The NUREMBERG RALLY (officially Reichsparteitag (help ·info ),
meaning Imperial Party Convention) was the annual rally of the Nazi
Germany , held from 1923 to 1938. They were large Nazi
propaganda events, especially after Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power in
1933. These events were held at the
Nazi party rally grounds in
Nuremberg from 1933 to 1938 and are usually referred to in English as
Nuremberg Rallies". Many films were made to commemorate them, the
most famous of which is
Leni Riefenstahl 's
Triumph of the Will and
Der Sieg des Glaubens .
* 1 History and purpose
* 2 Rallies
* 3 Propaganda films
* 4 Books
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
HISTORY AND PURPOSE
Nazi Party rallies took place in 1923 in
Munich and in 1926
Weimar . From 1927 on, they took place exclusively in
The Party selected
Nuremberg for pragmatic reasons: it was in the
center of the
German Reich and the local Luitpoldhain (converted
parkland) was well suited as a venue. In addition, the Nazis could
rely on the well-organized local branch of the party in
then led by
Julius Streicher . The
Nuremberg police were
sympathetic to the event.
Later, the location was justified by the
Nazi Party by putting it
into the tradition of the Imperial Diet (German Reichstag) of the Holy
Roman Empire , considered the First Reich. After 1933, the rallies
took place near the time of the
Autumnal equinox , under the title of
"The German people's National Party days" (Reichsparteitage des
deutschen Volkes), which was intended to symbolize the solidarity
between the German people and the Nazi Party. This point was further
emphasized by the yearly growing number of participants, which finally
reached over half a million from all sections of the party, the army,
and the state.
Each rally was given a programmatic title, which related to recent
* 1923 – The First Party Congress took place in
Munich on January
* 1923 – The "German day rally" was held in Nuremberg, September
* 1926 – The 2nd Party Congress ("Refounding Congress") was held
in Weimar, July 3-4, 1926.
* 1927 – The 3rd Party Congress ("Day of Awakening") was held in
Nuremberg, August 19-21, 1927. The propaganda film Eine Symphonie des
Kampfwillens was made at this rally.
* 1929 – The 4th Party Congress, known as the "Day of Composure",
was held in Nuremberg, August 1-4, 1929. The propaganda film Der
Nürnberger Parteitag der
NSDAP was made at this rally.
* 1933 – The 5th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, August 30
– September 3, 1933. It was called the "Rally of Victory"
(Reichsparteitag des Sieges). The term "victory" relates to the Nazi
seizure of power and the victory over the
Weimar Republic . The Leni
Der Sieg des Glaubens was made at this rally. Hitler
announced that from now on all Rallies would take place in Nuremberg.
* 1934 – The 6th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, September
5–10, 1934, which was attended by about 700,000 Nazi Party
supporters. Initially it did not have a theme. Later it was labeled
the "Rally of Unity and Strength" (Reichsparteitag der Einheit und
Stärke), "Rally of Power" (Reichsparteitag der Macht), or "Rally of
Will" (Reichsparteitag des Willens). The
Leni Riefenstahl film Triumph
des Willens was made at this rally. This rally was particularly
notable due to
Albert Speer 's
Cathedral of light : 152 searchlights
that cast vertical beams into the sky around the Zeppelin Field to
symbolise the walls of a building
* 1935 – The 7th Party Congress was held in Nuremberg, September
10–16, 1935. It was called the "Rally of Freedom" (Reichsparteitag
der Freiheit). "Freedom" referred to the reintroduction of compulsory
military service and thus the German "liberation" from the Treaty of
Leni Riefenstahl made the film Tag der Freiheit: Unsere
Wehrmacht at this rally, and the Nazis introduced the
Nuremberg Laws .
* 1936 – The 8th Party Congress was known as the "Rally of Honour"
(Reichsparteitag der Ehre, September 8–14). The remilitarization of
Rhineland in March 1936 constituted the restoration
of German honour in the eyes of many Germans. The film Festliches
Nürnberg incorporated footage shot at this rally, as well as the
rally of 1937.
* 1937 – The 9th Party Congress was called the "Rally of Labour"
(Reichsparteitag der Arbeit, September 6–13). It celebrated the
reduction of unemployment in
Germany since the Nazi rise to power.
* 1938 – The 10th Party Congress was named the "Rally of Greater
Germany" (Reichsparteitag Großdeutschland, September 5–12). This
was due to the annexation of
Germany that had taken place
earlier in the year.
* 1939 – The 11th Party Congress, scheduled for September 2-11,
was given the name "Rally of Peace" (Reichsparteitag des Friedens). It
was meant to reiterate the German desire for peace, both to the German
population and to other countries. It was cancelled at short notice,
as one day before the planned date, on September 1,
Germany began its
offensive against Poland (which ignited
World War II
World War II ).
Official films for the rallies began in 1927, with the establishment
NSDAP (Nazi Party) film office. The most famous films were made
Leni Riefenstahl for the rallies between 1933 and 1935. Relating to
the theme of the rally, she called her first movie Victory of Faith
Der Sieg des Glaubens ). This movie was taken out of circulation
Night of the Long Knives , although a copy survived in
Britain and has recently been made available on the Internet Archive
for public viewing. The rally of 1934 became the setting for the
Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens). Several
generals in the
Wehrmacht protested over the minimal army presence in
the film: Hitler apparently proposed modifying the film to placate the
generals, but Riefenstahl refused his suggestion. She did agree to
return to the 1935 rally and make a film exclusively about the
Wehrmacht, which became Tag der Freiheit: Unsere
The rallies for 1936 and 1937 were covered in
Festliches Nürnberg ,
which was shorter than the others, only 21 minutes.
There were two sets of official or semi-official books covering the
rallies. The "red books" were officially published