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NUEVO LEóN (Spanish pronunciation: ( listen )), or NEW LEON, officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF NUEVO LEóN (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico
Mexico
City , compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey .

It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas
Texas
.

The state was named after the New Kingdom of León , an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , which was itself named for the historic Spanish Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
.

Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe , Santa Catarina , San Nicolás de los Garza , and San Pedro Garza García , all of which are part of the Monterrey
Monterrey
Metropolitan area .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demography * 4 Major communities * 5 Education * 6 Economy * 7 Government * 8 Municipalities * 9 Largest cities * 10 Climate * 11 Flora and fauna * 12 Twinning and Covenants * 13 See also * 14 Sources * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Nuevo León
History of Nuevo León
Further information: New Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
The original Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo León
Nuevo León

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto , although frequent raids by Chichimecas , the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva , at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila , Nuevo Santander and Texas
Texas
) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.

In the 19th century, Nuevo León
Nuevo León
was in a growth spurt and the bargain land deals attracted immigrants of German , Slavic , French , Italian , Jewish and Anglo-American origin. The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey
Monterrey
, the third largest city in Mexico
Mexico
with over four million residents. Monterrey
Monterrey
is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico
Mexico
's most industrialized states.

GEOGRAPHY

La Huasteca State Park Trace of petroglyphs engraved on rocks at Boca de Potrerillos.

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey
Monterrey
and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas
Agualeguas
dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears , mountain lions , javelinas , prairie dogs , foxes , coyotes , and white-tailed deer , along with smaller species.

DEMOGRAPHY

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1895 311,665 —

1900 327,937 +5.2%

1910 365,150 +11.3%

1921 336,412 −7.9%

1930 417,491 +24.1%

1940 541,147 +29.6%

1950 740,191 +36.8%

1960 1,078,848 +45.8%

1970 1,694,689 +57.1%

1980 2,513,044 +48.3%

1990 3,098,736 +23.3%

1995 3,550,114 +14.6%

2000 3,834,141 +8.0%

2005 4,199,292 +9.5%

2010 4,653,458 +10.8%

2015 5,119,504 +10.0%

As of 2010, Nuevo León's population was about 4.653 million. Of these 4.653 million, nearly 80%, or about 3.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey
Monterrey
Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women.

Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% is mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountain regions.

Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic .

MAJOR COMMUNITIES

* Apodaca * Cadereyta Jiménez * Ciudad Benito Juárez * Doctor Arroyo * General Escobedo * Guadalupe * Linares * Monterrey
Monterrey
* Pesquería * Sabinas Hidalgo
Sabinas Hidalgo
* San Nicolás de los Garza * San Pedro Garza García * Santa Catarina

EDUCATION

Biotechnology center of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.

The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.

Institutions of higher education include:

* Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) * Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
(UANL) * Centro de Estudios Universitarios (CEU) * Universidad Regiomontana (UR) * Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey
Monterrey
(UMM) * Universidad de Monterrey
Monterrey
(UDEM) * Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey
Monterrey
(CEDIM) * Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey
Monterrey
(FLDM)

ECONOMY

Wind turbines at the Parques Eólicos Ventika located in General Bravo . The wind-power complex has the capacity to produce 252 megawatts per hour and can meet the electricity demand of some 630,000 homes.

Highly industrialized, Nuevo León
Nuevo León
possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP
GDP
of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP
GDP
per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP
GDP
per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700).

One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García , is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena). The facilities of the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma brewery in Nuevo Leon are the single largest producer of alcoholic beverages in the world.

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos , Hualahuises , General Terán and Linares . Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.

In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León
Nuevo León
and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri , Zaragoza
Zaragoza
, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega ) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.

As of 2010, Nuevo León’s economy represents 11.4% of Mexico’s total gross domestic product or 165 billion USD. Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX ). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León
Nuevo León
was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005. In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics , biotechnology , mechatronics , information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca , part of Greater Monterrey
Monterrey
at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey’s International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres ), half of it already committed to Rheight:17em;position:relative;padding:0;margin:0"> 15 20 10 16 22 12 18 27 15 29 30 18 43 32 22 64 34 23 54 35 24 62 35 24 133 32 22 72 28 18 26 24 14 16 21 11

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.6 68 50 0.6 72 54 0.7 81 59 1.1 86 64 1.7 90 72 2.5 93 73 2.1 95 75 2.4 95 75 5.2 90 72 2.8 82 64 1 75 57 0.6 70 52

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

ANáHUAC

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

27 18 5 21 22 7 14 26 10 50 29 15 76 33 20 46 36 23 43 38 25 34 37 25 54 33 22 61 29 15 23 23 10 22 19 6

