The NUREMBERG LAWS (German: _Nürnberger Gesetze_) were antisemitic
Nazi Germany . They were introduced on 15 September 1935 by
the Reichstag at a special meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg
Rally of the
Nazi Party (NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the
Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages
and extramarital intercourse between
Jews and Germans and the
employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households; and the
Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or
related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were
classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights. A supplementary
decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14
November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on
that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include
Romani people and
Afro-Germans . This supplementary decree defined
Gypsies as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as
Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did
not commence until after the
1936 Summer Olympics , held in Berlin.
After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their
policies, which included the formation of a _
(people's community) based on race. Chancellor and
Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1
April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil
Service , passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal
profession and civil service. Books considered un-German, including
those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning
on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent
attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship
and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German
The Nuremberg laws had a crippling economic and social impact on the
Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws
were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing
their sentences were re-arrested by the
Gestapo and sent to Nazi
concentration camps . Non-
Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews
or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to lack
of customers. As
Jews were no longer permitted to work in the civil
service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and
education, many middle class business owners and professionals were
forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews
were required to remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon
leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential
Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass
deportation schemes such as the
Madagascar Plan proved to be
impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the
German government started mass exterminations of the
Jews of Europe.
* 1 Background
* 2.1 Reich Gypsy Law
* 2.2 "The Jewish problem"
* 2.3 Events at Nuremberg
* 3 Text of the laws
* 3.1 Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour
* 3.2 Reich Citizenship Law
* 4 Classifications under the laws
* 5 Impact
* 6 Legislation in other countries
* 7 Existing copies
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Sources
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Nazi eugenics and
Nazism and race
The National Socialist German Workers\' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party) was
one of several far-right political parties active in Germany after the
end of the First World War. The party platform included removal of
Weimar Republic , rejection of the terms of the Treaty of
Versailles , radical antisemitism, and anti-
Bolshevism . They
promised a strong central government, increased _
Lebensraum _ (living
space) for Germanic peoples, formation of a _
(people's community) based on race, and racial cleansing via the
active suppression of Jews, who would be stripped of their citizenship
and civil rights.
While imprisoned in 1924 after the failed
Beer Hall Putsch , Hitler
Mein Kampf _ to his deputy,
Rudolf Hess . The book is an
autobiography and exposition of Hitler's ideology in which he laid out
his plans for transforming German society into one based on race. In
it he outlined his belief in Jewish
Bolshevism , a conspiracy theory
that posited the existence of an international Jewish conspiracy for
world domination in which the
Jews were the mortal enemy of the German
people. Throughout his life Hitler never wavered in his world view as
expounded in _Mein Kampf_. The NSDAP advocated the concept of a
Volksgemeinschaft _ ("people's community") with the aim of uniting
all Germans as national comrades, whilst excluding those deemed either
to be community aliens or of a foreign race (_Fremdvölkische_).
Members of the SA picket in front of a Jewish place of business
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses , 1 April 1933.
Jews intensified after the NSDAP seized power;
following a month-long series of attacks by members of the
Sturmabteilung _ (SA; paramilitary wing of the NSDAP) on Jewish
businesses, synagogues, and members of the legal profession, on 1
April 1933 Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses .
By 1933, many people who were not NSDAP members advocated segregating
Jews from the rest of German society. The Law for the Restoration of
the Professional Civil Service , passed on 7 April 1933, forced all
non-Aryans to retire from the legal profession and civil service.
Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other professions
of their right to practise. In 1934, the NSDAP published a pamphlet
titled _"Warum Arierparagraph?"_ ("Why the Aryan Law?"), which
summarised the perceived need for the law. As part of the drive to
remove Jewish influence from cultural life, members of the National
Socialist Student League removed from libraries any books considered
un-German, and a nationwide book burning was held on 10 May. Violence
and economic pressure were used by the regime to encourage
voluntarily leave the country. Legislation passed in July 1933
stripped naturalised German
Jews of their citizenship, creating a
legal basis for recent immigrants (particularly Eastern European Jews)
to be deported. Many towns posted signs forbidding entry to Jews.
