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A nymph (Greek: νύμφη, nýmphē [nýmpʰɛː]) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from other goddesses, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing; their amorous freedom sets them apart from the restricted and chaste wives and daughters of the Greek polis. They are beloved by many and dwell in mountainous regions and forests by lakes and streams. Although they would never die of old age nor illness, and could give birth to fully immortal children if mated to a god, they themselves were not necessarily immortal, and could be beholden to death in various forms. Charybdis
Charybdis
and Scylla
Scylla
were once nymphs. Other nymphs, always in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess, generally the huntress Artemis.[1] Nymphs
Nymphs
were the frequent target of satyrs.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Adaptations 3 In modern Greek folklore 4 Modern sexual connotations 5 Classification

5.1 Classification by type of dwelling 5.2 Location-specific groupings of nymphs 5.3 Individual names of some of the nymphs

5.3.1 In non-Greek tales influenced by Greek mythology

5.4 Sleeping nymph

6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Etymology[edit]

Fight between Nymph
Nymph
and Satyr, Naples National Archaeological Museum.

Nymphs
Nymphs
are personifications of the creative and fostering activities of nature, most often identified with the life-giving outflow of springs: as Walter Burkert (Burkert 1985:III.3.3) remarks, "The idea that rivers are gods and springs divine nymphs is deeply rooted not only in poetry but in belief and ritual; the worship of these deities is limited only by the fact that they are inseparably identified with a specific locality." The Greek word νύμφη has "bride" and "veiled" among its meanings: hence a marriageable young woman. Other readers refer the word (and also Latin
Latin
nubere and German Knospe) to a root expressing the idea of "swelling" (according to Hesychius, one of the meanings of νύμφη is "rose-bud"). Adaptations[edit] The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin
Latin
genius loci, and the difficulty of transferring their cult may be seen in the complicated myth that brought Arethusa to Sicily. In the works of the Greek-educated Latin
Latin
poets, the nymphs gradually absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams (Juturna, Egeria, Carmentis, Fontus), while the Lymphae (originally Lumpae), Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae. The mythologies of classicizing Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cult of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, and they appear almost exclusively as divinities of the watery element. In modern Greek folklore[edit]

Nymphe by Gaston Bussière

The ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were usually known as "nereids". At that time, John Cuthbert Lawson wrote: "...there is probably no nook or hamlet in all Greece
Greece
where the womenfolk at least do not scrupulously take precautions against the thefts and malice of the nereids, while many a man may still be found to recount in all good faith stories of their beauty, passion and caprice. "Nor is it a matter of faith only; more than once I have been in villages where certain Nereids
Nereids
were known by sight to several persons (so at least they averred); and there was a wonderful agreement among the witnesses in the description of their appearance and dress."[2] Nymphs
Nymphs
tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, and the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind. Such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos.[3][4]

Modern sexual connotations[edit]

A Sleeping Nymph
Nymph
Watched by a Shepherd by Angelica Kauffman, about 1780, (V&A Museum no. 23-1886)

Due to the depiction of the mythological nymphs as females who mate with men or women freely and without care, the term is often related to women who are perceived as behaving similarly. (For example, the title of the Perry Mason
Perry Mason
detective novel The Case of the Negligent Nymph
Nymph
(1956) by Erle Stanley Gardner
Erle Stanley Gardner
is derived from this meaning of the word.)[citation needed] The term nymphomania was created by modern psychology as referring to a "desire to engage in human sexual behavior at a level high enough to be considered clinically significant", nymphomaniac being the person suffering from such a disorder. Due to widespread use of the term among lay persons (often shortened to nympho) and stereotypes attached, professionals nowadays prefer the term hypersexuality, which can refer to males and females alike. The word nymphet is used to identify a sexually precocious girl. The term was made famous in the novel Lolita
Lolita
by Vladimir Nabokov. The main character, Humbert Humbert, uses the term many times, usually in reference to the title character.[citation needed] Classification[edit] As H.J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, and there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap, which complicates the task of precise classification. Rose mentions dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees generally, meliai as nymphs of ash trees, and naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically.[5] Classification by type of dwelling[edit]

The Cave of the Storm Nymphs
The Cave of the Storm Nymphs
by Sir Edward John Poynter

The following[6] is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended simply as a guide:

The Pleiades (1885) by Elihu Vedder.

