NETWARE is a computer network operating system developed by Novell,
Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various
services on a personal computer, using the IPX network protocol.
NetWare product in 1983, supported clients running both
MS-DOS , ran over a proprietary star network topology and was
based on a Novell-built file server using the
processor, but the company soon moved away from building its own
NetWare became hardware-independent, running on any
IBM PC compatible system, and a wide range of
network cards. From the beginning
NetWare implemented a number of
features inspired by mainframe and minicomputer systems that were not
available in its competitors.
In the early 1990s,
Novell introduced separate cheaper networking
products, unrelated to classic NetWare. These were
NetWare Lite 1.0
(NWL), and later
Personal NetWare 1.0 (PNW) in 1993.
In 1993, the main product line took a dramatic turn when Version 4
NetWare Directory Services (NDS), a global directory
service similar to the
Active Directory that
Microsoft would release
seven years later. This, along with a new e-mail system, GroupWise ,
application configuration suite, ZENworks , and security product
BorderManager were all targeted at the needs of large enterprises.
By 2000, however,
Microsoft was taking more of Novell's customer base
Novell increasingly looked to a future based on a
Linux kernel .
The successor to NetWare,
Open Enterprise Server (OES), released in
March 2005, offered all the services previously hosted by NetWare
v6.5, but on a
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server ; the
remained an option until OES 11 in late 2011.
The final update release was version 6.5SP8 of May 2009; Netware is
no longer on Novell's product list.
NetWare 6.5SP8 General Support
ended in 2010, with Extended Support until the end of 2015, and Self
Support until the end of 2017. The replacement is Open Enterprise
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early years
NetWare 286 2.x
* 1.6 Strategic mistakes
NetWare 4.1x and
NetWare for Small Business
Open Enterprise Server
* 1.11.1 1.0
* 1.11.2 2.0
* 1.12 From the 1990s
NetWare Lite /
* 2 Performance
* 2.1 File service instead of disk service
* 2.2 Aggressive caching
* 2.3 Efficiency of
NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
* 2.4 Non-preemptive OS designed for network services
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 Further reading
* 6 External links
NetWare evolved from a very simple concept: file sharing instead of
disk sharing. In 1983 when the first versions of
all other competing products were based on the concept of providing
shared direct disk access. Novell's alternative approach was validated
IBM in 1984, which helped promote the
NetWare shared disk space in the form of
DOS volumes. Clients running
MS-DOS would run a special
terminate and stay resident (TSR) program that allowed them to map a
local drive letter to a
NetWare volume. Clients had to log into a
server in order to be allowed to map volumes, and access could be
restricted according to the login name. Similarly, they could connect
to shared printers on the dedicated server, and print as if the
printer was connected locally.
At the end of the 1990s, with Internet connectivity booming, the
TCP/IP protocol became dominant on LANs .
TCP/IP support in
NetWare v3.x (circa 1992) and
v4.x (circa 1995), consisting mainly of FTP services and UNIX-style
LPR/LPD printing (available in
NetWare v3.x), and a Novell-developed
NetWare v4.x). Native
TCP/IP support for the client file
and print services normally associated with
NetWare was introduced in
NetWare v5.0 (released in 1998).
During the early to mid-1980s
Microsoft introduced their own LAN
LAN Manager , based on the competing NBF protocol. Early
attempts to muscle in on
NetWare failed, but this changed with the
inclusion of improved networking support in
Windows for Workgroups
Windows for Workgroups ,
and then the hugely successful
Windows NT and
Windows 95 . NT, in
particular, offered services similar to those offered by NetWare, but
on a system that could also be used on a desktop, and connected
directly to other Windows desktops where NBF was now almost universal.
NetWare originated from consulting work by
SuperSet Software , a
group founded by the friends
Drew Major , Dale Neibaur, Kyle Powell
and later Mark Hurst. This work stemmed from their classwork at
Brigham Young University in
Provo, Utah , starting in October 1981.