Throughout 1933 and 1934, Jewish businesses were denied access to
markets, forbidden to advertise in newspapers, and deprived of access
to government contracts. Citizens were harassed and subjected to
Other laws promulgated in this period included the Law for the
Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (passed on 14 July
1933), which called for the compulsory sterilisation of people with a
range of hereditary, physical, and mental illnesses. Under the Law
against Dangerous Habitual Criminals (passed 24 November 1935),
habitual criminals were forced to undergo sterilisation as well. This
law was also used to force the incarceration in prison or Nazi
concentration camps of "social misfits" such as the chronically
unemployed, prostitutes, beggars, alcoholics, homeless vagrants, and
Romani people .
REICH GYPSY LAW
The Central Office for Combatting Gypsies was established in 1929.
In December 1938 _
Heinrich Himmler issued an order
for "combatting the Gypsy plague".
Romani people were to be
categorised in terms of their Roma ancestry as a racial
characteristic, rather than their previous association as
'anti-social' elements of society. This work was advanced by Dr
Robert Ritter of the Racial Hygiene and Population unit of the
Ministry of Health, who by 1942, had produced a scale of ZM+, ZM of
the first and second degree, and ZM- to reflect an individual's
decreasing level of Romani ancestry. This classification meant that
one could be classified as Roma and subject to anti-Roma legislation
on the basis of having two Roma great-great grandparents. Dr Zindel
of the Ministry of the Interior prepared a draft of a Reich "Gypsy
Law" intended to supplement and accompany the Nuremberg Laws.
According to Zindel, the "Gypsy problem" could not be dealt with by
forced resettlement or imprisonment within Germany. He recommended
identification and registration of all Roma, followed by sterilisation
and deportation. In 1938, public health authorities were ordered to
register all Roma and Roma _Mischlinge_. Despite Himmler's interest
in enacting such legislation, which he said would prevent "further
intermingling of blood, and which regulates all the most pressing
questions which go together with the existences of Gypsies in the
living space of the German nation", the regime never promulgated the
"Gypsy Law". In December 1942, Himmler ordered that all Roma were to
be sent to Nazi concentration camps.
"THE JEWISH PROBLEM"
The SA had nearly three million members at the start of 1934.
Disenchanted with the unfulfilled promise of the NSDAP to eliminate
Jews from German society, SA members were eager to lash out against
the Jewish minority as a way of expressing their frustrations. A
Gestapo report from early 1935 stated that the rank and file of the
NSDAP would set in motion a solution to the "
Jewish problem ... from
below that the government would then have to follow". Assaults,
vandalism, and boycotts against Jews, which the Nazi government had
temporarily curbed in 1934, increased again in 1935 amidst a
propaganda campaign authorised at the highest levels of government.
Most non-party members ignored the boycotts and objected to the
violence out of concern for their own safety. The Israeli historian
Otto Dov Kulka argues that there was a disparity between the views of
Alte Kämpfer _ (longtime party members) and the general public,
but that even those Germans who were not politically active favoured
bringing in tougher new antisemitic laws in 1935. The matter was
raised to the forefront of the state agenda as a result of this
The Interior Minister
Wilhelm Frick announced on 25 July that a law
forbidding marriages between
Jews and non-
Jews would shortly be
promulgated, and recommended that registrars should avoid issuing
licenses for such marriages for the time being. The draft law also
called for a ban on marriage for persons with hereditary illnesses.
