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Nusantara
Nusantara
is a contemporary Malay-Indonesian term for the Indonesian archipelago.[1] It originated in Old Javanese and literally means "archipelago".[2] In Malaysia
Malaysia
today, the term has been adopted to mean the "Malay world". The word Nusantara
Nusantara
was taken from an oath by Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada
in 1336, as written in the Old Javanese Pararaton and Nagarakretagama.[3] Gajah Mada was a powerful military leader and prime minister of Majapahit who was credited with bringing the empire to its peak of glory. Gajah Mada delivered an oath called Sumpah Palapa, in which he vowed not to eat any food containing spices until he had conquered all of Nusantara under the glory of Majapahit. Today, Indonesian historians believed that the concept of Nusantara was not an idea coined by Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada
for the first time in 1336. It was coined earlier in 1275 as Cakravala Mandala Dvipantara by Kertanegara of Singhasari.[4] Dvipantara is a Sanskrit word for the "islands inbetween", the synonym to Nusantara
Nusantara
as both dvipa and nusa mean "island". The term is used to describe the Southeast Asian Archipelago. Kertanegara envisioned the union of Southeast Asian maritime kingdoms under Singhasari as a bulwark against the rise of the expansionist Mongol Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in mainland China.

Contents

1 Ancient concepts of Nusantara

1.1 Etymology

2 The first appearance of Nusantara
Nusantara
concept in the 20th century 3 Modern usage 4 Nusantara
Nusantara
studies 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Ancient concepts of Nusantara[edit]

Majapahit
Majapahit
Negara Agung (grand state) and Mancanagara (provinces) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura
Madura
and Bali.

The extent of Majapahit
Majapahit
Nusantara
Nusantara
according to Nagarakretagama.

Etymology[edit] Nusantara
Nusantara
is a Javanese word which appears in the Pararaton manuscript. In Javanese, Nusantara
Nusantara
means "outer islands", from nūsa, meaning 'island' and antara, "within". Based on the Majapahit
Majapahit
concept of state, the monarch had the power over three areas:

Negara Agung, or the Grand State, the core kingdom. The traditional or initial area of Majapahit
Majapahit
during its formation before entering the imperial phase. This includes the capital city and the surrounding areas where the king effectively exercises his government. The area in and around royal capital of Trowulan, port of Canggu and sections of Brantas River
Brantas River
valley near the capital, also mountainous areas south and southeast of capital, all the way to Pananggungan and Arjuno-Welirang
Arjuno-Welirang
peaks, are the core realm of the kingdom. The Brantas river valley corridor, connecting Majapahit
Majapahit
Trowulan
Trowulan
area to Canggu and estuarine areas in Kahuripan (Sidoarjo) and Hujung Galuh port (Surabaya) are considered as parts of Negara Agung. Mancanegara, areas surrounding Negara Agung — traditionally refer to Majapahit
Majapahit
provinces in East and Central Java. This area covered the eastern half of Java, with all its provinces ruled by the Bhres (dukes), the king's close relatives. These areas are directly influenced by Javanese Majapahit
Majapahit
court culture, and obliged to pay annual tributes. These areas usually possess their own rulers that might be directly related, foster an alliance or intermarried with the Majapahit
Majapahit
royal family. Majapahit
Majapahit
stationed their officials and officers in these places and regulate their foreign trade activities and collect taxes, yet they enjoyed substantial internal autonomy. This includes the rest of Java
Java
island, Madura
Madura
and Bali. However, in later period, overseas provinces which has developed culture reflected or comparable to those of Java, or possess significant trading importance, are also considered as mancanegara. Either the province has their own native rulers subject (vassal) to the king, or a regent appointed and sent by the king to rule the region. This realm includes Dharmasraya, Pagaruyung, Lampung
Lampung
and Palembang
Palembang
in Sumatra. Nusantara, areas which do not reflect Javanese culture, but are included as colonies and they had to pay annual tribute. They enjoyed substantial autonomy and internal freedom, and Majapahit
Majapahit
did not necessarily station their officials or military officers here; however, any challenges on Majapahit
Majapahit
oversight might draw severe response. These areas such as the vassal kingdoms and colonies in Malay peninsula, Borneo, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and Maluku.