Celestial nymphs

Aurae
Aurae
(breezes), also called Aetae or Pnoae[citation needed] Asteriae (stars), mainly comprising the Atlantides
Atlantides
(daughters of Atlas)

Hesperides
Hesperides
(nymphs of the sunset, the West, and the evening; daughters of Atlas; also had attributes of the Hamadryads)

Aegle ("dazzling light") Arethusa Erytheia
Erytheia
(or Eratheis) Hesperia (or Hispereia)

Hyades (star cluster; sent rain) Pleiades (daughters of Atlas and Pleione; constellation; also were classed as Oreads)

Maia (partner of Zeus
Zeus
and mother of Hermes) Electra Taygete Alcyone Celaeno Asterope Merope

Nephele
Nephele
(clouds)

Land nymphs

Alseides (groves) Auloniades (valley pastures, glens) Leimakides or Leimonides (meadows) Napaeae (dells) Oreads
Oreads
(mountains, grottoes), also Orodemniades

Wood and plant nymphs

Anthousai (flowers) Dryades (trees) Hamadryades or Hadryades

Daphnaeae (laurel tree) Epimeliades or Epimelides (apple tree; also protected flocks), other name variants include Meliades, Maliades and Hamameliades; same as these are also the Boucolai (Pastoral Nymphs) Kissiae (ivy) Meliae (manna-ash tree)

Hyleoroi (watchers of woods)

Naiad
Naiad
by Henri Fantin-Latour.

Water nymphs (Hydriades or Ephydriades)

Haliae (sea and seashores)

Nereids
Nereids
(50 daughters of Nereus, the Mediterranean Sea)

Naiads or Naides (fresh water)

Crinaeae (fountains) Eleionomae (wetlands) Limnades or Limnatides (lakes) Pegaeae (springs) Potameides
Potameides
(rivers)

Tágides ( Tagus
Tagus
River)

Oceanids (daughters of Oceanus
Oceanus
and Tethys, any water, usually salty)

see List of Oceanids

Adolf Hirémy-Hirschl, The Souls of Acheron
Acheron
(1898).

Underworld nymphs

Cocytiae, daughters of the river god Cocytus Lampades – torch bearers in the retinue of Hecate Underworld nymphs:

Orphne
Orphne
is a representation of the darkness of the river Styx, the river of hatred, but is not to be confused with the goddess Styx-herself, but she is associated with both Styx
Styx
and Nyx. She is the consort of Acheron, (the god of the river in Hades), and the mother of Ascalaphus, (the orchardist of Hades). Leuce (white poplar tree), lover of Hades Minthe (mint), lover of Hades, rival of Persephone Melinoe
Melinoe
(μήλινος) Orphic
Orphic
nymph, daughter of Persephone
Persephone
and " Zeus
Zeus
disguised as Pluto".[7] Her name is a possible epithet of Hecate.

Public sex
Public sex
between a nymph and Satyr. A sketch of Agostino Carracci.

Other nymphs

Hecaterides (rustic dance) – sisters of the Dactyls, mothers of the Oreads
Oreads
and the Satyrs Kabeirides – sisters of the Kabeiroi Maenads
Maenads
or Bacchai or Bacchantes – frenzied nymphs in the retinue of Dionysus

Lenai (wine-press) Mimallones (music) Naides (Naiads) Thyiai or Thyiades (thyrsus bearers)

Melissae (honey bees), likely a subgroup of Oreades or Epimelides The Muses
Muses
(memory, knowledge, art) Themeides – daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and Themis, prophets and keepers of certain divine artifacts

Location-specific groupings of nymphs[edit]

Greek deities series

Primordial deities Titans and Olympians Aquatic deities Chthonic
Chthonic
deities Mycenaean deities Personified concepts Other deities

Nymphs

Alseid Auloniad Aurai Crinaeae Dryads Eleionomae Hamadryads Hesperides Hyades Lampads Leuce Limnades Meliae Melinoe Minthe Naiads Napaeae Nephele Nereids Oceanids Oreads Pegaeae Pegasides Pleiades Potamides Thriae

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The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location.[8] Nymphs
Nymphs
in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above (Naiades, Oreades, and so on).

Hylas
Hylas
and nymphs from a mosaic in Roman Gaul
Roman Gaul
(3rd century)

Aeaean Nymphs
Nymphs
( Aeaea Island), handmaidens of Circe Aegaeides (Aegaeus River on the island of Scheria) Aesepides ( Aesepus River in Anatolia)

Abarbarea

Acheloides (Achelous River)

Callirhoe, second wife of Alcmaeon

Acmenes (Stadium in Olympia, Elis) Amnisiades (Amnisos River on the island of Crete), who entered the retinue of Artemis Anigrides (Anigros River in Elis), who were believed to cure skin diseases Asopides ( Asopus River in Sicyonia
Sicyonia
and Boeotia)