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

1.1 64 41 0.8 72 45 0.6 79 50 2 84 59 3 91 68 1.8 97 73 1.7 100 77 1.3 99 77 2.1 91 72 2.4 84 59 0.9 73 50 0.9 66 43

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

FLORA AND FAUNA

FLORA AND FAUNA OF NUEVO LEóN

Vulpes macrotis Ursus americanus Cardinalis cardinalis
Cardinalis cardinalis
Mephitis macroura
Mephitis macroura
Aquila chrysaetos
Aquila chrysaetos

Cyanocitta stelleri Pecari tajacu
Pecari tajacu
Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori
Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori
Tachybaptus dominicus Antilocapra americana
Antilocapra americana

Carya illinoinensis
Carya illinoinensis
Dioon edule Cercis canadensis
Cercis canadensis
Aztekium ritteri Pinus culminicola
Pinus culminicola

TWINNING AND COVENANTS

The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities.

* British Columbia , Canada
Canada
* Quebec
Quebec
, Canada
Canada
* Texas
Texas
, United States
United States
* Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
* Lombardy , Italy
Italy
* State of Mexico
Mexico
, Mexico
Mexico
* Jalisco
Jalisco
, Mexico
Mexico
* Coahuila , Mexico
Mexico

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * North America portal * Latin America portal * Mexico
Mexico
portal

* Fiestas of Nuevo León * History of Nuevo León
History of Nuevo León
* Sierra de Picachos

SOURCES

* Human Development Report for Mexico
Mexico
2002 * Historia de Nuevo León
Nuevo León
by Israel Cavazos (in Spanish) * Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México (in Spanish) * Comisión Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León
Nuevo León
(in Spanish) * Ley Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León, 1996 (in Spanish)

REFERENCES

* ^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15. * ^ "Senadores por Nuevo León
Nuevo León
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved March 29, 2010. * ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Nuevo León". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved March 28, 2010. * ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013. * ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved March 30, 2011. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015. * ^ "Jalisco". 2010. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010. * ^ Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982. * ^ En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810–1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales * ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29. * ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.

* ^ INEGI, Población total por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000 y 2005 and PIB estatal * ^ http://sg.nl.gob.mx/DataNL/files%5CDNL00000431.pdf * ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
– A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 96. * ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
– A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92. * ^ "Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT". * ^ "Monterrey, city of knowledge". * ^ Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010 * ^ 2010 U.S. Census Data and Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010 * ^ http://www.sre.gob.mx/coordinacionpolitica/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=159;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

State of Nuevo León
Nuevo León

Monterrey
Monterrey
(capital)

TOPICS

* Architecture * Climate * Cuisine * Culture * Demographics * Economy * Education * Geography * Government * History * Literature * Politics * Sports * New Leonese * Transportation * Tourist Attractions

MUNICIPALITIES

* Abasolo * Agualeguas
Agualeguas
* Allende * Anáhuac * Apodaca * Aramberri * Bustamante * Cadereyta Jiménez * El Carmen * Cerralvo * China * Ciénega de Flores * Doctor Arroyo * Doctor Coss * Doctor González * Galeana * García * General Bravo * General Escobedo * General Terán * General Treviño * General Zaragoza
Zaragoza
* General Zuazua * Guadalupe * Hidalgo * Higueras * Hualahuises * Iturbide * Juárez * Lampazos de Naranjo * Linares * Los Aldama * Los Herreras
Los Herreras
* Los Ramones * Marín * Melchor Ocampo * Mier y Noriega * Mina * Montemorelos * Monterrey
Monterrey
* Parás * Pesquería * Rayones * Sabinas Hidalgo
Sabinas Hidalgo
* Salinas Victoria * San Nicolás de los Garza * San Pedro Garza García * Santa Catarina * Santiago * Vallecillo * Villaldama

REGIONS

* Monterrey
Monterrey
metropolitan area * Peripheral Region * Northern Nuevo León
Nuevo León
* Salinas Valley * Citrícola Region * Pilón Valley * Southern Nuevo León
Nuevo León
* Río Blanco Valley

* v * t * e

States of Mexico

* Aguascalientes * Baja California * Baja California Sur * Campeche
Campeche
* Chiapas
Chiapas
* Chihuahua * Coahuila * Colima
Colima
* Durango
Durango
* Guanajuato * Guerrero
Guerrero
* Hidalgo * Jalisco
Jalisco
* México * Mexico
Mexico
City * Michoacán
Michoacán
* Morelos * Nayarit * Nuevo León * Oaxaca * Puebla * Querétaro
Querétaro
*