Nuragic civilization was a civilization in Sardinia, the second
largest island in the
Mediterranean Sea, which lasted from the 18th
century BC (Bronze Age) to the 2nd century AD. The civilization's name
derives from its most characteristic monument, the nuraghe, a
tower-fortress type of construction built in numerous exemplars
starting from about 1800 BC. Today some 7,000 nuraghes dot the
No written records of this civilization have been discovered, apart
from a few possible short epigraphic documents belonging to the last
stages of the Nuragic civilization. The only written information
there comes from classical literature of the Greeks and Romans, and
may be considered more mythological than historical.
1.1 Pre-Nuragic Sardinia
1.2 Nuragic era
1.2.1 Early Bronze Age
1.2.2 Middle and Late Bronze Age
Sea Peoples connection
1.2.4 Iron Age
1.3 Carthaginian and Roman conquest
3.1.1 Holy wells
3.1.2 Roundhouses with basin
3.1.3 Megaron temples
3.1.4 Giant's graves
3.2.1 Bronze statuettes
3.2.2 Giants of Mont'e Prama
6 See also
9 Further reading
Pre-Nuragic Sardinia and
Beaker culture in Sardinia
One of the Domus de janas of the necropolis of Monte Siseri,
Stone Age the island was first inhabited by people who had
arrived there in the
Neolithic ages from
Pre-nuragic complex of Monte d'Accoddi
The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central
Sardinia and Anglona. Later several cultures developed on the island,
such as the
Ozieri culture (3200−2700 BC). The economy was based on
agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland.
With the diffusion of metallurgy, silver and copper objects and
weapons also appeared on the island.
Remains from this period include hundreds of menhirs (called perdas
fittas)  and dolmens, more than 2400 hypogeum tombs called domus de
Janas, the statue menhirs, representing warriors or female figures,
and the stepped pyramid of Monte d'Accoddi, near Sassari, which show
some similarities with the monumental complex of Los Millares
(Andalusia) and the later talaiots in the Balearic Islands. According
to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and those
Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from the
The altar of
Monte d'Accoddi fell out of use starting from c. 2000 BC,
when the Beaker culture, which at the time was widespread in almost
all western Europe, appeared on the island. The beakers appeared in
Sardinia from two different geographical areas: firstly from
southern France and then from Central Europe, through the Italian
Albucciu (Arzachena), example of proto-nuraghe
Early Bronze Age
Bonnanaro culture was the last evolution of the
Beaker culture in
Sardinia (c. 1800-1600 BC), and displayed several similarities with
Polada culture of northern Italy. These two cultures
shared common features in the material culture such as undecorated
pottery with axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread
Sardinia via Corsica, where they absorbed new architectural
techniques (such as cyclopean masonry) that were already widespread on
New peoples coming from the mainland arrived on the island at that
time, bringing with them new religious philosophies, new technologies
and new ways of life, making obsolete the previous ones or
reinterpreting them. The widespread diffusion of bronze
brought numerous improvements to the tools used in agriculture,
hunting and warfare.
From this period dates the construction of the so-called
proto-nuraghe, a platformlike structure that marks the first phase of
the Nuragic Age.
Middle and Late Bronze Age
Main article: Nuraghe
Nuraghe Losa, Abbasanta
Nuraghe Is Paras, Isili
Graphic reconstruction of a nuragic village
Aerial view of the
Nuraghe Genna Maria, Villanovaforru
Dating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the nuraghe, which
evolved from the previous proto-nuraghe, are megalithic towers with a
truncated cone shape; they are widespread in the whole of Sardinia,
about one nuraghe every three square kilometers. There has long
been controversy among scholars. Theories about their utilization have
included social, military, religious, astronomical role, as furnaces
or sepulture places, but the modern agreement is that they were
defensible homesites that included barns and silos. In ancient
times, Greek historians and geographers tried to solve the mystery of
the nuraghe and their builders. They described the presence of
fabulous edifices, called daidaleia, from the name of Daedalus, who,
after building his labyrinth in Crete, would have moved to
then to Sardinia.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, archaeological studies
have proved the increasing size of the settlements built around some
of these structures, which were often located at the summit of hills.
