The NURAGIC CIVILIZATION was a civilisation in
Sardinia , the second
largest island in the
Mediterranean Sea , which lasted from the 18th
century BC (
Bronze Age ) to the 2nd century AD. The civilization's
name derives from its most characteristic monument, the nuraghe , a
tower-fortress type of construction built in numerous exemplars
starting from about 1800 BC. Today some 7,000 nuraghes dot the
No written records of this civilization have been discovered, apart
from a few possible short epigraphic documents belonging to the last
stages of the Nuragic civilization. The only written information
there is comes from classical literature of the Greeks and Romans ,
and may be considered more mythological than historical.
* 1 History
* 1.2 Nuragic era
* 1.2.1 Early
* 1.2.2 Middle and Late
Sea Peoples connection
* 1.3 Carthaginian and Roman conquest
* 2 Society
* 2.1 Tribes
* 3 Culture
* 3.1 Religion
* 3.1.1 Holy wells
* 3.1.2 Roundhouses with basin
* 3.1.3 Megaron temples
* 3.1.4 Giant\'s graves
* 3.2 Art
* 3.2.1 Bronze statuettes
* 3.2.2 Giants of Mont\'e Prama
* 3.2.3 Ceramics
* 4 Language
* 5 Economy
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
Pre-Nuragic Sardinia and
Beaker culture in
One of the Domus de janas of the necropolis of Monte Siseri,
Stone Age the island was inhabited by people who had arrived
there in the
Neolithic ages from several parts of
Europe and the
Mediterranean area. Pre-nuragic complex of Monte
The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central
Anglona . Later several cultures developed on the island,
such as the
Ozieri culture (3200−2700 BC). The economy was based on
agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland.
With the diffusion of metallurgy , silver and copper objects and
weapons also appeared on the island.
Remains from this period include hundreds of menhirs (called perdas
fittas) and dolmens , more than 2400 hypogeum tombs called domus de
Janas , the statue menhirs , representing warriors or female figures,
and the stepped pyramid of Monte d\'Accoddi , near
Sassari , which
show some similarities with the monumental complex of Los Millares
Andalusia ) and the later talaiots in the
Balearic Islands .
According to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and
those found in
Mesopotamia are due to cultural influxes coming from
the Eastern Mediterranean.
The altar of Monte d\'Accoddi fell out of use starting from c. 2000
BC, when the
Beaker culture , which at the time was widespread in
almost all western
Europe , appeared on the island. The beakers
Sardinia from two different geographical areas: firstly
Spain and southern France and then from Central
Europe , through
Italian Peninsula .
Arzachena ), example of proto-nuraghe
Early Bronze Age
Bonnanaro culture was the last evolution of the
Beaker culture in
Sardinia (c. 1800-1600 BC), and displayed several similarities with
Polada culture of northern Italy . These two cultures
shared common features in the material culture such as pottery with
axe-shaped handles. These influences may have spread to
Corsica , where they absorbed new architectural techniques (such as
cyclopean masonry ) that were already widespread on the island.
New peoples coming from the mainland arrived on the island at that
time, bringing with them new religious philosophies, new technologies
and new ways of life, making obsolete the previous ones or
reinterpreting them. The widespread diffusion of bronze brought
numerous improvements to the tools used in agriculture, hunting and
From this period dates the construction of the so-called
proto-nuraghe , a platformlike structure that marks the first phase of
the Nuragic Age.
Middle And Late Bronze Age
Abbasanta Tholos of
Nuraghe Is Paras ,
Isili Graphic reconstruction of a nuragic
village Aerial view of the
Nuraghe Genna Maria,
Dating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the nuraghe, which
evolved from the previous proto-nuraghe, are megalithic towers with a
truncated cone shape; they are widespread in the whole of Sardinia,
about one nuraghe every three square kilometers. There has long been
controversy among scholars. Theories about their utilization have
included social, military, religious, astronomical role, as furnaces
or sepulture places, but the modern agreement is that they were
defensible homesites that included barns and silos. In ancient times,
Greek historians and geographers tried to solve the mystery of the
nuraghe and their builders. They described the presence of fabulous
edifices, called daidaleia, from the name of
Daedalus , who, after
building his labyrinth in Crete, would have moved to
Sicily and then
In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, archaeological studies
have proved the increasing size of the settlements built around some
of these structures, which were often located at the summit of hills.