Aegina Asopis Chalcis Cleone Combe Corcyra Euboea Harpina Ismene Nemea Oeroe Ornea Peirene Plataia Salamis Sinope Tanagra Thebe Thespeia

Astakides (Lake Astakos in Bithynia)

Nicaea

Asterionides ( Asterion River) – nurses of Hera

Acraea Euboea Prosymna

Carian Naiades (Caria)

Salmacis

Nymphs
Nymphs
of Ceos Corycian Nymphs
Nymphs
( Corycian Cave)

Cleodora Corycia Daphnis Melaina

Cydnides (River Cydnus
Cydnus
in Cilicia) Cyrenaean Nymphs
Nymphs
(City of Cyrene, Libya) Cypriae Nymphs
Nymphs
(Island of Cyprus) Cyrtonian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Town of Cyrtone, Boeotia) Deliades (Island of Delos) – daughters of the river god Inopos Dodonides ( Oracle
Oracle
at Dodona) Erasinides (Erasinos River in Argos), followers of Britomartis

Anchiroe Byze Maira Melite

Nymphs
Nymphs
of the river Granicus

Alexirhoe Pegasis

Heliades
Heliades
(River Eridanos) – daughters of Helios
Helios
who were changed into trees Himeriai Naiades (Local springs at the town of Himera, Sicily) Hydaspides (River Hydaspes
Hydaspes
in India), nurses of infant Zagreus Idaean Nymphs
Nymphs
(Mount Ida), nurses of infant Zeus

Ida Adrasteia

Inachides ( Inachus
Inachus
River)

Amymone Io Hyperia Messeis Philodice

Ionides (Kytheros River in Elis)

Calliphaea Iasis Pegaea Synallaxis

Ithacian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Local springs and caves on the island of Ithaca) Ladonides (Ladon River) Lamides or Lamusides (Lamos River in Cilicia), possible nurses of infant Dionysus Leibethrides (Mounts Helicon and Leibethrios in Boeotia; or Mount Leibethros in Thrace)

Libethrias Petra

Lelegeides (Lycia, Anatolia) Lycaean Nymphs
Nymphs
(Mount Lycaeus), nurses of infant Zeus, perhaps a subgroup of the Oceanides Melian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Island of Melos), transformed into frogs by Zeus; not to be confused with the Meliae (ash tree nymphs) Mycalessides (Mount Mycale
Mycale
in Caria, Anatolia) Mysian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Spring of Pegai near Lake Askanios in Bithynia), who abducted Hylas

Euneica Malis Nycheia

Naxian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Mount Drios on the island of Naxos), nurses of infant Dionysus; were syncretized with the Hyades

Cleide Coronis Philia

Neaerides ( Thrinacia Island) – daughters of Helios
Helios
and Neaera, watched over Helios' cattle Nymphaeides (Nymphaeus River in Paphlagonia) Nysiads (Mount Nysa) – nurses of infant Dionysos, identified with Hyades Ogygian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Island of Ogygia), four handmaidens of Calypso Ortygian Nymphs
Nymphs
(Local springs of Syracuse, Sicily), named for the island of Ortygia Othreides (Mount Othrys), a local group of Hamadryads Pactolides ( Pactolus
Pactolus
River)

Euryanassa, wife of Tantalus

Pelionides (Mount Pelion), nurses of the Centaurs Phaethonides, a synonym for the Heliades Phaseides (Phasis River) Rhyndacides ( Rhyndacus River
Rhyndacus River
in Mysia) Sithnides (Fountain at the town of Megara) Spercheides (River Spercheios); one of them, Diopatra, was loved by Poseidon
Poseidon
and the others were changed by him into trees Sphragitides, or Cithaeronides (Mount Cithaeron) Tagids, Tajids, Thaejids or Thaegids (River Tagus, in Portugal and Spain) Thessalides (Peneus River in Thessaly) Thriae (Mount Parnassos), prophets and nurses of Apollo Trojan Nymphs
Nymphs
(Local springs of Troy)

Individual names of some of the nymphs[edit]

Echo, an Oread
Oread
(mountain nymph) watches Narcissus in this 1903 painting of Echo and Narcissus by John William Waterhouse.

The following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Oceanids, Dryades etc. see respective articles.