Perhaps for protection reasons, new towers were added to the original
ones, connected by walls provided with slits forming a complex
Nuraghe Santu Antine, Torralba, internal corridor
Among the most famous of the numerous existing nuraghe, are the Su
Nuraxi at Barumini,
Santu Antine at Torralba,
Nuraghe Losa at
Nuraghe Palmavera at Alghero,
Nuraghe Genna Maria at
Nuraghe Seruci at
Gonnesa and Arrubiu at Orroli. The
biggest nuraghe, such as
Nuraghe Arrubiu, could reach a height of
about 25–30 meters and could be made up of 5 main towers, protected
by multiple layers of walls, for a total of dozens of additional
towers. It has been suggested that some of the current Sardinian
villages trace their origin directly from Nuragic ones, including
perhaps those containing the root Nur-/Nor- in their name (like
Nurachi, Nuraminis, Nurri, Nurallao, Noragugume).
Soon Sardinia, a land rich in mines, notably copper and lead, saw the
construction of numerous furnaces for the production of alloys which
were traded across the
Mediterranean basin and nuragic people became
skilled metal workers; they were among the main metal producers in
Europe  and with bronze they produced a wide variety of objects
and new weapons as swords, daggers, axes, and after drills, pins,
rings, bracelets, typical bronze statuettes, and the votive bronze
boats that show a close relationship with the sea.
Tin may have drawn
Bronze Age traders from the Aegean where copper is available but tin
for bronze-making is scarce; The first verifiable smelting slag
has come to light, its appearance in a hoard of ancient tin confirms
local smelting as well as casting. The usually cited tin sources
and trade in ancient times are those in the
Iberian Peninsula or from
Cornwall. Markets included civilizations living in regions with poor
metal resources, such as the Mycenaean civilization, Cyprus and Crete,
as well as the Iberian peninsula, a fact that can explain the cultural
similarities between them and the
Nuraghe civilization and the
presence in Nuragic sites of late
Bronze Age Mycenaean, west and
central Cretan and Cypriote ceramics, as well as locally made
replicas, concentrated in half a dozen findspots that seem to have
functioned as "gateway-communities.
Sea Peoples connection
Sardinian warrior figure
Model of Nuragic ship from Bultei, Museo archeologico nazionale
See also: Sea Peoples
Bronze Age (14th-13th-12th centuries BC) saw a vast migration
of the so-called Sea Peoples, described in ancient Egyptian sources.
They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked Egypt.
According to Giovanni Ugas the Sherden, one of the most important
tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the Nuragic
Sardinians. Another hypothesis is that they arrived to the island
around the 13th or 12th century after the failed invasion of Egypt.
However, these theories remain controversial.
Simonides of Ceos
Simonides of Ceos and
Plutarch spoke of raids by
Sardinians against the island of Crete, in
the same period in which the Sea People invaded Egypt. This
would at least confirm that Nuragic
Sardinians frequented the eastern
Mediterranean Sea. Further proofs come from 13th-century Nuragic
ceramics found at Tiryns, Kommos,
Kokkinokremnos  and in
Lipari  and the
Agrigento area, along the sea route
linking western to eastern Mediterranean.
Bronze model of nuraghe, 10th century BC
Recently the archaeologist
Adam Zertal has proposed that the Harosheth
Haggoyim of Israel, home of the biblical figure Sisera, is
identifiable with the site of "El-Ahwat" and that it was a Nuragic
site suggesting that he came from the people of the
Archaeologists traditionally define the nuragic phase as ranging from
900 BC to 500 BC (Iron Age) as the era of the aristocracies. Fine
ceramics were produced along with more and more elaborate tools and
the quality of weapons increased.
With the flourishing of trade, metallurgical products and other
manufactured goods were exported to every corner of the Mediterranean,
Near East to
Spain and the Atlantic. The huts in the villages
increased in number and there was generally a large increase in
population. The construction of the nuraghes stopped and individual
tombs replaced collective burials (Giant's Tombs).
But the real breakthrough of that period, according to archaeologist
Giovanni Lilliu, was the political organization which revolved around
the parliament of the village, composed by the heads and the most
influential people, who gathered to discuss the most important issues.
Carthaginian and Roman conquest
Around 900 BC the Phoenicians began visiting
Sardinia with increasing
frequency. The most common ports of call were Caralis, Nora, Bithia,
Bosa and Olbia.
The Roman historian Justin describes a Carthaginian expedition led by
Malco in 540 BC against a still strongly Nuragic Sardinia. The
expedition failed and this caused a political revolution in Carthage,
from which Mago emerged. He launched another expedition against the
island, in 509 BC, after the
Sardinians attacked the Phoenicians'
coastal cities. According to Piero Bartoloni, it was
attacked the Phoenician cities in the coasts, rather than the natives
who lived in those cities with the Phoenicians, for the Phoenician
cities which were destroyed like Sulky or Monte Sirai were inhabited
mostly by native Sardinians. The Carthaginians, after a number of
military campaigns in which Mago died and was replaced by his brother
Hamilcar, overcame the
Sardinians and conquered coastal Sardinia, the
Iglesiente with its mines and the southern plains. The Nuragic
civilization survived in the mountainous mainland of the island.
In 238 BC the Carthaginians, as a result of their defeat by the Romans
in the first Punic War, surrendered
Sardinia to Rome. Sardinia
Corsica became a Roman province (
Corsica et Sardinia),
however the Greek geographer
Strabo confirms the survival, in the
interior of the island, of the
Nuragic civilization even in Imperial
Bronze sculpture of a Nuragic chief from Uta.
Religion had a strong role in Nuragic society, which has led scholars
to the hypothesis that the
Nuragic civilization was a theocracy.
Nuraghe bronzes clearly portray the figures of chief-kings,
recognizable by their wearing a cloak and carrying a staff with
bosses. Also depicted are other classes, including miners, artisans,
musicians, wrestlers (the latter similar to those of the Minoan
civilizations) and many fighting men, which has led scholars to think
of a warlike society, with precise military divisions (archers,
infantrymen). Different uniforms could belong to different cantons or
clans, or to different military units.The priestly role may have been
fulfilled by women. Some small bronzes also give clues about Nuragic
personal care and fashion. Women generally had long hair; men sported
two long braids on each side of the face, while their head hair was
cut very short or else covered by a leather cap.
Hut near the
Nuraghe Palmavera, Alghero
Nuragic civilization was probably based on clans, each led by a
chief, who resided in the complex nuraghe, with common people
living in the nearby villages of stone roundhouses with straw roofs,
similar to the modern pinnettas of the
In the late final
Bronze Age and in the Early
Iron Age phases, the
houses were built with a more complex plan, with multiple rooms often
positioned around a countryard; in the Nuragic settlement of
Sant'Imbenia, located by the coast, some structures were not used for
living purposes, but for the storing of precious metals, food and
other goods and they were built around a huge square, interpreted by
archaeologists as a marketplace. The construction of
rectangular houses and structures built with dried bricks is attested
in some sites across the island since the late bronze age.
Water management was essential for the Nuragic people, most complex
Nuraghi were provided with at least a well;
Nuraghe Arrubiu, for
example, presented a complex hydraulic implant for the drainage of
water Another testimony to the Nuragic prowess in the creation of
hydraulic implants is the aqueduct of Gremanu, the only known Nuragic
During the final phase of the bonze age and the early iron age
Sardinia saw the development of proto urban settlements, with open
spaces such as paved squares and streets, and structures devoted to
specific functions such as metal workshops, the individual houses were
provided with storing facilities and were served by infratructures
Main article: List of Nuragic tribes
The most celebrated peoples of this island are the Ilienses, the
Balari, and the Corsi...
— Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Liber III
Throughout the second millennium and into the first part of the first
Sardinia was inhabited by the single extensive and
uniform cultural group represented by the Nuragic people.
Centuries later, Roman sources describe the island as inhabited by
numerous tribes which had gradually merged culturally. They however
maintained their political identities and the tribes often fought each
other for control of the most valuable land. The most important
Nuragic populations mentioned include the Balares, the Corsi and the
Ilienses, the latter defying the Romanization process and living in
what had been called Civitatas Barbarie (now Barbagia).
Ilienses or Iolaes (later Diagesbes), identified by ancient
writers as Greek colonists led by
Iolaus (nephew of Heracles) or
Trojan refugees, lived in what is now central-southern Sardinia. Greek
historians reported also that they were repeatedly invaded by the
Carthaginians and the Romans, but in vain.
Balares have been identified with the Beaker culture. They
lived in what are now the Nurra,
subdivisions of Sardinia. They were probably of the same stock from
Talaiotic culture of the
Balearic Islands originated.
The Corsi lived in
Gallura and in Corsica. They have been identified
as the descendants of the
Arzachena culture. In southern Corsica, in
the 2nd millennium BC, the
Torrean civilization developed alongside
the Nuragic one.
Bronze sculpture of a warrior with four eyes and four arms
The representations of animals, such as the bull, belong most likely
to pre-Nuragic civilizations, however they kept their importance among
Nuraghe people, and were frequently depicted on ships, bronze
vases, used in religious rites. Small bronze sculptures depicting
half-man, half-bull figures have been found, as well as characters
with four arms and eyes and two-headed deers: they probably had a
mythological and religious significance. Another holy animal which was
frequently depicted is the dove. Also having a religious role were
perhaps the small chiseled discs, with geometrical patterns, known as
pintadera, although their function has not been identified yet.
A key element of the Nuragic religion was that of fertility, connected
to the male power of the Bull-Sun and the female one of Water-Moon.
According to the scholars' studies, there existed a Mediterranean-type
Mother Goddess and a God-Father (Babai). An important role was that of
mythological heroes such as Norax, Sardus,
Iolaos and Aristeus,
military leaders considered also as divinities.
The excavations have proved that the Nuragic people, in determinate
periods of the year, gathered in common holy places, usually
characterized by sitting steps and the presence of a holy pit. In some
holy areas, such as Gremanu at Fonni, Serra Orrios at
S'Arcu 'e Is Forros at Villagrande Strisaili, there were rectangular
temples, with central holy room housing perhaps a holy fire. The
deities worshipped are unknown, but were perhaps connected to water,
or to astronomical entities (Sun, Moon, solstices).
Sacred "pool" of Su Romanzesu
Some structures could have a "federal" Sardinian role, such as the
sanctuary of Santa Vittoria near
Serri (one of the biggest Nuragic
sanctuaries, spanning over 20 hectares), including both religious
and civil buildings: here, according to Italian historian Giovanni
Lilliu, the main clans of the central island held their assemblies to
sign alliances, decide wars or to stipulate commercial agreements.
Spaces for trades were also present. At least twenty of such multirole
structures are known, including those of Santa Cristina at Paulilatino
and of Siligo; some have been re-used as Christian temples (such as
the cumbessias of San Salvatore in Sinis at Cabras). Some ritual pools
and bathtubs were built in the sanctuaries such as the pool of Nuraghe
Nurdole, which worked through a system of raceways.
The holy well of Santa Cristina, Paulilatino.
Main article: Nuragic holy well
The holy wells were structures dedicated to the cult of waters. Though
initially assigned to the 8th to 6th centuries BC, due to their
advanced buildings techniques, they most likely date to the earlier
Bronze Age, when
Sardinia had strong relationships with the Mycenaean
kingdoms of Greece and Crete, around the 14-13th century BC.
The architecture of the Nuragic holy wells follows the same pattern as
that of the nuraghe, the main part consisting of a circular room with
a tholos vault with a hole at the summit. A monumental staircase
connected the entrance to this subterranean (hypogeum) room, whose
main role is to collect the water of the sacred spring. The exterior
walls feature stone benches where offerings and religious objects were
placed by the faithful. Some sites also had sacrificial altars. Some
scholars think that these could be dedicated to Sardus, one of the
main Nuragic divinities.
A sacred pit similar to those of
Sardinia has been found in western
Bulgaria, near the village of Garlo.
Nuragic fountain at Sa Sedda e Sos Carros
Roundhouses with basin
Starting from the late Bronze Age, a peculiar type of circular
structure with a central basin and benches located all around the
circumference of the room start to appear in Nuragic settlements, the
best example of this type of structure is the ritual fountain of Sa
Sedda e Sos Carros, near Oliena, where thanks to a hydraulic implant
of lead pipes water was poured down from the ram shaped protomes
inside the basin. Some archaeologists interpreted these buildings,
with ritual and religious function, as thermal structures.
Megaron temple of Domu de orgia
Located in various parts of the Island and dedicated to the cult of
the healthy waters, these unique buildings are an architectural
manifestation that reflects the cultural vitality of the nuragic
peoples and their interaction with the coeval mediterranean
civilizations. In fact, many scholars see in these buildings foreign
They have a rectilinear form with the side walls that extend
outwardly. Some, like that of Malchittu at Arzachena, are apsidal
while others such as the temple of Sa Carcaredda at Villagrande
Strisaili culminate with a circular room. They are surrounded by
sacred precincts called temenos. Sometimes multiple temples are found
in the same location, such as in the case of the huge sanctuary of
S'Arcu e sos forros, where many megaron temples with a complex plant
were excavated. The largest and best preserved Sardinian Mégara is
that called Domu de Orgia at Esterzili.
Giant's grave at Arzachena
Main article: Giants' grave
The so-called "giant's graves" were funerary structures whose precise
function is still unknown, and which perhaps evolved from elongated
dolmens. They date to the whole Nuragic era up to the Iron Age, when
they were substituted by pit graves, and are more frequent in the
central sector of the island. Their plan was in the shape of the head
of a bull.
Large stone sculptures known as betili (a kind of slender menhir,
sometimes featuring crude depiction of male sexual organs, or of
female breasts) were erected near the entrance. Sometimes the tombs
were built with an "Opus isodomum" technique, where finely shaped
stones were used, such as in the giant tombs of Madau or at Iloi.
Nuragic bronze statuettes, Museo nazionale archeologico ed etnografico
G. A. Sanna (Sassari)
Main article: Nuragic bronze statuettes
The so-called bronzetti (brunzittos or brunzittus in Sardinian
language) are small bronze statuettes obtained with the lost-wax
casting technique; they can measure up to 39 cm and represent
scenes of everyday life, characters from different social classes,
animal figures, divinities, ships etc.
Most of them had been discovered in various sites of Sardinia;
however, a sizeable minority had also been found in Etruscan sites,
particularly tombs, of central
Italy (Vulci, Vetulonia, Populonia,
Campania (Pontecagnano) and further south in the greek
colony of Crotone.
Boxer statue from Mont'e Prama
Warrior statue from Mont'e Prama
Giants of Mont'e Prama
Main article: Giants of Mont'e Prama
Giants of Mont'e Prama
Giants of Mont'e Prama are a group of 32 (or 40) statues with a
height of up to 2.5 m, found in 1974 near Cabras, in the province
of Oristano. They depict warriors, archers, wrestlers, models of
nuraghe and boxers with shield and armed glove.
Depending on the different hypotheses, the dating of the
Kolossoi – the name that archaeologist
Giovanni Lilliu gave to
the statues – varies between the 11th and the 8th century
BC. If this is further confirmed by archaeologists, like the C-14
analysis already did, they would be the most ancient anthropomorphic
sculptures of the
Mediterranean area, after the Egyptian statues,
preceding the kouroi of ancient Greece.