Perhaps for protection reasons, new towers were added to the original
ones, connected by walls provided with slits forming a complex
Nuraghe Santu Antine, Torralba, internal corridor
Among the most famous of the numerous existing nuraghe, are the Su
Santu Antine at Torralba ,
Nuraghe Losa at
Nuraghe Palmavera at
Nuraghe Genna Maria at
Nuraghe Seruci at
Gonnesa and Arrubiu at
Orroli . The
biggest nuraghe, such as
Nuraghe Arrubiu, could reach a height of
about 25-30 meters and could be made up of 5 main towers, protected by
multiple layers of walls, for a total of dozens of additional towers
. It has been suggested that some of the current Sardinian villages
trace their origin directly from Nuragic ones, including perhaps those
containing the root Nur-/Nor- in their name (like
Nurachi , Nuraminis
Soon Sardinia, a land rich in mines, notably copper and lead , saw
the construction of numerous furnaces for the production of alloys
which were traded across the
Mediterranean basin and nuragic people
became skilled metal workers; they were among the main metal producers
Europe and with bronze they produced a wide variety of objects
and new weapons as swords, daggers, axes, and after drills, pins,
rings, bracelets, typical bronze statuettes, and the votive bronze
boats that show a close relationship with the sea.
Tin may have drawn
Bronze Age traders from the Aegean where copper is available but tin
for bronze-making is scarce; The first verifiable smelting slag has
come to light, its appearance in a hoard of ancient tin confirms local
smelting as well as casting. The usually cited tin sources and trade
in ancient times are those in the
Iberian Peninsula or from Cornwall .
Markets included civilizations living in regions with poor metal
resources, such as the
Mycenaean civilization , Cyprus and
Crete , as
well as the
Iberian peninsula , a fact that can explain the cultural
similarities between them and the
Nuraghe civilization and the
presence in Nuragic sites of late
Bronze Age Mycenaean, west and
central Cretan and Cypriote ceramics, as well as locally made
replicas, concentrated in half a dozen findspots that seem to have
functioned as "gateway-communities.
Sea Peoples Connection
Sardinian warrior figure Model of Nuragic ship from
Museo archeologico nazionale (Cagliari) See also: Sea
Bronze Age (14th-13th-12th centuries BC) saw a vast
migration of the so-called
Sea Peoples , described in ancient Egyptian
sources. They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked
Egypt . According to Giovanni Ugas the
Sherden , one of the most
important tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the
Sardinians . Another hypothesis is that they arrived to the
island around the 13th or 12th century after the failed invasion of
Egypt. However, these theories remain controversial. Simonides of Ceos
Plutarch spoke of raids by
Sardinians against the island of Crete
, in the same period in which the Sea People invaded Egypt. This
would at least confirm that Nuragic
Sardinians frequented the eastern
Mediterranean Sea. Further proofs come from 13th-century Nuragic
ceramics found at
Tiryns , Kommos ,
Kokkinokremnos and in
Lipari and the
Agrigento area, along the sea route linking
western to eastern Mediterranean. Bronze model of nuraghe, 10th
Recently the archaeologist
Adam Zertal has proposed that the
Harosheth Haggoyim of
Israel , home of the biblical figure
Sisera , is
identifiable with the site of "El-
Ahwat " and that it was a Nuragic
site suggesting that he came from the people of the
Archaeologists define the nuragic phase as ranging from 900 BC to 500
Iron Age ) the era of the aristocracies. Fine ceramics were
produced along with more and more elaborate tools and the quality of
With the flourishing of trade, metallurgical products and other
manufactured goods were exported to every corner of the Mediterranean,
Near East to
Spain and the Atlantic. The huts in the villages
increased in number and there was generally a large increase in
population. The construction of the nuraghes stopped and individual
tombs replaced collective burials (Giant's Tombs).