Hjalmar Schacht , the Economics Minister and Reichsbank
president, criticised the violent behaviour of the _Alte Kämpfer_ and
SA because of its negative impact on the economy. The violence also
had a negative impact on Germany's reputation in the international
community. For these reasons, Hitler ordered a stop to "individual
actions" against German
Jews on 8 August 1935, and the Interior
Wilhelm Frick threatened to take legal action against Party
members who ignored the order. From Hitler's perspective, it was
imperative to quickly bring in new antisemitic laws to appease the
radical elements in the NSDAP who persisted in attempting to remove
Jews from German society by violent means. A conference of
ministers was held on 20 August 1935 to discuss the question. Hitler
argued against violent methods because of the damage being done to the
economy, and insisted the matter must be settled through legislation.
The focus of the new laws would be marriage laws to prevent "racial
Jews of their German citizenship, and laws to
Jews from participating freely in the economy.
EVENTS AT NUREMBERG
NSDAP dignitaries at the 1935
The seventh annual
Nazi Party Rally , held in Nuremberg from 10–16
September 1935, featured the only Reichstag session held outside
Berlin during the Nazi regime. Hitler decided that the rally would be
a good opportunity to introduce the long-awaited anti-Jewish laws. In
a speech on 12 September, leading Nazi physician Gerhard Wagner
announced that the government would soon introduce a "law for the
protection of German blood". The next day, Hitler summoned the
Reichstag to meet in session at Nuremberg on 15 September, the last
day of the rally. Franz Albrecht Medicus and
Bernhard Lösener of the
Interior Ministry were summoned to Nuremberg and directed to start
preparing a draft of a law forbidding sexual relations or marriages
Jews and non-Jews. The two men arrived on 14 September. That
evening, Hitler ordered them to also have ready by morning a draft of
the Reich citizenship law. Hitler found the initial drafts of the
Blood Law to be too lenient, so at around midnight Frick brought him
four new drafts that differed mainly in the severity of the penalties
they imposed. Hitler chose the most lenient version, but left vague
the definition of who was a Jew. Hitler stated at the rally that the
laws were "an attempt at the legal settlement of a problem, which, if
this proved a failure, would have to be entrusted by law to the
National Socialist Party for a definitive solution." Propaganda
Joseph Goebbels had the radio broadcast of the passing of the
laws cut short, and ordered the German media to not mention them until
a decision was made as to how they would be implemented.
TEXT OF THE LAWS
Nuremberg Race Laws Reich Citizenship Law Law for the
Protection of German Blood and German Honour
Nuremberg Laws were unanimously passed by the Reichstag on 15
September 1935. The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German
Honour prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews
and Germans, and forbade the employment of German females under 45 in
Jewish households. The Reich Citizenship Law declared that only those
of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the
remainder were classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights.
The wording in the Citizenship Law that a person must prove "by his
conduct that he is willing and fit to faithfully serve the German
people and Reich" meant that political opponents could also be
stripped of their German citizenship. This law was effectively a
means of stripping Jews, Roma, and other "undesirables" of their legal
rights, and their citizenship. Over the coming years, an additional
13 supplementary laws were promulgated that further marginalised the
Jewish community in Germany.
LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OF GERMAN BLOOD AND GERMAN HONOUR
Moved by the understanding that purity of German blood is the
essential condition for the continued existence of the German people,
and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence
of the German nation for all time, the Reichstag has unanimously
adopted the following law, which is promulgated herewith: Article 1
* Marriages between
Jews and subjects of the state of German or
related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are
invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law.
* Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the state
Extramarital relations between
Jews and subjects of the state of
German or related blood are forbidden. Article 3
Jews may not employ in their households female subjects of the state
of German or related blood who are under 45 years old. Article 4
Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or national flag or display
* They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish
colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the state.
* Any person who violates the prohibition under Article 1 will be
punished with prison with hard labour .
* A male who violates the prohibition under Article 2 will be
punished with prison or prison with hard labour.
* Any person violating the provisions under Articles 3 or 4 will be
punished with prison with hard labour for up to one year and a fine,
or with one or the other of these penalties.
The Reich Minister of the Interior, in co-ordination with the Deputy
Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice, will issue the legal
and administrative regulations required to implement and complete this
law. Article 7
The law takes effect on the day following promulgation, except for
Article 3, which goes into force on 1 January 1936.
REICH CITIZENSHIP LAW
The Reichstag has unanimously enacted the following law, which is
promulgated herewith: Article 1
* A subject of the state is a person who enjoys the protection of
the German Reich and who in consequence has specific obligations
* The status of subject of the state is acquired in accordance with
the provisions of the Reich and the Reich Citizenship Law.
* A Reich citizen is a subject of the state who is of German or
related blood, and proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit to
faithfully serve the German people and Reich.
* Reich citizenship is acquired through the granting of a Reich
* The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in
accordance with the law.
The Reich Minister of the Interior, in co-ordination with the Deputy
of the Führer, will issue the legal and administrative orders
required to implement and complete this law.
CLASSIFICATIONS UNDER THE LAWS
Belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have Reich
Considered as belonging to the German race and nation; approved to
have Reich citizenship
_MISCHLING ZWEITEN GRADES_
Mixed race (second degree)
Only partly belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have
_MISCHLING ERSTEN GRADES_
Mixed race (first degree)
3/8 or 1/2 Jewish
Only partly belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have
Belongs to the Jewish race and community; not approved to have
Belongs to the Jewish race and community; not approved to have
Special Cases with First Degree Mischlinge
15 SEPTEMBER 1935
Mischling will be considered a Jew if they are a member of the
Jewish religious community.
15 SEPTEMBER 1935
Mischling will be considered a Jew if they are married to a Jew.
Their children will be considered Jews.
17 SEPTEMBER 1935
A mixed-race child that is the issue of a marriage with a Jew that
is born after 17 September 1935 will be classified as a Jew. Those
already born before 17 September 1935 will still be classified as
31 JULY 1936
A mixed-race child originating from forbidden extramarital sexual
intercourse with a Jew that is born out of wedlock after July 31, 1936
will be classified as a Jew.
See also: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar
Nazi Germany _ 1935
chart shows racial classifications under the Nuremberg Laws: German,
Mischlinge _, and Jew.
While both the Interior Ministry and the NSDAP agreed that persons
with three or more Jewish grandparents would be classed as being
Jewish and those with only one (_Mischlinge _ of the second degree)
would not, a debate arose as to the status of persons with two Jewish
grandparents (_Mischlinge_ of the first degree). The NSDAP,
especially its more radical elements, wanted the laws to apply to
_Mischlinge_ of both the first and second degree. For this reason
Hitler continued to stall, and did not make a decision until early
November 1935. His final ruling was that persons with three Jewish
grandparents were classed as Jewish; those with two Jewish
grandparents would be considered Jewish only if they practised the
faith or had a Jewish spouse. The supplementary decree outlining the
definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich
Citizenship Law came into force on that date.
Jews were no longer
German citizens and did not have the right to vote.
Jews and Gypsies
were not allowed to vote in Reichstag elections or the
Civil servants who had been granted an exemption to the Law for the
Restoration of the Professional Civil Service because of their status
as war veterans were forced out of their jobs on this date. A
supplementary decree issued on 21 December ordered the dismissal of
Jewish veterans from other state-regulated professions such as
medicine and education.
While Frick's suggestion that a citizenship tribunal before which
every German would have to prove that they were Aryan was not acted
upon, proving one's racial heritage became a necessary part of daily
life. Non-government employers were authorised to include in their
Aryan paragraph excluding both _Mischlinge_ and
employment. Proof of Aryan descent was achieved by obtaining an Aryan
certificate . One form was to acquire an _
Ahnenpass _, which could be
obtained by providing birth or baptismal certificates that all four
grandparents were of Aryan descent. The _Ahnenpass_ could also be
acquired by citizens of other countries, as long as they were of
"German or related blood".
