revision) placed the Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
as the sole order in the superorder Nymphaeanae within subclass Magnoliideae (=dicotyledons).

COMPARISON OF THE NYMPHAEALES ACROSS FIVE SYSTEMS APG III system Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
Takhtajan system Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
Cronquist system
Cronquist system
Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
Dahlgren system Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
Thorne system (1992) ">

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . 161 (2): 105–121. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x . * ^ Peter F. Stevens. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden
Missouri Botanical Garden
Website. (see External links below). * ^ The Plant
Plant
List (website). 2010. (See External links below.) * ^ Borsch, Thomas; Löhne, Cornelia; Samba Mbaye, Mame; Wiersema, John H. (2011). "Towards a complete species tree of Nymphaea: shedding further light on subg. Brachyceras and its relationships to the Australian water-lilies". Telopea . 13 (1-2): 193–217. * ^ "Nymphaeales: Fossil
Fossil
Record". University of California Museum of Paleontology . * ^ Else Marie Friis, Kaj Raunsgaard Pedersen and Peter R. Crane (15 March 2001). " Fossil
Fossil
evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous". Nature . 410 (6826): 357–360. PMID 11268209 . doi :10.1038/35066557 . * ^ Magallón, Susana; Castillo, Amanda (2009). "Angiosperm diversification through time". American Journal of Botany . 96 (1): 349–365. PMID 21628193 . doi :10.3732/ajb.0800060 . * ^ Bell, Charles D.; Soltis, Douglas E. ; Soltis, Pamela S. (2010). "The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited". American Journal of Botany. 97 (8): 1296–1303. PMID 21616882 . doi :10.3732/ajb.0900346 . * ^ Soltis, D. E. ; Bell, CD; Kim, S; Soltis, PS (June 2008). "The Year in Evolutionary Biology 2008". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences . 1133 (1): 3–25. PMID 18559813 . doi :10.1196/annals.1438.005 . * ^ Saarela, J. M.; et al. (2007). " Hydatellaceae
Hydatellaceae
identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree". Nature. 446 (7133): 312–5. PMID 17361182 . doi :10.1038/nature05612 . * ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . 181 (1): 1–20. ISSN 0024-4074 . doi :10.1111/boj.12385 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Takhtajan, Armen L. (1980). "Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta)". The Botanical Review. 46 (3): 225–359. doi :10.1007/BF02861558 . * ^ Cronquist, Arthur (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03880-1 . * ^ Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). "A revised system of classification of angiosperms". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 80 (2): 91–124. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.1980.tb01661.x . * ^ Thorne, R. F. (1992). "Classification and geography of the flowering plants". Botanical Review. 58 (3): 225–348. doi :10.1007/BF02858611 . * ^ Thorne, R. F. (2000). "The classification and geography of the flowering plants: