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The Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
(German: Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany. They were introduced on 15 September 1935 by the Reichstag at a special meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg Rally
Nuremberg Rally
of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews
Jews
and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people
Romani people
– known at the time as "Gypsies" – and Black people. This supplementary decree defined Romanis as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews. Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their policies, which included the formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race. Chancellor and Führer
Führer
(leader) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service. Books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society. The Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
had a crippling economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and sent to Nazi concentration camps. Non- Jews
Jews
gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to lack of customers. As Jews
Jews
were no longer permitted to work in the civil service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and education, many middle class business owners and professionals were forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan
Madagascar Plan
proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews
Jews
of Europe.

Contents

1 Background 2 Nazi Germany

2.1 Reich Gypsy Law 2.2 "The Jewish problem" 2.3 Events at Nuremberg

3 Text of the laws

3.1 Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour 3.2 Reich Citizenship Law

4 Classifications under the laws 5 Impact 6 Legislation in other countries 7 Existing copies 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Background Main articles: Nazi eugenics
Nazi eugenics
and Nazism and race The National Socialist German Workers' Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party
(NSDAP; Nazi Party) was one of several far-right political parties active in Germany after the end of the First World War.[1] The party platform included removal of the Weimar Republic, rejection of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, radical antisemitism, and anti-Bolshevism.[2] They promised a strong central government, increased Lebensraum
Lebensraum
(living space) for Germanic peoples, formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race, and racial cleansing via the active suppression of Jews, who would be stripped of their citizenship and civil rights.[3] While imprisoned in 1924 after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
to his deputy, Rudolf Hess.[4] The book is an autobiography and exposition of Hitler's ideology in which he laid out his plans for transforming German society into one based on race. In it he outlined his belief in Jewish Bolshevism, a conspiracy theory that posited the existence of an international Jewish conspiracy for world domination in which the Jews
Jews
were the mortal enemy of the German people. Throughout his life Hitler never wavered in his world view as expounded in Mein Kampf.[5] The NSDAP advocated the concept of a Volksgemeinschaft
Volksgemeinschaft
("people's community") with the aim of uniting all Germans as national comrades, whilst excluding those deemed either to be community aliens or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische).[6] Nazi Germany

Members of the SA picket in front of a Jewish place of business during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, 1 April 1933.