Under the _Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour_
(15 September 1935), marriages were forbidden between
Germans; between _Mischlinge_ of the first degree and Germans; between
Jews and _Mischlinge_ of the second degree; and between two
_Mischlinge_ of the second degree. _Mischlinge_ of the first degree
were permitted to marry Jews, but they would henceforth be classed as
Jewish themselves. All marriages undertaken between half-
Germans required the approval of a Committee for the Protection of
German Blood. Few such permissions were granted. A supplementary
decree issued on 26 November 1935 extended the law to "Gypsies,
Negroes, and their bastards." Beginning in 1941,
required by law to self-identify by wearing a yellow badge on their
Persons suspected of having sexual relations with non-Aryans were
charged with _
Rassenschande _ (racial defilement) and tried in the
regular courts. Evidence provided to the
Gestapo for such cases was
largely provided by ordinary citizens such as neighbours, co-workers,
or other informants. Persons accused of race defilement were publicly
humiliated by being paraded through the streets with a placard around
their necks detailing their crime. Those convicted were typically
sentenced to prison terms, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon
completing their sentences were re-arrested by the
Gestapo and sent to
Nazi concentration camps . As the law did not permit capital
punishment for racial defilement, special courts were convened to
allow the death penalty for some cases. From the end of 1935 through
1940, 1,911 people were convicted of _Rassenschande_. Over time, the
law was extended to include non-sexual forms of physical contact such
as greeting someone with a kiss or an embrace.
For the most part, Germans accepted the Nuremberg Laws, partly
because Nazi propaganda had successfully swayed public opinion towards
the general belief that
Jews were a separate race, but also because to
oppose the regime meant leaving oneself open to harassment or arrest
by the Gestapo. Citizens were relieved that the antisemitic violence
ceased after the laws were passed. Non-
Jews gradually stopped
Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores. Wholesalers
who continued to serve Jewish merchants were marched through the
streets with placards around their necks proclaiming them as traitors.
The Communist party and some elements of the Catholic Church were
critical of the laws. Concerned that international opinion would be
adversely swayed by the new laws, the Interior Ministry did not
actively enforce them until after the
1936 Summer Olympics , held in
Berlin that August.
The Interior Ministry estimated there were 750,000 _Mischlinge_ as of
April 1935 (studies done after the war put the number of _Mischlinge_
at around 200,000). As
Jews became more and more excluded from German
society, they organised social events, schools, and activities of
their own. Economic problems were not so easily solved, however; many
Jewish firms went out of business due to lack of customers. This was
part of the ongoing Aryanization process (the transfer of Jewish firms
to non-Jewish owners, usually at prices far below market value) that
the regime had initiated in 1933, which intensified after the
Nuremberg laws were passed. Former middle-class or wealthy business
owners were forced to take employment in menial jobs to support their
families, and many were unable to find work at all.
Although a stated goal of the Nazis was that all
Jews should leave
the country, emigration was problematic, as
Jews were required to
remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the
country. Anyone caught transferring their money overseas were
sentenced to lengthy terms in prison as "economic saboteurs". An
exception was money sent to Palestine under the terms of the Haavara
Agreement , whereby
Jews could transfer some of their assets and
emigrate to that country. Around 52,000
Jews emigrated to Palestine
under the terms of this agreement between 1933 and 1939.
By the start of the Second World War in 1939, around 250,000 of
Jews had emigrated to the United States, Palestine,
Great Britain, and other countries. By 1938 it was becoming almost
impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country that would
take them. After the 1936–39 Arab revolt , the British were
disinclined to accept any more
Jews into Palestine for fear it would
further destabilise the region. Nationalistic and xenophobic people
in other countries pressured their governments not to accept waves of
Jewish immigrants, especially poverty-stricken ones. The Madagascar
Plan , a proposed mass deportation of European
Jews to Madagascar,
proved to be impossible to carry out. Starting in mid-1941, the
German government started mass exterminations of the
Jews of Europe.
The total number of
Jews murdered during the resulting
estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people. Estimates of the death toll of
Romani people in the
Porajmos range from 150,000 to 1,500,000.