Aba, mother of Ergiscus by Poseidon Aora, eponym of the town Aoros in Crete[9] Axioche or Danais, mother of Chrysippus by Pelops Brettia, eponym of Abrettene, Mysia[10] Chania, a lover of Heracles Cirrha, eponym of Cirrha in Phocis[11] Clonia, consort of Hyrieus Cnossia, mother of Xenodamus by Menelaus Cretheis, briefly mentioned in Suda[12] Crimisa, eponym of a city in Italy[13] Dercetis, known for seducing the young Lapithaon Echemeia (spelled "Ethemea" by Hyginus), consort of Merops Eunoe, possible mother of Hecuba
Hecuba
by Dymas Eunoste, nurse of Eunostus Hegetoria of Rhodes, consort of Ochimus Hyllis of Argos, possible eponym of the tribe Hylleis and the city Hylle[14] Mendeis, consort of Sithon Menodice, mother of Hylas
Hylas
by Theiodamas Mideia, mother of Aspledon by Poseidon Nacole, eponym of Nacoleia in Phrygia[15] Nomia of Arcadia, a friend of Callisto Oinoie, mother of Sicinus by Thoas Paphia, possibly the mother of Cinyras
Cinyras
by Eurymedon Pareia, mother of four sons by Minos Psalacantha, changed into a plant by Dionysus Rhene of Mount Cyllene, who consorted with both Hermes
Hermes
and Oileus Semestra, nurse of Keroessa Syllis, mother of Zeuxippus by Apollo Teledice, a consort of Phoroneus

In non-Greek tales influenced by Greek mythology[edit]

Sabrina (the river Severn)

Sleeping nymph[edit]

The statue of a sleeping nymph in a grotto at Stourhead, England.

A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance
Renaissance
was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring.[16][17][18] This motif supposedly came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube.[19] The report, and an accompanying poem supposedly on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now generally concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead.[20][21][22] See also[edit]

This "see also" section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links, and that any links are not already in this article. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Animism Apsaras Calypso Castalia Elizabeth Elstob, "The Saxon Nymph" Fairy Genius loci Houri Huacas Kami Lampades Landvaettir List of Greek mythological Nymphs List of tree deities Melusine Mermaid Moura Encantada Nymphenburg Palace Nymphs
Nymphs
and Satyr
Satyr
(painting) Ondine (mythology) Peri Pitsa panels Psychai Rå Siren Slavic fairies Sprite Succubus The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd Vila Yakshini

References[edit]

^ But see Jennifer Larson, "Handmaidens of Artemis?", The Classical Journal 92.3 (February 1997), pp. 249–257. ^ Lawson, John Cuthbert (1910). Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 131.  ^ "heathen Artemis
Artemis
yielded her functions to her own genitive case transformed into Saint Artemidos", as Terrot Reaveley Glover
Terrot Reaveley Glover
phrased it in discussing the "practical polytheism in the worship of the saints", in Progress in Religion to the Christian Era 1922:107. ^ Tomkinson, John L. (2004). Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and Other Exotika (1st ed.). Athens: Anagnosis. chapter 3. ISBN 960-88087-0-7.  ^ Rose, Herbert Jennings (1959). A Handbook of Greek Mythology
Mythology
(1st ed.). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. p. 173. ISBN 0-525-47041-7.  ^ Theoi Project – Classification of Nymphs ^ Orphic
Orphic
Hymn 71. ^ Theoi Project – List of Nymphs ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Aōros ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s.v. Abrettēnē ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10. 37. 5 ^ Suda
Suda
s. v. Kretheus ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Krimisa ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s. v. Hylleis ^ Suda
Suda
s. v. Nakoleia ^ "The Nymph
Nymph
of the Spring". National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ Stephen John Campbell (2004). The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella D'Este. Yale University Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN 0-300-11753-1.  ^ Maryan Wynn Ainsworth; Joshua P. Waterman; Dorothy Mahon (2013). German Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1350-1600. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 95–6. ISBN 978-1-58839-487-3.  ^ Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4.  ^ Leonard Barkan (1999). Unearthing the Past: Archaeology and Aesthetics in the Making of Renaissance
Renaissance
Culture. Yale University Press. pp. 237–8. ISBN 978-0-300-08911-0.  ^ Elisabeth B. MacDougall (January 1994). Fountains, Statues, and Flowers: Studies in Italian Gardens of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 37–56. ISBN 978-0-88402-216-9.  ^ Kenneth Gross (1992). The Dream of the Moving Statue. Cornell University Press. pp. 170–175. ISBN 0-8014-2702-9. 

Sources[edit]

Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36281-0.  Larson, Jennifer Lynn (2001). Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514465-1.  Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131 Nereids paleothea.com homepage Tomkinson, John L., Haunted Greece: Nymphs, Vampires and other Exotika, Anagnosis, Athens, 2004, ISBN 960-88087-0-7  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nymphs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 930. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nymphs.