But the real breakthrough of that period, according to archaeologist
Giovanni Lilliu , was the political organization which revolved around
the parliament of the village, composed by the heads and the most
influential people, who gathered to discuss the most important issues.
CARTHAGINIAN AND ROMAN CONQUEST
Around 900 BC the Phoenicians began visiting
Sardinia with increasing
frequency. The most common ports of call were
Caralis , Nora , Bithia
The Roman historian Justin describes a Carthaginian expedition led by
Malco in 540 BC against a still strongly Nuragic Sardinia. The
expedition failed and this caused a political revolution in
from which Mago emerged. He launched another expedition against the
island, in 509 BC, after the
Sardinians attacked the Phoenicians'
coastal cities. The Carthaginians, after a number of military
campaigns in which Mago died and was replaced by his brother Hamilcar,
Sardinians and conquered coastal Sardinia, the Iglesiente
with its mines and the southern plains. The Nuragic civilization
survived in the mountainous mainland of the island.
In 238 BC the Carthaginians, as a result of their defeat by the
Romans in the first
Punic War , surrendered
Sardinia to Rome. Sardinia
Corsica became a Roman province (
however the Greek geographer
Strabo confirms the survival, in the
interior of the island, of the
Nuragic civilization even in Imperial
Bronze sculpture of a Nuragic chief from
Serri . Hut near
Nuraghe Palmavera ,
Nuragic civilization was probably based on clans, each led by a
chief, who resided in the complex nuraghe, with common people living
in the nearby villages of roundhouses with straw roofs, similar to the
modern pinnettas of the
Barbagia shepherds. In the late final Bronze
Age and in the Early
Iron Age phases, the houses were built with a
more complex plant, with multiple rooms often positioned around a
countryard; in the Nuragic settlement of Sant'Imbenia, located by the
coast, some structures were not used for living purposes, but for the
storing of precious metals, food and other goods and they were built
around a huge square, interpreted by archaeologists as a marketplace.
Water management was essential for the Nuragic people, most complex
Nuraghi were provided with at least a well;
Nuraghe Arrubiu, for
example, presented a complex hydraulic implant for the drainage of
water Another testimony to the Nuragic prowess in the creation of
hydraulic implants is the aqueduct of Gremanu, the only known Nuragic
aqueduct yet .
Religion had a strong role in Nuragic society, which has led scholars
to the hypothesis that the
Nuragic civilization was a theocracy .
Nuraghe bronzes clearly portray the figures of chief-kings,
recognizable by their wearing a cloak and carrying a staff with
bosses. Also depicted are other classes, including miners, artisans,
musicians, wrestlers (the latter similar to those of the Minoan
civilizations) and many fighting men, which has led scholars to think
of a warlike society, with precise military divisions (archers ,
infantrymen ). Different uniforms could belong to different cantons or
clans, or to different military units.The priestly role may have been
fulfilled by women. Some small bronzes also give clues about Nuragic
personal care and fashion. Women generally had long hair; men sported
two long braids on each side of the face, while their head hair was
cut very short or else covered by a leather cap.
List of Nuragic tribes Nuragic tribes
The most celebrated peoples of this island are the Ilienses, the
Balari, and the Corsi... —
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder , Natural History ,
Throughout the second millennium and into the first part of the first
Sardinia was inhabited by the single extensive and
uniform cultural group represented by the Nuragic people.