LEGISLATION IN OTHER COUNTRIES
Decree of Tsar Boris III for approval of The law for protection
of the nation
Some of the allies of the Nazis passed their own versions of the
* In 1938, Fascist Italy passed the
Italian Racial Laws
Italian Racial Laws , which
Jews of their citizenship and forbade sexual relations and
marriages between Jewish and non-Jewish Italians.
* Hungary passed laws on 28 May 1938 and 5 May 1939 banning Jews
from various professions. A third law, added in August 1941, defined
Jews as anyone with at least two Jewish grandparents, and forbade
sexual relations or marriages between
Jews and non-Jews.
* In 1940 the ruling
Iron Guard in Romania passed the Law Defining
the Legal Status of Romanian Jews,
* In 1941 the Codex Judaicus was enacted in Slovakia,
* In 1941 Bulgaria passed the
Law for Protection of the Nation
Law for Protection of the Nation ,
* In 1941 the
Ustasha in Croatia passed legislation defining who was
a Jew and restricting contact with them.
Imperial Japan did not draft or pass any such legislation.
An original typescript of the laws signed by Hitler was found by the
US Army\'s Counter-Intelligence Corps in 1945. It ended up in the
possession of General
George S. Patton
George S. Patton , who kept it, in violation of
orders that such finds should be turned over to the government. During
a visit to Los Angeles, he handed it over to the
Huntington Library ,
where it was stored in a bomb-proof vault. The library revealed the
existence of the document in 1999, and sent it on permanent loan to
Skirball Cultural Center , which placed it on public display. The
document was transferred to the National Archives and Records
Administration in Washington in August 2010.
Blood quantum laws
Nazism and race
Nur für Deutsche
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 170–171.
* ^ Goldhagen 1996 , p. 85.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 179–180.
* ^ Bullock 1962 , p. 121.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 148–150.
* ^ Wildt 2012 , pp. 96-97.
* ^ Shirer 1960 , p. 203.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 539.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Longerich 2010 , p. 40.
* ^ Schulz & Frercks 1934 .
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 39.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 67–69.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Shirer 1960 , p. 233.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 41.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 507.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 511.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 49.
* ^ Hilberg 2003 , p. 1070.
* ^ _A_ _B_ McGarry 2010 , p. 21.
* ^ Hilberg 2003 , pp. 1070–1071.
* ^ Wolfe 2014 , p. 96.
* ^ Grenville 2002 , p. 320.
* ^ Burleigh & Wippermann 1991 , p. 121.
* ^ USHMM, "Sinti and Roma" .
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 22.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 340.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 341.
* ^ Marrus 2000 , pp. 92–93.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kershaw 2008 , p. 342.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 57–58.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gordon 1984 , p. 122.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 343.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Longerich 2010 , p. 59.
* ^ Friedländer 2009 , p. 45.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Evans 2005 , p. 543.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 344.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 344–345.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 345–346.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 60.
* ^ Mommsen 1989 , p. 225.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Evans 2005 , p. 544.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 345.
* ^ Wolfe 2014 , p. 94.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ US
* ^ _A_ _B_
Nuremberg Laws 1935 .
* ^ Friedländer 2009 , p. 49.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mommsen 1989 , p. 224.
* ^ Kershaw 2008 , p. 347.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Friedländer 2009 , p. 50.
* ^ Milton 2001 , p. 216.
* ^ Friedländer 2009 , p. 52.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Evans 2005 , p. 547.
* ^ Ehrenreich 2007 , p. 68.
* ^ Scheil 2012 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Friedländer 2009 , p. 51.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 217.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Evans 2005 , p. 551.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 540.
* ^ Majer 2003 , pp. 331–332.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Evans 2005 , p. 548.
* ^ Gordon 1984 , p. 180.
* ^ Gordon 1984 , p. 172.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 548, 553.
* ^ Gellately 1991 , p. 105.