Raymond Noorda engaged the work by the SuperSet team. The
team was originally assigned to create a
CP/M disk sharing system to
help network the
68000 hardware that
Novell sold at the
time. The first S-Net was
CP/M-68K based and shared a hard disk. In
1983, the team was privately convinced that
CP/M was a doomed platform
and instead came up with a successful file-sharing system for the
newly introduced IBM-compatible PC . They also wrote an application
called Snipes – a text-mode game – and used it to test the new
network and demonstrate its capabilities. Snipes was the first
network application ever written for a commercial personal computer,
and it is recognized as one of the precursors of many popular
multiplayer games such as Doom and Quake .
First called ShareNet or S-Net, this network operating system (NOS)
was later called
NetWare was based on the
Protocol (NCP), which is a packet-based protocol that enables a client
to send requests to and receive replies from a
Initially NCP was directly tied to the
IPX/SPX protocol, and NetWare
communicated natively using only IPX/SPX.
The first product to bear the
NetWare name was released in 1983.
There were two distinct versions of
NetWare at that time. One version
was designed to run on the
Intel 8086 processor and another on the
Motorola processor which was called
NetWare 68K (aka S-Net ); it ran
68000 processor on a proprietary Novell-built file
Novell could not write an original network operating system
from scratch so they licensed a
Unix kernel and based
NetWare on that
) and used a star network topology . This was soon joined by NetWare
86 V4.x, which was written for the
Intel 8086 . This was replaced in
1985 with Advanced
NetWare 86 version 1.0a which allowed more than one
server on the same network. In 1986, after the
Intel 80286 processor
Novell released Advanced
NetWare 286 V1.0a. Two
versions were offered for sale; the basic version was sold as ELS I
and the more enhanced version was sold as ELS II. The acronym ELS was
used to identify this new product line as Netware's Entry Level
NETWARE 286 2.X
NetWare version 2.x, launched in 1986, was written for the
then-new 80286 CPU. The 80286 CPU featured a new
16-bit protected mode
that provided access to up to 16 MB RAM as well as new mechanisms to
aid multi-tasking. (Prior to the 80286, PC CPU servers used the Intel
8086 8 /
16-bit processors, which were limited to an address
space of 1 MB with not more than 640 KB of directly addressable RAM.)
The combination of a higher 16 MB RAM limit, 80286 processor feature
utilization, and 256 MB
NetWare volume size limit (compared to the 32
MS-DOS allowed at that time) allowed the building of reliable,
cost-effective server-based local area networks for the first time.
The 16 MB RAM limit was especially important, since it made enough RAM
available for disk caching to significantly improve performance. This
became the key to Novell's performance while also allowing larger
networks to be built.
In a significant innovation,
NetWare 286 was also
hardware-independent, unlike competing network server systems. Novell
servers could be assembled using any brand system with an Intel 80286
CPU, any MFM , RLL , ESDI , or
SCSI hard drive and any 8- or 16-bit
network adapter for which
NetWare drivers were available – and 18
different manufacturer's network cards were supported at launch.
A server could support up to four network cards, and these could be
a mixture of technologies such as
Token Ring and
The operating system was provided as a set of compiled object modules
that required configuration and linking. Any change to the operating
system required a re-linking of the kernel . Installation also
required the use of a proprietary low-level format program for MFM
hard drives called COMPSURF.
The file system used by
NetWare 2.x was
NetWare File System 286, or
NWFS 286, supporting volumes of up to 256 MB.
NetWare 286 recognized
80286 protected mode , extending NetWare's support of RAM from 1 MB to
the full 16 MB addressable by the 80286. A minimum of 2 MB was
required to start up the operating system; any additional RAM was used
for FAT, DET and file caching. Since
16-bit protected mode was
implemented the i80286 and every subsequent
Intel x86 processor,
NetWare 286 version 2.x would run on any 80286 or later compatible
NetWare 2.x implemented a number of features inspired by mainframe
and minicomputer systems that were not available in other operating
systems of the day. The
System Fault Tolerance (SFT) features included
standard read-after-write verification (SFT-I) with on-the-fly bad
block re-mapping (at the time, disks did not have that feature built
in) and software
RAID1 (disk mirroring, SFT-II). The Transaction
Tracking System (TTS) optionally protected files against incomplete
updates. For single files, this required only a file attribute to be
set. Transactions over multiple files and controlled roll-backs were
possible by programming to the TTS
NetWare 286 2.x normally required a dedicated PC to act as the
server, where the server used
DOS only as a boot loader to execute the
operating system file net$os.exe. All memory was allocated to NetWare;
DOS ran on the server. However, a "non-dedicated" version was also
available for price-conscious customers. In this,
DOS 3.3 or higher
would remain in memory, and the processor would time-slice between the
NetWare programs, allowing the server computer to be used
simultaneously as a network file server and as a user workstation.