Discrimination
Discrimination
against Jews
Jews
intensified after the NSDAP seized power; following a month-long series of attacks by members of the Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA; paramilitary wing of the NSDAP) on Jewish businesses, synagogues, and members of the legal profession, on 1 April 1933 Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses.[7] By 1933, many people who were not NSDAP members advocated segregating Jews
Jews
from the rest of German society.[8] The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April 1933, forced all non-Aryans to retire from the legal profession and civil service.[9] Similar legislation soon deprived Jewish members of other professions of their right to practise.[9] In 1934, the NSDAP published a pamphlet titled "Warum Arierparagraph?" ("Why the Aryan Law?"), which summarised the perceived need for the law.[10] As part of the drive to remove Jewish influence from cultural life, members of the National Socialist Student League removed from libraries any books considered un-German, and a nationwide book burning was held on 10 May.[11] Violence and economic pressure were used by the regime to encourage Jews
Jews
to voluntarily leave the country.[12] Legislation passed in July 1933 stripped naturalised German Jews
Jews
of their citizenship, creating a legal basis for recent immigrants (particularly Eastern European Jews) to be deported.[9] Many towns posted signs forbidding entry to Jews.[13] Throughout 1933 and 1934, Jewish businesses were denied access to markets, forbidden to advertise in newspapers, and deprived of access to government contracts. Citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks.[14] Other laws promulgated in this period included the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (passed on 14 July 1933), which called for the compulsory sterilisation of people with a range of hereditary, physical, and mental illnesses.[15] Under the Law against Dangerous Habitual Criminals (passed 24 November 1935), habitual criminals were forced to undergo sterilisation as well.[16] This law was also used to force the incarceration in prison or Nazi concentration camps of "social misfits" such as the chronically unemployed, prostitutes, beggars, alcoholics, homeless vagrants, and Romani (referred to as "Gypsies").[17] Reich Gypsy Law The Central Office for Combatting Gypsies was established in 1929.[18] In December 1938 Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
issued an order for "combatting the Gypsy plague". Romanis were to be categorised in terms of their Roma ancestry as a racial characteristic, rather than their previous association as 'anti-social' elements of society.[19] This work was advanced by Dr Robert Ritter of the Racial Hygiene and Population unit of the Ministry of Health, who by 1942, had produced a scale of ZM+, ZM of the first and second degree, and ZM- to reflect an individual's decreasing level of Romani ancestry.[20] This classification meant that one could be classified as Roma and subject to anti-Roma legislation on the basis of having two Roma great-great grandparents.[21] Dr Zindel of the Ministry of the Interior prepared a draft of a Reich "Gypsy Law" intended to supplement and accompany the Nuremberg Laws. According to Zindel, the "Gypsy problem" could not be dealt with by forced resettlement or imprisonment within Germany. He recommended identification and registration of all Roma, followed by sterilisation and deportation. In 1938, public health authorities were ordered to register all Roma and Roma Mischlinge.[22] Despite Himmler's interest in enacting such legislation, which he said would prevent "further intermingling of blood, and which regulates all the most pressing questions which go together with the existences of Gypsies in the living space of the German nation",[23] the regime never promulgated the "Gypsy Law".[24] In December 1942, Himmler ordered that all Roma were to be sent to Nazi concentration camps.[19] "The Jewish problem"

The SA had nearly three million members at the start of 1934.[25]

Disenchanted with the unfulfilled promise of the NSDAP to eliminate Jews
Jews
from German society, SA members were eager to lash out against the Jewish minority as a way of expressing their frustrations. A Gestapo
Gestapo
report from early 1935 stated that the rank and file of the NSDAP would set in motion a solution to the "Jewish problem ... from below that the government would then have to follow".[26] Assaults, vandalism, and boycotts against Jews, which the Nazi government had temporarily curbed in 1934, increased again in 1935 amidst a propaganda campaign authorised at the highest levels of government.[26] Most non-party members ignored the boycotts and objected to the violence out of concern for their own safety.[27] The Israeli historian Otto Dov Kulka argues that there was a disparity between the views of the Alte Kämpfer
Alte Kämpfer
(longtime party members) and the general public, but that even those Germans who were not politically active favoured bringing in tougher new antisemitic laws in 1935.[28] The matter was raised to the forefront of the state agenda as a result of this antisemitic agitation.[29] The Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
announced on 25 July that a law forbidding marriages between Jews
Jews
and non- Jews
Jews
would shortly be promulgated, and recommended that registrars should avoid issuing licenses for such marriages for the time being. The draft law also called for a ban on marriage for persons with hereditary illnesses.[30] Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Economics Minister and Reichsbank
Reichsbank
president, criticised the violent behaviour of the Alte Kämpfer
Alte Kämpfer
and SA because of its negative impact on the economy.[29] The violence also had a negative impact on Germany's reputation in the international community.[31] For these reasons, Hitler ordered a stop to "individual actions" against German Jews
Jews
on 8 August 1935, and the Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
threatened to take legal action against Party members who ignored the order.[29] From Hitler's perspective, it was imperative to quickly bring in new antisemitic laws to appease the radical elements in the NSDAP who persisted in attempting to remove the Jews
Jews
from German society by violent means.[31] A conference of ministers was held on 20 August 1935 to discuss the question. Hitler argued against violent methods because of the damage being done to the economy, and insisted the matter must be settled through legislation.[32] The focus of the new laws would be marriage laws to prevent "racial defilement", stripping Jews
Jews
of their German citizenship, and laws to prevent Jews
Jews
from participating freely in the economy.[33] Events at Nuremberg

NSDAP dignitaries at the 1935 Nuremberg Rally

The seventh annual Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Rally, held in Nuremberg from 10–16 September 1935, featured the only Reichstag session held outside Berlin during the Nazi regime.[34] Hitler decided that the rally would be a good opportunity to introduce the long-awaited anti-Jewish laws.[35] In a speech on 12 September, leading Nazi physician Gerhard Wagner announced that the government would soon introduce a "law for the protection of German blood".[36] The next day, Hitler summoned the Reichstag to meet in session at Nuremberg on 15 September, the last day of the rally.[35] Franz Albrecht Medicus and Bernhard Lösener of the Interior Ministry were summoned to Nuremberg and directed to start preparing a draft of a law forbidding sexual relations or marriages between Jews
Jews
and non-Jews. The two men arrived on 14 September.[37] That evening, Hitler ordered them to also have ready by morning a draft of the Reich citizenship law.[33] Hitler found the initial drafts of the Blood Law to be too lenient, so at around midnight Frick brought him four new drafts that differed mainly in the severity of the penalties they imposed. Hitler chose the most lenient version, but left vague the definition of who was a Jew.[38] Hitler stated at the rally that the laws were "an attempt at the legal settlement of a problem, which, if this proved a failure, would have to be entrusted by law to the National Socialist Party for a definitive solution".[39] Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
had the radio broadcast of the passing of the laws cut short, and ordered the German media to not mention them until a decision was made as to how they would be implemented.[40] Text of the laws

Nuremberg Race Laws

Reich Citizenship Law

Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour

The two Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
were unanimously passed by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935.[41] The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews
Jews
and Germans, and forbade the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households. The Reich Citizenship Law declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights.[42] The wording in the Citizenship Law that a person must prove "by his conduct that he is willing and fit to faithfully serve the German people and Reich" meant that political opponents could also be stripped of their German citizenship.[41] This law was effectively a means of stripping Jews, Roma, and other "undesirables" of their legal rights, and their citizenship.[43] Over the coming years, an additional 13 supplementary laws were promulgated that further marginalised the Jewish community in Germany.[13] For example, Jewish families were not permitted to submit claims for subsidies for large families and were forbidden to transact business with Aryans.[44] Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour Moved by the understanding that purity of German blood is the essential condition for the continued existence of the German people, and inspired by the inflexible determination to ensure the existence of the German nation for all time, the Reichstag has unanimously adopted the following law, which is promulgated herewith:

Article 1

Marriages between Jews
Jews
and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent this law. Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the state prosecutor.[45]

Article 2

Extramarital relations between Jews
Jews
and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden.[45]

Article 3

Jews
Jews
may not employ in their households female subjects of the state of German or related blood who are under 45 years old.[45]

Article 4

Jews
Jews
are forbidden to fly the Reich or national flag or display Reich colours. They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the state.[45]

Article 5

Any person who violates the prohibition under Article 1 will be punished with prison with hard labour [Zuchthaus]. A male who violates the prohibition under Article 2 will be punished with prison [Gefängnis] or prison with hard labour. Any person violating the provisions under Articles 3 or 4 will be punished with prison with hard labour for up to one year and a fine, or with one or the other of these penalties.[45]

Article 6

The Reich Minister of the Interior, in co-ordination with the Deputy of the Führer
Führer
and the Reich Minister of Justice, will issue the legal and administrative regulations required to implement and complete this law.[45]

Article 7

The law takes effect on the day following promulgation, except for Article 3, which goes into force on 1 January 1936.[45] Reich Citizenship Law The Reichstag has unanimously enacted the following law, which is promulgated herewith:

Article 1

A subject of the state is a person who enjoys the protection of the German Reich and who in consequence has specific obligations toward it. The status of subject of the state is acquired in accordance with the provisions of the Reich and the Reich Citizenship Law.[45]