* ^ Friedländer 2009 , p. 55.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 65–66.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 86.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 64, 66.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 66.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 556–557.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 127.
* ^ Evans 2005 , p. 555.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 67.
* ^ Friedländer 2009 , p. 57.
* ^ Evans 2005 , pp. 560, 601.
* ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 162–164.
* ^ Rhodes 2003 , pp. 159–160.
* ^ Evans 2008 , p. 318.
* ^ Hancock 2012 , p. 381.
* ^ Rodogno 2006 , p. 65.
* ^ Frojimovics 2012 , pp. 250–251.
* ^ Fischer 2012 , p. 279.
* ^ Matić 2002 , p. 174.
* ^ Dikovski 2000 .
* ^ Cohen 1999 , p. 90.
* ^ Allen 2010 .
* ^ Bradsher 2010 .
* Allen, Nick (26 August 2010). "
Nuremberg Laws handed over to US
National Archives". _Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
* Bradsher, Greg (Winter 2010). "The Nuremberg Laws: Archives
Receives Original Nazi Documents That "Legalized" Persecution of
Jews". _Prologue Magazine_. National Archives and Records
Administration. 42 (4). Retrieved 7 March 2015.
* Bullock, Alan (1962) . _Hitler: A Study in Tyranny_. London:
Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-013564-0 .
* Burleigh, Michael ; Wippermann, Wolfgang (1991). _The Racial
State: Germany 1933-1945_. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39802-2 .
* Cohen, Philip J. (1999) . _Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the
Deceit of History_. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN
* Dikovski, Antoinette (19 July 2000). "България само
администрираше "новите земи"".
_Демокрация_ (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on
18 July 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
* Ehrenreich, Eric (2007). _The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy,
Racial Science, and the Final Solution_. Indiana University Press.
ISBN 978-0-253-11687-1 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2003). _
The Coming of the Third Reich _. New
York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2005). _The Third Reich in Power_. New York:
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3 .
* Evans, Richard J. (2008). _The Third Reich at War_. New York:
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4 .
* Fischer, Ronit (2012) . "Transnistria: The
Holocaust in Romania".
In Friedman, Jonathan C. _Routledge History of the Holocaust_.
Abingdon; New York: Routledge. pp. 277–290. ISBN 978-0-415-52087-4 .
* Friedländer, Saul (2009). _
Nazi Germany and the Jews,
1933–1945_. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-1350276 .
* Frojimovics, Kinga (2012) . "
Special Characteristics of the
Holocaust in Hungary, 1938–45". In Friedman, Jonathan C. _Routledge
History of the Holocaust_. Abingdon; New York: Routledge. pp.
248–263. ISBN 978-0-415-52087-4 .
* Gellately, Robert (1991). _The
Gestapo and German Society:
Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933–1945_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN
* Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). _Hitler\'s Willing Executioners:
Ordinary Germans and the
Holocaust _. New York: Knopf. ISBN
* Gordon, Sarah (1984). _Hitler, Germans, and the 'Jewish
Question'_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN
* Grenville, John (2002) . "Neglected
Holocaust victims: the
Mischlinge, the Judischversippte, and the Gypsies". In Berenbaum,
Michael ; Peck, Abraham J. _The
Holocaust and History: The Known, the
Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined_. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
University Press. pp. 314–326. ISBN 0-253-33374-1 .
* Hancock, Ian (2012). "The Neglected Memory of the Romanies". In
Friedman, Jonathan C. _The Routledge History of the Holocaust_. New
York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 375–384. ISBN 978-0-415-52087-4 .
* Hilberg, Raul (2003) . _The Destruction of the European
III. New Haven; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09592-0
* Kershaw, Ian (2008). _Hitler: A Biography_. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6 .
* Longerich, Peter (2010). _Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and
Murder of the Jews_. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Majer, Diemut (2003). _"Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: The
Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied
Eastern Europe, with
Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945_.
Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6493-3
* Marrus, Michael (2000). _The
Holocaust and History: The Known, the
Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined_. Toronto: Key Porter.