Theoi.com: Nymphs

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Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple
Apple
of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

v t e

Fairies

Related articles

Changeling Classifications of fairies Fairy
Fairy
fort Fairy
Fairy
godmother Fairy-locks Fairy
Fairy
path Fairy
Fairy
riding Fairy
Fairy
ring Fairy
Fairy
tale Hungry grass

Royalty in folklore

Áine Alberich Arawn Beira Bodb Derg Brigid Clíodhna The Dagda Donn Dullahan Fairy
Fairy
Queen Finvarra Freyr
Freyr
and Yngvi Freyja Gwyn ap Nudd Gwythyr ap Greidawl Gyre-Carling/Nicnevin Manannán mac Lir Queen of Elphame Saci-pererê

Royalty in literature

Belphoebe Caelia Elegast Erlking Gloriana Lurline Mab Oberon Titania

Fairylands in folklore

Alfheim/Elphame Annwn Arcadia (utopia) Avalon, Afallach, and Emain Ablach Brú na Bóinne Cnoc Meadha Cnoc na Teamhrach Fortunate Isles Hy Brasil Inis Vitrin Mag Mell Niðavellir Otherworld Rathcroghan Seelie Court Svartálfar and Svartálfaheimr Tír na nÓg Unseelie Court

Fairies in culture

The Blue Fairy Cottingley Fairies Faerieworlds Faery Wicca Fairy
Fairy
painting The Faerie Queene The Fairly OddParents Rainbow Magic Tinker Bell

Fairies in folklore

Northern Europe

Alp Luachra Anjana Aos Sidhe Arkan Sonney Asrai Banshee Barghest Bean nighe Billy Blind Biróg Bloody Bones Bluecap Bodach Boggart Bogle Brag Brownie Bucca Buggane Bugul Noz Caoineag Cat sìth Cù Sìth Ceffyl Dŵr Clurichaun Coblynau Cyhyraeth Drow Duende Duergar Dullahan Dwarf Each-uisge Elf Enchanted Moura Fear dearg Fear gorta Fenodyree Finfolk Fuath Gancanagh Ghillie Dhu Glaistig Glashtyn Gnome Goblin Green Man Gremlin Grindylow Gwyllion Gwyn ap Nudd Habetrot Haltija The Hedley Kow Heinzelmännchen Hob Hobgoblin Hödekin Hulder Iannic-ann-ôd Imp Jack-o'-lantern Jack o' the bowl Jenny Greenteeth Joan the Wad Joint-eater Kabouter Kelpie Kilmoulis Klabautermann Knocker Knucker Kobold Korrigan Leanan sídhe Leprechaun Lorelei Lubber fiend Ly Erg Mare Melusine Mermaid Merrow Mooinjer veggey Morgen Nain Rouge Näkki Nicnevin Nix Ogre Peg Powler Pixie Púca/Pwca Puck Radande Redcap Selkie Seonaidh Shellycoat Sluagh Spriggan Sprite/Water sprite Sylph Tomte Tooth fairy Troll Tuatha Dé Danann Tylwyth Teg Undine Water horse Wight Will-o'-the-wisp Wirry-cow Yan-gant-y-tan Xana

Fairy-like beings in folklore

Africa

Abatwa Asanbosam Aziza Bultungin Jengu Kishi Mami Wata Obayifo Rompo Tikoloshe Yumboes

Oceania

Bunyip Manaia Mimis Muldjewangk Patupaiarehe Taniwha Tipua Wandjina Yara-ma-yha-who Yowie

Americas

Alux Chaneque Curupira Encantado Ishigaq Jogah Menehune Nawao Nimerigar Nûñnë'hï Pukwudgie Saci Squonk

Asia

Apsara Diwata Kappa Kijimuna Kitsune Kodama Koro-pok-guru Mogwai Orang bunian Puteri Peri Bake-danuki Tengu Tennin Yaksha Yakshini Yōkai Yōsei

Europe

Greek

Dryad Hamadryad Kallikantzaros Lampad Maenad Naiad Nereid Nymph Oceanid Pan Potamides Satyr Silenus

Romanic

Căpcăun Faun Iele Lares Di Penates Sânziană Spiriduș Squasc Vâlvă Vântoase Zână Zmeu

Slavic

Bagiennik
Bagiennik
& Bannik Berehynia Domovoi Karzełek Kikimora Likho Polevik Psotnik Rusalka Vila Vodyanoy

Celtic

Tuatha Dé Danann

Texts

Daemonologie
Daemonologie
(1597) Treatises on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants (1751) Goethe's Faust
Goethe's Faust
(1832)

See also Portal Category List of beings referred t