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Nuevo León
Nuevo León
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnweβo leˈon] ( listen)), or New Leon, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico
Mexico
City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey. It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
to the north and east, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí
to the south, and Coahuila
Coahuila
to the west. To the north, Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.– Mexico
Mexico
border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas. The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which was itself named for the historic Spanish Kingdom of León. Besides its capital, other important cities are Guadalupe, Santa Catarina, San Nicolás de los Garza, and San Pedro Garza García, all of which are part of the Monterrey
Monterrey
Metropolitan area.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Demography 4 Major communities 5 Education 6 Economy 7 Government 8 Municipalities 9 Largest cities 10 Climate 11 Flora and fauna 12 Twinning and Covenants 13 See also 14 Sources 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Nuevo León Further information: New Kingdom of León

The original Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo León

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
was founded by conquistador Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.[9][10] The capital of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico
Mexico
with over four million residents. Monterrey
Monterrey
is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states. Geography[edit]

La Huasteca State Park

Trace of petroglyphs engraved on rocks at Boca de Potrerillos.

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo
Doctor Arroyo
plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey
Monterrey
and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas
Agualeguas
dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species. Demography[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1895[11] 311,665 —    

1900 327,937 +5.2%

1910 365,150 +11.3%

1921 336,412 −7.9%

1930 417,491 +24.1%

1940 541,147 +29.6%

1950 740,191 +36.8%

1960 1,078,848 +45.8%

1970 1,694,689 +57.1%

1980 2,513,044 +48.3%

1990 3,098,736 +23.3%

1995 3,550,114 +14.6%

2000 3,834,141 +8.0%

2005 4,199,292 +9.5%

2010 4,653,458 +10.8%

2015[12] 5,119,504 +10.0%

As of 2015, Nuevo León's population was about 5.119 million. Of these over 90%, or about 4.7 million, of the state's population resides within the Monterrey
Monterrey
Metropolitan area, making it the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is high, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women. Ninety-four percent of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% is mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountain regions. Following the nation's tendency, a majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic. Major communities[edit]

Apodaca Cadereyta Jiménez Ciudad Benito Juárez Doctor Arroyo General Escobedo Guadalupe Linares Monterrey Pesquería Sabinas Hidalgo San Nicolás de los Garza San Pedro Garza García Santa Catarina

Education[edit]

Biotechnology
Biotechnology
center of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.

The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree.[citation needed] In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.[citation needed] Institutions of higher education include:

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
Monterrey
(ITESM) Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
(UANL) Centro de Estudios Universitarios (CEU) Universidad Regiomontana
Universidad Regiomontana
(UR) Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey(UMM) Universidad de Monterrey
Monterrey
(UDEM) Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey
Monterrey
(CEDIM) Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey
Monterrey
(FLDM)

Economy[edit]

Wind turbines at the Parques Eólicos Ventika located in General Bravo. The wind-power complex has the capacity to produce 252 megawatts per hour and can meet the electricity demand of some 630,000 homes.

Highly industrialized, Nuevo León
Nuevo León
possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP
GDP
of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP
GDP
per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP
GDP
per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700).[13][14] One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex
Cemex
(one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte
Banorte
(the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA
FEMSA
(Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).

The facilities of the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma
Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma
brewery in Nuevo Leon are the single largest producer of alcoholic beverages in the world.

Nuevo León
Nuevo León
also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Terán
General Terán
and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy. In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León
Nuevo León
and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo
Doctor Arroyo
and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock. As of 2010, Nuevo León’s economy represents 11.4% of Mexico’s total gross domestic product or 165 billion USD.[15] Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[16] Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León
Nuevo León
was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005.[citation needed] In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey
Monterrey
at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey’s International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park’s objectives.[17][18] Government[edit] Main article: Politics and government of Nuevo León

Nuevo León Gubernatorial Election 2003

PRI/PVEM 24,567

PAN 491,973

PT 72,620

PRD 14,934

NL Collections 851,250

See also: List of political parties in Mexico

Official name Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León
Nuevo León
(Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León). Official motto Latin: Semper Ascendens (Always Ascending). Type of government Republican and representative according to 30th article of the local constitution. Executive In 6 July 2003 gubernatorial election, Alianza Ciudadana – an electoral alliance between the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Institutional Revolutionary Party
(PRI) and the Green Ecological Party of Mexico
Mexico
(PVEM) – regained control of the state from President Fox's party National Action Party (PAN). The new governor, Natividad González Parás
Natividad González Parás
of the PRI, was sworn in on 4 October 2003 for a period of six years. Cabinet Chosen directly by the Governor
Governor
except for the General Comptroller and the State General Attorney, which are elected by Congress from a list of names provided by the Governor. Legislative The State has a unicameral chamber. The LXXI Congress of Nuevo León is composed of 42 deputies, 26 of them chosen by first-past-the-post electoral districts and 16 of them by proportional representation on a party-list basis. The parties represented are the PRI with 15 deputies, the PAN with 22 deputies, the Partido del Trabajo
Partido del Trabajo
(PT) with two deputies, the Party of the Democratic Revolution
Party of the Democratic Revolution
(PRD) with one, and the New Alliance party (PANAL) with two deputies. Judiciary Judicial power rests in the Superior Court of Justice of Nuevo León, led by Minister Gustavo Adolfo Guerrero
Guerrero
Gutiérrez. Political parties Official recognition is given by the State Electoral Commission to those parties getting more than 1.5% of the votes in the last election (Art.40 of the State Electoral Law), which are the ones represented in Congress.

