NUPHAR is genus of aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae , with a temperate to subarctic Northern Hemisphere distribution. Common names include WATER-LILY (Eurasian species; shared with many other genera in the same family), POND-LILY, ALLIGATOR-BONNET or BONNET LILY, and SPATTERDOCK (North American species).
* 1 Etymology * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Species * 4 Ecology * 5 Use as medicine, food, and otherwise * 6 Gallery * 7 References
The etymology of the word is: medieval Latin nuphar, from medieval Latin nenuphar, thence from Arabic nīnūfar, thence from Persian nīlūfar, thence from Sanskrit nīlōtpala = blue lotus flower. For botanical gender, the name is treated as feminine.
The genus is closely related to
The number of species in the genus is still under review. Until the mid-20th century, some botanists treated the genus as just a single variable species (for which the European name N. lutea has priority), while some other authorities accepted about a dozen more species on the basis of traditional taxonomic standards. Recent molecular work has shown that there are substantial differences between the Eurasian species (sect. Nuphar) and American species (sect. Astylus), except for North American N. microphylla which is clusters with the Eurasian species. Molecular taxonomy has shown conclusively that recognition of so few species is out of the question, and forced an increased number of recognised species; some sources list about seventy. The Kew Gardens plant list includes over twenty accepted species, subspecies and varieties; it also has a similar number as yet unresolved, together with over twenty synonyms.
Nuphar advena (Aiton ) W.T.Aiton –Spatterdock
Nuphar carlquistii DeVore, Taylor, different species are
variously adaptated either to nutrient-rich waters (e.g.
Wetland soils are hypoxic, and this genus is known to be capable of temporary growth even in the absence of oxygen. Also there can be mass flow of oxygen-containing air, entering by means of the young leaves, passing through the rhizome, and exiting through the older leaves. Both of these physiological adaptations to flooding are considered typical of many wetland and aquatic plants.
Like many other vigorously-growing members of the Nymphaeaceae, some
Birds such as some species of ducks eat
USE AS MEDICINE, FOOD, AND OTHERWISE
However, some species have been used by indigenous peoples, and the leaves are grazed by deer and other animals. Young shoots and leaves sometimes were cooked but might be too bitter to eat. Whether the roots may be eaten, as is widely reported, is open to doubt; some sources claim that they are too bitter, too full of tannin, or simply too poisonous to eat unsoaked, except when treated for so long that they are not viable as a famine food. All sources however, agree that ripe seeds may be popped or variously used in cookery. They then are pleasant and nutritious, but require a lot of work to harvest and strip from the fruit capsule. To some extent this may be circumvented rotting the fruit under water for three weeks or more, after which removing the seeds is easier. The rotting material however, is very unpleasant to deal with. The flower petals are said to be used in making tea, but it is not clear whether that refers to the petals proper, or to the larger and more conspicuous sepals. The leaves of some species are large enough to be of use in wrapping food, for example in cooking.
Alkaloids in the genus include nupharolutine, nuphamine and nupharidine. The presence of such compounds could explain some of the medicinal uses
There has been growing interest in
Apart from pharmaceuticals, the leaves of
* ^ Eastman, John (2014). Wildflowers of the eastern United States
(1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1367-2
* ^ Etymololgy of Nuphar, same as French Nenuphar (in French).
* ^ A B C USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network: Nuphar
* ^ A B C Wiersema, J. H.; Hellquist, C. B. (1997). "Nymphaeaceae".
Flora of North America. 3.
* ^ A B The