Centuries later, Roman sources describe the island as inhabited by
numerous tribes which had gradually merged culturally. They however
maintained their political identities and the tribes often fought each
other for control of the most valuable land. The most important
Nuragic populations mentioned include the Balares, the Corsi and the
Ilienses, the latter defying the Romanization process and living in
what had been called Civitatas Barbarie (now
Ilienses or Iolaes (later Diagesbes), identified by ancient
writers as Greek colonists led by
Iolaus (nephew of
Heracles ) or
Trojan refugees, lived in what is now central-southern Sardinia. Greek
historians reported also that they were repeatedly invaded by the
Carthaginians and the Romans , but in vain.
Balares have been identified with the Beaker culture. They
lived in what are now the
subdivisions of Sardinia. They were probably of the same stock from
Talaiotic culture of the
Balearic Islands originated.
* The Corsi lived in
Gallura and in
Corsica . They have been
identified as the descendants of the
Arzachena culture . In southern
Corsica, in the 2nd millennium BC, the
Torrean civilization developed
alongside the Nuragic one.
Bronze sculpture of a warrior with four eyes and four arms
The representations of animals, such as the bull , belong most likely
to pre-Nuragic civilizations, however they kept their importance among
Nuraghe people, and were frequently depicted on ships, bronze
vases, used in religious rites. Small bronze sculptures depicting
half-man, half-bull figures have been found, as well as characters
with four arms and eyes and two-headed deers: they probably had a
mythological and religious significance. Another holy animal which was
frequently depicted is the dove . Also having a religious role were
perhaps the small chiseled discs, with geometrical patterns, known as
pintadera , although their function has not been identified yet.
A key element of the Nuragic religion was that of fertility,
connected to the male power of the Bull-Sun and the female one of
Water-Moon. According to the scholars' studies, there existed a
Mediterranean-type Mother Goddess and a God-Father (Babai). An
important role was that of mythological heroes such as
Norax , Sardus
Iolaos and Aristeus , military leaders considered also as
The excavations have proved that the Nuragic people, in determinate
periods of the year, gathered in common holy places, usually
characterized by sitting steps and the presence of a holy pit. In some
holy areas, such as Gremanu at
Fonni , Serra Orrios at
S\'Arcu \'e Is Forros at
Villagrande Strisaili , there were
rectangular temples, with central holy room housing perhaps a holy
fire. The deities worshipped are unknown, but were perhaps connected
to water, or to astronomical entities (Sun, Moon, solstices).
Sacred "pool" of
Some structures could have a "federal" Sardinian role, such as the
sanctuary of Santa Vittoria near
Serri (one of the biggest Nuragic
sanctuaries, spanning over 20 hectares ), including both religious and
civil buildings: here, according to Italian historian Giovanni Lilliu,
the main clans of the central island held their assemblies to sign
alliances, decide wars or to stipulate commercial agreements. Spaces
for trades were also present. At least twenty of such multirole
structures are known, including those of Santa Cristina at Paulilatino
Siligo ; some have been re-used as Christian temples (such as
the cumbessias of San Salvatore in Sinis at Cabras ).
The holy well of Santa Cristina,
Paulilatino . Main article:
Nuragic holy well
The holy wells were structures dedicated to the cult of waters.
Though initially assigned to the 8th to 6th centuries BC, due to their
advanced buildings techniques, they most likely date to the earlier
Bronze Age, when
Sardinia had strong relationships with the Mycenaean
kingdoms of Greece and Crete, around the 14-13th century BC .
The architecture of the Nuragic holy wells follows the same pattern
as that of the nuraghe, the main part consisting of a circular room
with a tholos vault with a hole at the summit. A monumental staircase
connected the entrance to this subterranean (hypogeum ) room, whose
main role is to collect the water of the sacred spring. The exterior
walls feature stone benches where offerings and religious objects were
placed by the faithful. Some sites also had sacrificial altars. Some
scholars think that these could be dedicated to Sardus, one of the
main Nuragic divinities.