They feature disc-shaped eyes and eastern-like garments. The statues
probably depicted mythological heroes, guarding a sepulchre; according
to another theory, they could be a sort of Pantheon of the typical
Their finding proved that the
Nuragic civilization had maintained its
peculiarities, and introduced new ones across the centuries, well into
the Phoenician colonization of part of Sardinia.
Nuragic vase from Sardara
In the ceramics, the skill and taste of the Sardinian artisans are
manifested mainly in decorating the surfaces of vessels, certainly
used for ritual purposes in the course of complex ceremonies, perhaps
in some cases even to be crushed at the end of the rite, as the jugs
found in the bottom of the sacred wells.
Ceramics also display geometric patterns in the lamps, in the
pear-shaped vessels (exclusive of Sardinia) and the askos. Imported
(eg. Mycenaeans) and local forms were found in several sites all over
the island. Also found in the Italian peninsula, Sicily, in
Crete everything points to a
Sardinia very well integrated in the
ancient trade of the
Main article: Paleo-Sardinian language
The language (or the languages) spoken in
Sardinia during the Bronze
Age is unknown since there are no written records of that period,
although recent researchs suggest that around the 8th century BC, in
the Iron Age, the Nuragic populations may have adopted an alphabet
similar to that used in Euboea.
Eduardo Blasco Ferrer the Proto-
Sardinian language was
akin to Proto-Basque and the ancient Iberian with faint Indoeuropean
traces, while others believe it was related to Etruscan. Some
scholars theorize that there were actually various linguistic areas
(two or more) in Nuragic Sardinia, possibly Pre-Indoeuropeans and
The Nuragic economy, at least at the origins, was mostly based on
agriculture (new studies suggest that they were the first to practice
viticulture in the western Mediterranean) and animal husbandry, as
well as on fishing. Alcoholic beverages like wine and beer were
also produced, the cultivation of melons, probably imported from the
Eastern Mediterranean, proves the practice of horticulture. As in
modern Sardinia, 60% of the soil was suitable only for breeding cattle
and sheep. Probably, as in other human communities that have the
cattle as traditional economic base, the property of this established
social hierarchies. The existence of roads for wagons dating back to
the 14th century bc gives the impression of a well organized
society The signs found in the metal ingots testify the existence
of a number system used for accounting among the Nuragic people.
Oxhide ingot from Nuragus
Navigation had an important role: historian Pierluigi Montalbano
mentions the finding of nuragic anchors along the coast, some weighing
100 kg. This has suggested that the Nuragic people used
efficient ships, which could perhaps reach lengths up to 15 meters.
These allowed them to travel the whole Mediterranean, establishing
commercial links with the
Mycenaean civilization (attested by the
common tholos tomb shape, and the adoration of bulls), Spain, Italy,
Cyprus, Lebanon. Items such as Cyprus-type copper ingots have been
found in Sardinia, while bronze and early
Iron Age Nuragic ceramics
have been found in the Aegean region, Cyprus, in
Teruel and Cádiz) up to the Gibraltar strait,
and in Etruscan centers of the Italian peninsula such as Vetulonia,
Populonia (known in the 9th to 6th centuries from Nuragic
statues found in their tombs).
Swords from the Monte Idda hoard (Decimoputzu)
Sardinia was rich in metals such as lead and copper. Archaeological
findings have proven the good quality of Nuragic metallurgy, including
numerous bronze weapons. The so-called "golden age" of the Nuragic
civilization (late 2nd millennium BC, early 1st millennium BC)
coincided perhaps with the apex of the mining of metals in the island.
The widespread use of bronze, an alloy which used tin, a metal which
however was not present in
Sardinia if not in a single deposit,
further proves the capability of the Nuragic people to trade in the
resources they needed. A recent study (2013) of 71 ancient Swedish
bronze objects dated to Nordic Bronze Age, revealed that most of
copper utilized at that time in
Scandinavia came from
Sardinia and the
Iberian peninsula.. Iron working is attested on the island since
the 13th century BC.