Article 2

A Reich citizen is a subject of the state who is of German or related blood, and proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit to faithfully serve the German people and Reich. Reich citizenship is acquired through the granting of a Reich citizenship certificate. The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in accordance with the law.[45]

Article 3

The Reich Minister of the Interior, in co-ordination with the Deputy of the Führer, will issue the legal and administrative orders required to implement and complete this law.[45] Classifications under the laws

1935[46]

Classification Translation Heritage Definition

Deutschblütiger German-blooded German Belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have Reich citizenship

Deutschblütiger German-blooded ​1⁄8 Jewish Considered as belonging to the German race and nation; approved to have Reich citizenship

Mischling
Mischling
zweiten Grades Mixed race (second degree) ​1⁄4 Jewish Only partly belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have Reich citizenship

Mischling
Mischling
ersten Grades Mixed race (first degree) ​3⁄8 or ​1⁄2 Jewish Only partly belongs to the German race and nation; approved to have Reich citizenship

Jude Jew ​3⁄4 Jewish Belongs to the Jewish race and community; not approved to have Reich citizenship

Jude Jew Jewish Belongs to the Jewish race and community; not approved to have Reich citizenship

Special
Special
Cases with First Degree Mischlinge[46]

Date Decree

15 September 1935 A Mischling
Mischling
will be considered a Jew if they are a member of the Jewish religious community.

15 September 1935 A Mischling
Mischling
will be considered a Jew if they are married to a Jew. Their children will be considered Jews.

17 September 1935 A mixed-race child that is the issue of a marriage with a Jew that is born after 17 September 1935 will be classified as a Jew. Those already born before 17 September 1935 will still be classified as Mischlinge.

31 July 1936 A mixed-race child originating from forbidden extramarital sexual intercourse with a Jew that is born out of wedlock after July 31, 1936 will be classified as a Jew.

Impact See also: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany

1935 chart shows racial classifications under the Nuremberg Laws: German, Mischlinge, and Jew.

While both the Interior Ministry and the NSDAP agreed that persons with three or more Jewish grandparents would be classed as being Jewish and those with only one (Mischlinge of the second degree) would not, a debate arose as to the status of persons with two Jewish grandparents (Mischlinge of the first degree).[47] The NSDAP, especially its more radical elements, wanted the laws to apply to Mischlinge of both the first and second degree.[48] For this reason Hitler continued to stall, and did not make a decision until early November 1935. His final ruling was that persons with three Jewish grandparents were classed as Jewish; those with two Jewish grandparents would be considered Jewish only if they practised the faith or had a Jewish spouse.[49] The supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law came into force on that date. Jews
Jews
were no longer German citizens and did not have the right to vote.[50] Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote in Reichstag elections or the Anschluss.[51] Civil servants who had been granted an exemption to the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service
because of their status as war veterans were forced out of their jobs on this date.[50] A supplementary decree issued on 21 December ordered the dismissal of Jewish veterans from other state-regulated professions such as medicine and education.[50] While Frick's suggestion that a citizenship tribunal before which every German would have to prove that they were Aryan was not acted upon, proving one's racial heritage became a necessary part of daily life.[48][52] Non-government employers were authorised to include in their statutes an Aryan paragraph
Aryan paragraph
excluding both Mischlinge and Jews from employment.[53] Proof of Aryan descent was achieved by obtaining an Aryan certificate. One form was to acquire an Ahnenpass, which could be obtained by providing birth or baptismal certificates that all four grandparents were of Aryan descent.[54] The Ahnenpass
Ahnenpass
could also be acquired by citizens of other countries, as long as they were of "German or related blood".[55] Under the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour (15 September 1935), marriages were forbidden between Jews
Jews
and Germans; between Mischlinge of the first degree and Germans; between Jews
Jews
and Mischlinge of the second degree; and between two Mischlinge of the second degree. Mischlinge of the first degree were permitted to marry Jews, but they would henceforth be classed as Jewish themselves. All marriages undertaken between half- Jews
Jews
and Germans required the approval of a Committee for the Protection of German Blood. Few such permissions were granted.[53] A supplementary decree issued on 26 November 1935 extended the law to "Gypsies, Negroes, and their bastards".[56]