* Matić, Igor-Philip (2002). _Edmund Veesenmayer: Agent und
Diplomat der nationalsozialistischen Expansionspolitik_ (in German).
München: Oldenbourg Verlag. ISBN 978-3-486-56677-2 .
* McGarry, Aidan (2010). _Who Speaks for Roma?: Political
Representation of a Transnational Minority Community_. New York;
London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-8264-2880-6 .
* Milton, Sybil H. (2001). ""Gypsies" as social outsiders in Nazi
Germany". In Gellately, Robert ; Stoltzfus, Nathan . _Social Outsiders
Nazi Germany _. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN
* Mommsen, Hans (1989). "The Realization of the Unthinkable: The
Final Solution of the Jewish Question'". In Marrus, Michael . _The
"Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder_. The Nazi
Holocaust, Part 3. 1. Westport, CT: Meckler. pp. 217–264. ISBN
* "Reichsbürgergesetz und Gesetz zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes
und der deutschen Ehre " (in German). Friedrich-Alexander Universität
Erlangen-Nürnberg. 14 November 1935.
* Rhodes, Richard (2003). _Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen
and the Invention of the Holocaust_. New York: Vintage. ISBN
* Rodogno, David (2006). _Fascism's European Empire: Italian
Occupation During the Second World War_. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-84515-1 .
* Scheil, Stefan (11 March 2012). "Arier". _Junge Freiheit_ (in
German). Retrieved 11 March 2015.
* Schulz, Edgar Hans; Frercks, Rudolf (1934). _Warum Arierparagraph?
Ein Beitrag zur Judenfrage_ (in German). Berlin: NSDAP Office of
OCLC 802537 .
* Shirer, William L. (1960). _The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
_. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0 .
* "Sinti and Roma: Victims of the Nazi Era" (PDF). United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
* "Translation: Nuremberg Race Laws". _
Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved 6 March 2015.
* Wildt, Michael (2012). _Hitler's Volksgemeinschaftand the Dynamics
of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against
Jews in Provincial Germany,
1919–1939_. Berghahn Books. ISBN 085745322X .
* Wolfe, Stephanie (2014). _The Politics of Reparations and
Apologies_. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4614-9184-2 .
* Bankier, David (1984). "In Nation and History: Studies in the
History of the Jewish People; Based on the Papers Delivered at the
Eight World Congress of Jewish Studies". In Ettinger, Samuel. _The
'Jewish Question' as a Focus of Conflict Between Trends of
Institutionalization and Radicalization in the Third Reich,
1934–1935_. 2. Jerusalem. pp. 357–371.
* Bankier, David (1990). Gutman, Israel , ed. _Encyclopedia of the
Holocaust _. 3. New York: Macmillan. pp. 1076–1077. ISBN
* Gruchmann, Lothar (July 1983). "'Blutschutzgestz' und Justiz: Zur
Entstehung und Auswirkung des Nürnberger Gesetzes von 15 September
1935". _Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte_ (in German). München:
Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag GmbH. 31: 418–442.
JSTOR 30196462 .
* Longerich, Peter (2000). "The
Wannsee Conference in the
Development of the \'Final Solution\'" (PDF). _
Trust Research Papers_. London: The
Holocaust Educational Trust. 1
(2). ISBN 0-9516166-5-X . Retrieved 11 March 2015.
* Margaliot, Abraham (1977). "The Reaction of the Jewish Public in
Germany to the Nuremberg Laws". _
Yad Vashem Studies_. Jerusalem: Yad
Vashem . 12: 193–229.
* Schleunes, Karl (1970). _The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi
Policy towards German Jews, 1933–1939_. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-00092-8 .
* Whitman, James Q. (2017). _Hitler\'s American Model: The United
States and the Making of Nazi Race Law_.
Princeton University Press .
ISBN 978-0691172422 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to NUREMBERG LAWS _.
Wikisource has original text related to this