A sacred pit similar to those of
Sardinia has been found in western
Bulgaria , near the village of Garlo . Nuragic fountain at Sa
Sedda e Sos Carros
Roundhouses With Basin
Starting from the late Bronze Age, a peculiar type of circular
structure with a central basin and benches located all around the
circumference of the room start to appear in Nuragic settlements, the
best example of this type of structure is the ritual fountain of Sa
Sedda e Sos Carros , near
Oliena , where thanks to a hydraulic implant
of lead pipes water was poured down from the ram shaped protomes
inside the basin. Some archaeologists interpreted these buildings,
with ritual and religious function , as thermal strucutrues .
Megaron temple of Malchittu
Located in various parts of the Island and dedicated to the cult of
the healthy waters, these unique buildings are an architectural
manifestation that reflects the cultural vitality of the nuragic
peoples and their interaction with the coeval mediterranean
civilizations. In fact, many scholars see in these buildings foreign
They have a rectilinear form with the side walls that extend
outwardly. Some, like that of Malchittu at Arzachena, are apsidal
while others such as the temple of Sa Carcaredda at Villagrande
Strisaili culminate with a circular room. They are surrounded by
sacred precincts called temenos . Sometimes multiple temples are found
in the same location, such as in the case of the huge sanctuary of
S'Arcu e sos forros, where many megaron temples with a complex plant
were excavated. The largest and best preserved Sardinian Mégara is
that called Domu de Orgia at
Giant's grave at
Arzachena Main article: Giants\' grave
The so-called "giant's graves" were funerary structures whose precise
function is still unknown, and which perhaps evolved from elongated
dolmens . They date to the whole Nuragic era up to the
Iron Age , and
are more frequent in the central sector of the island. Their plan was
in the shape of the head of a bull.
Large stone sculptures known as betili (a kind of slender menhir,
sometimes featuring crude depiction of male sexual organs, or of
female breasts) were erected near the entrance. Sometimes the tombs
were built with an "Opus isodomum" technique, where finely shaped
stones were used, such as in the giant tombs of Madau or at Iloi.
Nuragic bronze statuettes, Museo nazionale archeologico ed
etnografico G. A. Sanna (Sassari) Main article: Nuragic bronze
The so-called bronzetti (brunzittos or brunzittus in Sardinian
language ) are small bronze statuettes obtained with the lost-wax
casting technique; they can measure up to 39 cm and represent scenes
of everyday life, characters from different social classes, animal
figures, divinities, ships etc.
Most of them had been discovered in various sites of Sardinia;
however, a sizeable minority had also been found in Etruscan sites,
particularly tombs, of central Italy (
Magione ) and
Pontecagnano ) and further south in the greek
Crotone . Boxer statue from Mont'e Prama Warrior
statue from Mont'e Prama
Giants Of Mont\'e Prama
Main article: Giants of Mont\'e Prama
The Giants of Mont\'e Prama are a group of 32 (or 40) statues with a
height of up to 2.5 m, found in 1974 near Cabras , in the province of
Oristano . They depict warriors, archers, wrestlers, models of nuraghe
and boxers with shield and armed glove.
Depending on the different hypotheses, the dating of the Kolossoi –
the name that archaeologist
Giovanni Lilliu gave to the statues –
varies between the 11th and the 8th century BC. If this is further
confirmed by archaeologists, like the C-14 analysis already did, they
would be the most ancient anthropomorphic sculptures of the
Mediterranean area , after the Egyptian statues, preceding the kouroi
of ancient Greece .
They feature disc-shaped eyes and eastern-like garments. The statues
probably depicted mythological heroes, guarding a sepulchre; according
to another theory, they could be a sort of Pantheon of the typical
Their finding proved that the
Nuragic civilization had maintained its
peculiarities, and introduced new ones across the centuries, well into
the Phoenician colonization of part of Sardinia.
Nuragic vase from
In the ceramics, the skill and taste of the Sardinian artisans are
manifested mainly in decorating the surfaces of vessels, certainly
used for ritual purposes in the course of complex ceremonies, perhaps
in some cases even to be crushed at the end of the rite, as the jugs
found in the bottom of the sacred wells.