Beginning in 1941, Jews
Jews
were required by law to self-identify by wearing a yellow badge on their clothing.[57]

Persons suspected of having sexual relations with non-Aryans were charged with Rassenschande
Rassenschande
(racial defilement) and tried in the regular courts. Evidence provided to the Gestapo
Gestapo
for such cases was largely provided by ordinary citizens such as neighbours, co-workers, or other informants.[58] Persons accused of race defilement were publicly humiliated by being paraded through the streets with a placard around their necks detailing their crime.[59] Those convicted were typically sentenced to prison terms, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi concentration camps.[58] As the law did not permit capital punishment for racial defilement, special courts were convened to allow the death penalty for some cases.[60] From the end of 1935 through 1940, 1,911 people were convicted of Rassenschande. Over time, the law was extended to include non-sexual forms of physical contact such as greeting someone with a kiss or an embrace.[58] For the most part, Germans accepted the Nuremberg Laws, partly because Nazi propaganda had successfully swayed public opinion towards the general belief that Jews
Jews
were a separate race, but also because to oppose the regime meant leaving oneself open to harassment or arrest by the Gestapo.[61][62] Citizens were relieved that the antisemitic violence ceased after the laws were passed.[63] Non- Jews
Jews
gradually stopped socialising with Jews
Jews
or shopping in Jewish-owned stores.[64] Wholesalers who continued to serve Jewish merchants were marched through the streets with placards around their necks proclaiming them as traitors.[65] The Communist party and some elements of the Catholic Church were critical of the laws.[56] Concerned that international opinion would be adversely swayed by the new laws, the Interior Ministry did not actively enforce them until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin that August.[31][61] The Interior Ministry estimated there were 750,000 Mischlinge as of April 1935 (studies done after the war put the number of Mischlinge at around 200,000).[56] As Jews
Jews
became more and more excluded from German society, they organised social events, schools, and activities of their own.[66] Economic problems were not so easily solved, however; many Jewish firms went out of business due to lack of customers. This was part of the ongoing Aryanization process (the transfer of Jewish firms to non-Jewish owners, usually at prices far below market value) that the regime had initiated in 1933, which intensified after the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
were passed.[67] Former middle-class or wealthy business owners were forced to take employment in menial jobs to support their families, and many were unable to find work at all.[68] Although a stated goal of the Nazis was that all Jews
Jews
should leave the country, emigration was problematic, as Jews
Jews
were required to remit up to 90 per cent of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country.[69] Anyone caught transferring their money overseas were sentenced to lengthy terms in prison as "economic saboteurs".[70] An exception was money sent to Palestine under the terms of the Haavara Agreement, whereby Jews
Jews
could transfer some of their assets and emigrate to that country. Around 52,000 Jews
Jews
emigrated to Palestine under the terms of this agreement between 1933 and 1939.[71] By the start of the Second World War in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews
Jews
had emigrated to the United States, Palestine, Great Britain, and other countries.[72][73] By 1938 it was becoming almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country that would take them.[74] After the 1936–39 Arab revolt, the British were disinclined to accept any more Jews
Jews
into Palestine for fear it would further destabilise the region.[75] Nationalistic and xenophobic people in other countries pressured their governments not to accept waves of Jewish immigrants, especially poverty-stricken ones.[76] The Madagascar Plan, a proposed mass deportation of European Jews
Jews
to Madagascar, proved to be impossible to carry out.[77] Starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews
Jews
of Europe.[78] The total number of Jews
Jews
murdered during the resulting Holocaust
Holocaust
is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people.[79] Estimates of the death toll of Romanis in the Porajmos
Porajmos
range from 150,000 to 1,500,000.[80] Legislation in other countries

Decree of Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria
Boris III of Bulgaria
for approval of The law for protection of the nation

Some of the allies of the Nazis passed their own versions of the Nuremberg Laws.

In 1938, Fascist Italy passed the Italian Racial Laws, which stripped Jews
Jews
of their citizenship and forbade sexual relations and marriages between Jewish and non-Jewish Italians.[81] Hungary passed laws on 28 May 1938 and 5 May 1939 banning Jews
Jews
from various professions. A third law, added in August 1941, defined Jews as anyone with at least two Jewish grandparents, and forbade sexual relations or marriages between Jews
Jews
and non-Jews.[82] In 1940 the ruling Iron Guard
Iron Guard
in Romania passed the Law Defining the Legal Status of Romanian Jews,[83] In 1941 the Codex Judaicus was enacted in Slovakia,[84] In 1941 Bulgaria passed the Law for Protection of the Nation,[85] In 1941 the Ustasha
Ustasha
in Croatia passed legislation defining who was a Jew and restricting contact with them.[86] Imperial Japan
Imperial Japan
did not draft or pass any such legislation.

Existing copies An original typescript of the laws signed by Hitler was found by the US Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps in 1945. It ended up in the possession of General George S. Patton, who kept it, in violation of orders that such finds should be turned over to the government. During a visit to Los Angeles in 1945, he handed it over to the Huntington Library, where it was stored in a bomb-proof vault. The library revealed the existence of the document in 1999, and sent it on permanent loan to the Skirball Cultural Center, which placed it on public display. The document was transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington in August 2010.[87][88] See also

Anti-miscegenation laws Blood quantum laws Nazism and race Wannsee Conference Apartheid
Apartheid
laws Nur für Deutsche

References

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Holocaust
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Nuremberg Laws
1935. ^ Friedländer 2009, p. 49. ^ a b Mommsen 1989, p. 224. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 347. ^ a b c Friedländer 2009, p. 50. ^ Milton 2001, p. 216. ^ Friedländer 2009, p. 52. ^ a b Evans 2005, p. 547. ^ Ehrenreich 2007, p. 68. ^ Scheil 2012. ^ a b c Friedländer 2009, p. 51. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 217. ^ a b c Evans 2005, p. 551. ^ Evans 2005, p. 540. ^ Majer 2003, pp. 331–332. ^ a b Evans 2005, p. 548. ^ Gordon 1984, p. 180. ^ Gordon 1984, p. 172. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 548, 553. ^ Gellately 1991, p. 105. ^ Friedländer 2009, p. 55. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 65–66. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 86. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 64, 66. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 66. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 556–557. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 127. ^ Evans 2005, p. 555. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 67. ^ Friedländer 2009, p. 57. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 560, 601. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 162–164. ^ Rhodes 2003, pp. 159–160. ^ Evans 2008, p. 318. ^ Hancock 2012, p. 381. ^ Rodogno 2006, p. 65. ^ Frojimovics 2012, pp. 250–251. ^ Fischer 2012, p. 279. ^ Matić 2002, p. 174. ^ Dikovski 2000. ^ Cohen 1999, p. 90. ^ Allen 2010. ^ Bradsher 2010.