The first appearance of Nusantara
Nusantara
concept in the 20th century[edit]

Modern Wawasan Nusantara
Nusantara
the Indonesian archipelagic baselines pursuant to article 47, paragraph 9, of the UNCLOS

In 1920, Ernest Francois Eugene Douwes Dekker (1879–1950), who was also known as Setiabudi, introduced a new name for this proposed independent country (successor state of colonial Dutch East Indies) — which unlike its currently used name of "Indonesia" — did not contain any words etymologically inherited from the name of India or the Indies.[5] The new proposed name was the locally developed name Nusantara. This is the first instance of the term Nusantara
Nusantara
appearing after it had been written into Pararaton manuscript. The definition of Nusantara
Nusantara
introduced by Setiabudi is different to the 14th century definition of the term. During the Majapahit
Majapahit
era, Nusantara
Nusantara
described vassal areas to be conquered. Setiabudi didn't want this aggressive connotation, so he defined Nusantara
Nusantara
as all the Indonesian regions from Sabang as far as Merauke. Modern usage[edit] Today in Indonesian, Nusantara
Nusantara
is synonymous with Indonesian archipelago or the national territory of Indonesia,[6] in this sense the term Nusantara
Nusantara
excludes Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei
Brunei
and the Philippines. In 1967, it has transformed into the concept of Wawasan Nusantara
Nusantara
or "archipelagic outlook", which regarded the archipelagic realm of Indonesia, the islands and seas surrounding them, as a single unity of several aspects, including political unity, socio-cultural, economic, security and defense unity.[7] While in Malay the term is synonymous and often interchangeable with Malay archipelago
Malay archipelago
or Malay realm
Malay realm
(Malay: Alam Melayu) which includes those countries. In 21st century, Nusantara
Nusantara
can be referred to as the correct term to represent the Malayo-Polynesian
Malayo-Polynesian
region which consists of all Austronesian countries including the Polynesian.[citation needed] Nusantara
Nusantara
studies[edit] The Nusantara Society
Nusantara Society
in Moscow
Moscow
conducts studies on the Nusantara region's history, culture, languages and politics. See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

Malayness

Bumiputera Pribumi

Malay world Malay Archipelago East Indies Malay race Maphilindo Greater Indonesia Nusantara
Nusantara
Society Islam Nusantara History of Indonesia Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network Nanyang (region)

References[edit]

^ Echols, John M.; Shadily, Hassan (1989), Kamus Indonesia
Indonesia
Inggris (An Indonesian-English Dictionary) (1st ed.), Jakarta: Gramedia, ISBN 979-403-756-7  ^ Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. p. 601. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.  ^ Mpu, Prapañca; Robson, Stuart O. (1995). Deśawarṇana: (Nāgarakṛtāgama). KITLV. ISBN 978-90-6718-094-8.  ^ Wahyono Suroto Kusumoprojo (2009). Indonesia
Indonesia
negara maritim. PT Mizan Publika. ISBN 978-979-3603-94-0.  ^ Vlekke, Bernard H.M. (1943), Nusantara: A History of the East Indian Archipelago
Archipelago
(1st ed.), Netherlands: Ayer Co Pub, pp. 303–470, ISBN 978-0-405-09776-8  ^ "nusantara Indonesian to English Translation - Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Indonesian Living Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-12-24.  ^ Butcher, John G.; Elson, R. E. (2017-03-24). Sovereignty and the Sea: How Indonesia
Indonesia
Became an Archipelagic State. NUS Press. ISBN 9789814722216. 

External links[edit]

Wawasan Nusantara Wacana Nusantara UNESCO: Pararaton Manuscript (MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER)[permanent dead link] Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada
article History Nusantara

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