History of Sardinia
List of Nuragic tribes
Nuragic bronze statuettes
Ancient peoples of Italy
^ Giovanni Lilliu, Sardegna Nuragica, (Edizioni Maestrali) 2006
Archived 2012-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
^ There is no complete census, but the figure of 7,000 in E. Contu,
"L'architettura nuraghica", in E. Atzeni et al., Ichnussa, 1985:5, is
often repeated, and 'the Provincia di Cagliari website, estimatesmore
^ Parole di segni, L'alba della scrittura in Sardegna, Sardegna
archeologica, Guide e Itinerari, M.Monoja, C.Cossu, M.Migaleddu, Carlo
Delfino Editore, Sassari, 2012
^ a b Giovanni Ugas, I segni numerali e di scrittura in Sardegna tra
l’Età del Bronzo e il i Ferro, In:
Tharros Felix 5, a cura di
Attilio Mastino, Pier Giorgio Spanu, Raimondo Zucca. Roma :
Carocci, 2013, pp. 295-377
^ La Sardegna nelle fonti classiche, M.Perra, S'Alvure editrice,
^ a b Ugas 2005, p. 16.
^ Luca Lai (2008). The Interplay of Economic, Climatic and Cultural
Change Investigated Through Isotopic Analyses of Bone Tissue: The Case
Sardinia 4000--1900 BC. ProQuest. p. 119.
^ Ercole Contu, Sardegna Archeologica – L'Altare preistorico di
Monte D'Accoddi, p. 65
^ Giovanni Lilliu, Arte e religione della Sardegna prenuragica, p.132
^ "Alberto Moravetti, il complesso nuragico di Palmavera" (PDF).
sardegnacultura.it. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
^ Paolo Melis, I rapporti fra la Sardegna settentrionale e la Corsica
nell’antica età del Bronzo
^ Lilliu 2004, p. 362.
^ Lilliu 1982, p. 25-26-27.
^ a b Lilliu 1982, p. 9.
^ The strict patterning in the landscape of tombs and nuraghes was
analyzed by Emma Blake, "Constructing a Nuragic Locale: The Spatial
Relationship between Tombs and Towers in
Bronze Age Sardinia" American
Journal of Archaeology 105.2 (April 2001:145-161).
^ Giovanni Lilliu. "Sardegna Nuragica" (PDF).
sardegnadigitallibrary.it. Archived from the original (PDF) on
2012-03-03. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
^ Museo Nazionale Archeologico di Nuoro, Il Sarcidano: Orroli, Nuraghe
^ Francesco Cesare Casula, aBreve storia di Sardegna, p. 25.
^ "provinciadelsole.it". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
Tin as a draw for traders was first suggested in the essay on
Sardinian metallurgy by N. Gale and Z, Gale in Miriam S. Balmuth, ed.
Studies in Sardinian Archaeology 3 (Oxford, 1987).
^ R.F. Tylecote, M.S. Balmuth, R. Massoli-Novelli, "
Copper and Bronze
Metallurgy in Sardinia", Historia Metallica 17.2, (1983:63–77).
^ Miriam S. Balmuth, ed. Studies in Sardinian Archaeology 3: Nuragic
Sardinia and the Mycenaean World (Oxford, 1987) presents papers from a
colloquium in Rome, September 1986; the view of "gateway-communities"
from the Mycenaean direction is explored in T.R. Smith, Mycenaean
Trade and Interaction in the West Central Mediterranean, 1600-100
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Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Balmuth, Miriam S. Nuragic
Sardinia and the Mycenaean World. Oxford,
England: B.A.R., 1987.
Webster, Gary S. The Archaeology of Nuragic Sardinia. Bristol, CT:
Equinox Publishing Ltd, 2015.
Zedda, Mauro Peppino. “Orientation of the Sardinian Nuragic
Mediterranean archaeology & archaeometry
16, no. 4 (2016): 195-201.
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