Sources

Allen, Nick (26 August 2010). " Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
handed over to US National Archives". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  Bradsher, Greg (Winter 2010). "The Nuremberg Laws: Archives Receives Original Nazi Documents That "Legalized" Persecution of Jews". Prologue Magazine. National Archives and Records Administration. 42 (4). Retrieved 7 March 2015.  Bullock, Alan (1962) [1952]. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-013564-0.  Burleigh, Michael; Wippermann, Wolfgang (1991). The Racial State: Germany 1933–1945. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39802-2.  Cohen, Philip J. (1999) [1996]. Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-688-5.  Dikovski, Antoinette (19 July 2000). "България само администрираше "новите земи"". Демокрация (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2015.  Ehrenreich, Eric (2007). The Nazi Ancestral Proof: Genealogy, Racial Science, and the Final Solution. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-11687-1.  Evans, Richard J. (2003). The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8.  Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.  Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4.  Fischer, Ronit (2012) [2011]. "Transnistria: The Holocaust
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in Romania". In Friedman, Jonathan C. Routledge History of the Holocaust. Abingdon; New York: Routledge. pp. 277–290. ISBN 978-0-415-52087-4.  Friedländer, Saul (2009). Nazi Germany
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and the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-1350276.  Frojimovics, Kinga (2012) [2011]. " Special
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and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933–1945. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-820297-0.  Goldhagen, Daniel (1996). Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-44695-8.  Gordon, Sarah (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the 'Jewish Question'. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05412-6.  Grenville, John (2002) [1998]. "Neglected Holocaust
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and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-375-70822-0.  Rodogno, David (2006). Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84515-1.  Scheil, Stefan (11 March 2012). "Arier". Junge Freiheit (in German). Retrieved 11 March 2015.  Schulz, Edgar Hans; Frercks, Rudolf (1934). Warum Arierparagraph? Ein Beitrag zur Judenfrage [Why the Aryan Law? A Contribution to the Jewish Question] (in German). Berlin: NSDAP Office of Racial Policy. OCLC 802537.  Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.  "Sinti and Roma: Victims of the Nazi Era" (PDF). United States Holocaust
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Memorial Museum. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  "Translation: Nuremberg Race Laws". Holocaust
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Memorial Museum. Retrieved 6 March 2015.  Wildt, Michael (2012). Hitler's Volksgemeinschaftand the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence Against Jews
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in Provincial Germany, 1919–1939. Berghahn Books. ISBN 085745322X.  Wolfe, Stephanie (2014). The Politics of Reparations and Apologies. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4614-9184-2. 

Further reading

Bankier, David (1984). "In Nation and History: Studies in the History of the Jewish People; Based on the Papers Delivered at the Eight World Congress of Jewish Studies". In Ettinger, Samuel. The 'Jewish Question' as a Focus of Conflict Between Trends of Institutionalization and Radicalization in the Third Reich, 1934–1935. 2. Jerusalem. pp. 357–371.  Bankier, David (1990). Gutman, Israel, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 3. New York: Macmillan. pp. 1076–1077. ISBN 0-02-864527-8.  Gruchmann, Lothar (July 1983). "'Blutschutzgestz' und Justiz: Zur Entstehung und Auswirkung des Nürnberger Gesetzes von 15 September 1935". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (in German). München: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag GmbH. 31: 418–442. JSTOR 30196462. (subscription required) Longerich, Peter (2000). "The Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
in the Development of the 'Final Solution'" (PDF). Holocaust
Holocaust
Educational Trust Research Papers. London: The Holocaust
Holocaust
Educational Trust. 1 (2). ISBN 0-9516166-5-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.  Margaliot, Abraham (1977). "The Reaction of the Jewish Public in Germany to the Nuremberg Laws". Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. 12: 193–229.  Schleunes, Karl (1970). The Twisted Road to Auschwitz: Nazi Policy towards German Jews, 1933–1939. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-00092-8.  Whitman, James Q. (2017). Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691172422. 

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1 British Overseas Territories. 2 Open border with Schengen Area. 3 Russia is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here. 4 Turkey is a transcontinental country in the Middle East and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
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and Georgia (Abkhazia; South Ossetia) are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
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is a transcontinental country. Has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals
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in Eastern Europe. 7 Armenia
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(Artsakh) and Cyprus
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is a transcontinental country in North Africa and the Middle East. Has a small part of its territory in the Middle East called Sinai Peninsula. 9 Partially recognized.

Category

Authority control

.