Municipalities[edit] Nuevo León
Nuevo León
is divided into 51 municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Nuevo León. Largest cities[edit]

City City Population[19] Metropolitan Population[20] Metropolitan area type

Monterrey 1,135,550 4,570,577 Municipality

Guadalupe 678,006 N/A Part of Greater Monterrey

Apodaca 523,270

San Nicolás de los Garza 443,273

General Escobedo 357,256

Santa Catarina 270,790

Juarez 256,454

García 143,668

San Pedro Garza García 119,017

Climate[edit] Nuevo León
Nuevo León
has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey
Monterrey
the climate is hot semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less.

Monterrey

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    15     20 10

    16     22 12

    18     27 15

    29     30 18

    43     32 22

    64     34 23

    54     35 24

    62     35 24

    133     32 22

    72     28 18

    26     24 14

    16     21 11

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.6     68 50

    0.6     72 54

    0.7     81 59

    1.1     86 64

    1.7     90 72

    2.5     93 73

    2.1     95 75

    2.4     95 75

    5.2     90 72

    2.8     82 64

    1     75 57

    0.6     70 52

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Anáhuac

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    27     18 5

    21     22 7

    14     26 10

    50     29 15

    76     33 20

    46     36 23

    43     38 25

    34     37 25

    54     33 22

    61     29 15

    23     23 10

    22     19 6

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07), INEGI, 2006 report

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    1.1     64 41

    0.8     72 45

    0.6     79 50

    2     84 59

    3     91 68

    1.8     97 73

    1.7     100 77

    1.3     99 77

    2.1     91 72

    2.4     84 59

    0.9     73 50

    0.9     66 43

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Flora and fauna[edit]

Flora and fauna of Nuevo León

Vulpes macrotis Ursus americanus Cardinalis cardinalis Mephitis macroura Aquila chrysaetos

Cyanocitta stelleri Pecari tajacu Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori Tachybaptus dominicus Antilocapra americana

Carya illinoinensis Dioon edule Cercis canadensis Aztekium ritteri Pinus culminicola

Twinning and Covenants[edit] The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities.[21]

British Columbia, Canada Quebec, Canada Texas, United States[22] Catalonia, Spain[23][24][25] Lombardy, Italy State of Mexico, Mexico Jalisco, Mexico Coahuila, Mexico

See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal Latin America portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

Fiestas of Nuevo León History of Nuevo León Sierra de Picachos

Sources[edit]

Human Development Report for Mexico
Mexico
2002 Historia de Nuevo León
Nuevo León
by Israel Cavazos (in Spanish) Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México (in Spanish) Comisión Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León
Nuevo León
(in Spanish) Ley Estatal Electoral de Nuevo León, 1996 (in Spanish)

References[edit]

^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15.  ^ "Senadores por Nuevo León
Nuevo León
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved March 29, 2010.  ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Nuevo León". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved March 28, 2010.  ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.  ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2011.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.  ^ "Jalisco". 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.  ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982. ^ En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810–1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-08.  ^ INEGI, Población total por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000 y 2005 and PIB estatal ^ http://sg.nl.gob.mx/DataNL/files%5CDNL00000431.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
– A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 96.  ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico
Mexico
– A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico
Mexico
City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92.  ^ "Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT". Archived from the original on 2009-03-07.  ^ "Monterrey, city of knowledge".  ^ Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010 ^ 2010 U.S. Census Data and Link to tables of population data from Census of 2010 ^ http://www.sre.gob.mx/coordinacionpolitica/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=159&Itemid=333 ^ http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2010/05/28/politica/014n3pol ^ http://www.info7.com.mx/a/noticia/56275 ^ http://info7.mx/a/noticia/56329 ^ http://www.publimetro.com.mx/noticias/video-nuevo-leon-y-cataluna-tierras-hermanas/mler!BroAapUDlwndo/

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nuevo León.

Geographic data related to Nuevo León
Nuevo León
at OpenStreetMap Nuevo León
Nuevo León
State Government (in Spanish)

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State of Nuevo León

Monterrey
Monterrey
(capital)

Topics

Architecture Climate Cuisine Culture Demographics Economy Education Geography Government History Literature Politics Sports New Leonese Transportation Tourist Attractions

Municipalities

Abasolo Agualeguas Allende Anáhuac Apodaca Aramberri Bustamante Cadereyta Jiménez El Carmen Cerralvo China Ciénega de Flores Doctor Arroyo Doctor Coss Doctor González Galeana García General Bravo General Escobedo General Terán General Treviño General Zaragoza General Zuazua Guadalupe Hidalgo Higueras Hualahuises Iturbide Juárez Lampazos de Naranjo Linares Los Aldama Los Herreras Los Ramones Marín Melchor Ocampo Mier y Noriega Mina Montemorelos Monterrey Parás Pesquería Rayones Sabinas Hidalgo Salinas Victoria San Nicolás de los Garza San Pedro Garza García Santa Catarina Santiago Vallecillo Villaldama

Regions

Monterrey
Monterrey
metropolitan area Peripheral Region Northern Nuevo León Salinas Valley Citrícola Region Pilón Valley Southern Nuevo León Río Blanco Valley

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States of Mexico

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Baja California
Sur Campeche Chiapas Chihuahua Coahuila Colima Durango Guanajuato Guerrero Hidalgo Jalisco México Mexico
Mexico
City Michoacán Morelos Nayarit Nuevo León Oaxaca Puebla Querétaro San Luis Potosí Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas Tlaxcala Veracruz Zacatecas Quintana Ro

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