Ceramics also display geometric patterns in the lamps, in the
pear-shaped vessels (exclusive of Sardinia) and the askos . Imported
(eg. Mycenaeans) and local forms were found in several sites all over
the island. Also found in the Italian peninsula, Sicily, in
Crete everything points to a
Sardinia very well integrated in the
ancient trade of the
Mediterranean sea .
Main article: Paleo-
The language (or the languages) spoken in
Sardinia during the Bronze
Age is unknown since there are no written records of that period,
although recent researchs suggest that around the
8th century BC
8th century BC , in
Iron Age , the Nuragic populations may have adopted an alphabet
similar to that used in Euboea .
Eduardo Blasco Ferrer the Proto-
Sardinian language was
akin to Proto-Basque and the ancient Iberian with faint Indoeuropean
traces, while others believe it was related to Etruscan . Some
scholars theorize that there were actually various linguistic areas
(two or more) in Nuragic Sardinia, possibly Pre-Indoeuropeans and
The Nuragic economy, at least at the origins, was mostly based on
agriculture (new studies suggest that they were the first to practice
viticulture in the western
Mediterranean ) and animal husbandry, as
well as on fishing. As in modern Sardinia, 60% of the soil was
suitable only for breeding cattle and sheep. Probably, as in other
human communities that have the cattle as traditional economic base,
the property of this established social hierarchies. Oxhide ingot
Navigation had an important role: historian Pierluigi Montalbano
mentions the finding of nuragic anchors along the coast, some weighing
100 kg. This has suggested that the Nuragic people used efficient
ships, which could perhaps reach lengths up to 15 meters. These
allowed them to travel the whole Mediterranean, establishing
commercial links with the
Mycenaean civilization (attested by the
common tholos tomb shape, and the adoration of bulls), Spain, Italy,
Cyprus, Lebanon. Items such as Cyprus-type copper ingots have been
found in Sardinia, while bronze and early
Iron Age Nuragic ceramics
have been found in the
Aegean region , in
Cádiz ) up to the
Gibraltar strait , and in
Etruscan centers of the Italian peninsula such as
Vetulonia , Vulci
Populonia (known in the 9th to 6th centuries from Nuragic statues
found in their tombs). Swords from the Monte Idda hoard
Sardinia was rich in metals such as lead and copper. Archaeological
findings have proven the good quality of Nuragic metallurgy, including
numerous bronze weapons. The so-called "golden age" of the Nuragic
civilization (late 2nd millennium BC, early 1st millennium BC)
coincided perhaps with the apex of the mining of metals in the island.
The widespread use of bronze, an alloy which used tin, a metal which
however was not present in
Sardinia if not in a single deposit,
further proves the capability of the Nuragic people to trade in the
resources they needed. A recent study (2013) of 71 ancient Swedish
bronze objects dated to Nordic
Bronze Age , revealed that most of
copper utilized at that time in
Scandinavia came from
Sardinia and the
History of Sardinia
History of Sardinia
List of Nuragic tribes
Nuragic bronze statuettes
Ancient peoples of Italy
Ancient peoples of Italy
* ^ Giovanni Lilliu, Sardegna Nuragica, (Edizioni Maestrali) 2006
* ^ There is no complete census, but the figure of 7,000 in E.
Contu, "L'architettura nuraghica", in E. Atzeni et al., Ichnussa,
1985:5, is often repeated, and 'the Provincia di Cagliari website,
estimatesmore than 7,000.
* ^ Parole di segni, L'alba della scrittura in Sardegna, Sardegna
archeologica, Guide e Itinerari, M.Monoja, C.Cossu, M.Migaleddu, Carlo
Delfino Editore, Sassari, 2012
* ^ A B Giovanni Ugas, I segni numerali e di scrittura in Sardegna
tra l’Età del Bronzo e il i Ferro, In:
Tharros Felix 5, a cura di
Attilio Mastino, Pier Giorgio Spanu, Raimondo Zucca. Roma : Carocci,
2013, pp. 295-377
* ^ La Sardegna nelle fonti classiche, M.Perra, S'Alvure editrice,
* ^ A B Ugas 2005 , p. 16.
* ^ Luca Lai (2008). The Interplay of Economic, Climatic and
Cultural Change Investigated Through Isotopic Analyses of Bone Tissue:
The Case of
Sardinia 4000--1900 BC. ProQuest. p. 119. ISBN
* ^ Ercole Contu, Sardegna Archeologica – L'Altare preistorico di
Monte D'Accoddi, p. 65
* ^ Giovanni Lilliu, Arte e religione della Sardegna prenuragica,
* ^ Alberto Moravetti, il complesso nuragico di Palmavera
* ^ Paolo Melis, I rapporti fra la Sardegna settentrionale e la
Corsica nell’antica età del Bronzo
* ^ Lilliu 2004 , p. 362.
* ^ Lilliu 1982 , p. 25-26-27.
* ^ A B Lilliu 1982 , p. 9.
* ^ The strict patterning in the landscape of tombs and nuraghes
was analyzed by Emma Blake, "Constructing a Nuragic Locale: The
Spatial Relationship between Tombs and Towers in
Bronze Age Sardinia"
American Journal of Archaeology 105.2 (April 2001:145-161).
* ^ Sardegna Nuragica by
* ^ Museo Nazionale Archeologico di Nuoro, Il Sarcidano: Orroli,
Nuraghe Arrubiu(in Italian)
* ^ Francesco Cesare Casula, aBreve storia di Sardegna, p. 25. ISBN
* ^ "provinciadelsole.it". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
Tin as a draw for traders was first suggested in the essay on
Sardinian metallurgy by N. Gale and Z, Gale in Miriam S. Balmuth, ed.
Studies in Sardinian Archaeology 3 (Oxford, 1987).
* ^ R.F. Tylecote, M.S. Balmuth, R. Massoli-Novelli, "
Metallurgy in Sardinia", Historia Metallica 17.2,
* ^ Miriam S. Balmuth, ed. Studies in Sardinian Archaeology 3:
Sardinia and the Mycenaean World (Oxford, 1987) presents
papers from a colloquium in Rome, September 1986; the view of
"gateway-communities" from the Mycenaean direction is explored in T.R.
Smith, Mycenaean Trade and Interaction in the West Central
Mediterranean, 1600-100 B.C., 1987.
* ^ "SP INTERVISTA>GIOVANNI UGAS: SHARDANA". Retrieved 3 May 2015.
* ^ Pallottino 2000 , p. 119.
* ^ Paola Ruggeri - Talos, l\'automa bronzeo contro i Sardi: le
relazioni più antiche tra Creta e la Sardegna
* ^ Ceramiche. Storia, linguaggio e prospettive in Sardegna - pg.34
* ^ Gale, N.H. 2011. ‘Source of the
Lead Metal used to make a
Repair Clamp on a Nuragic Vase recently excavated at
Pyla-Kokkinokremos on Cyprus’. In V. Karageorghis and O. Kouka
(eds.), On Cooking Pots, Drinking Cups, Loomweights and Ethnicity in
Bronze Age Cyprus and Neighbouring Regions, Nicosia.
* ^ Santoni, Vincenzo; Sabatini, Donatella (2010) Gonnesa, Nuraghe
Serucci. IX Campagna di scavo 2007/2008. Relazione e analisi
* ^ " Long time archaeological riddle solved, Canaanite general was
based in Wadi Ara, Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, 07/02/2010, Jerusalem Post.
* ^ Carlo Tronchetti. "Quali aristocrazie nella Sardegna dell\'età
del Ferro? in Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria. Atti
della XLIV Riunione Scientifica. La Preistoria e la Protostoria della
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* ^ Paolo Bernardini-Necropoli della Prima Età del Ferroin
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