Because all extended memory (RAM above 1 MB) was allocated to NetWare,
DOS was limited to only 640 KB; expanded memory managers that used the
MMU of 80386 and higher processors, such as EMM386, would not work;
8086-style expanded memory on dedicated plug-in cards was possible
however. Time slicing was accomplished using the keyboard interrupt ,
which required strict compliance with the
IBM PC design model,
otherwise performance was affected.
Server licensing on early versions of
NetWare 286 was accomplished by
using a key card. The key card was designed for an
8-bit ISA bus, and
had a serial number encoded on a ROM chip. The serial number had to
match the serial number of the
NetWare software running on the server.
To broaden the hardware base, particularly to machines using the IBM
MCA bus, later versions of
NetWare 2.x did not require the key card;
serialised license floppy disks were used in place of the key cards.
Licensing was normally for 100 users, but two ELS (Entry Level
System) versions were also available. First a 5-user ELS in 1987, and
followed by the 8-user ELS 2.12 II in 1988.
NetWare's 3.x range was a major step forward. It began with v3.0 in
1990, followed quickly by v3.10 and v3.11 in 1991.
A key feature was support for
32-bit protected mode , eliminating the
16 MB memory limit of
NetWare 286 and therefore allowing larger hard
drives to be supported (since
NetWare 3.x cached the entire file
allocation table and directory entry table into memory for improved
NetWare version 3.x was also much simpler to install, with disk and
network support provided by software modules called a
Module (NLM) loaded either at start-up or when it was needed. NLMs
could also add functionality such as anti-virus software, backup
software, database and web servers. Support for long filenames was
also provided by an NLM.
A new file system was introduced by
NetWare 3.x – "
System 386", or NWFS 386, which significantly extended volume capacity
(1 TB, 4 GB files), and could handle up to 16 volume segments spanning
multiple physical disk drives. Volume segments could be added while
the server was in use and the volume was mounted, allowing a server to
be expanded without interruption.
NetWare 386 3.x all NLMs ran on the server at the same level of
processor memory protection , known as "ring 0 ". This provided the
best possible performance, it sacrificed reliability because there was
no memory protection, and furthermore
NetWare 3.x used a co-operative
multitasking model, meaning that an NLM was required to yield to the
kernel regularly. For either of these reasons a badly behaved NLM
could result in a fatal (ABEND ) error.
NetWare continued to be administered using console-based utilities.
For a while,
Novell also marketed an OEM version of
NetWare 3, called
PORTABLE NETWARE, together with OEMs such as
Hewlett-Packard , DEC and
Data General , who ported
Novell source code to run on top of their
Unix operating systems. Portable
NetWare did not sell well.
NetWare 3.x was current,
Novell introduced its first
high-availability clustering system, named NETWARE SFT-III, which
allowed a logical server to be completely mirrored to a separate
physical machine. Implemented as a shared-nothing cluster, under
SFT-III the OS was logically split into an interrupt-driven I/O engine
and the event-driven OS core. The I/O engines serialized their
interrupts (disk, network etc.) into a combined event stream that was
fed to two identical copies of the system engine through a fast
(typically 100 Mbit/s) inter-server link. Because of its
non-preemptive nature, the OS core, stripped of non-deterministic I/O,
behaves deterministically, like a large finite state machine . The
outputs of the two system engines were compared to ensure proper
operation, and two copies fed back to the I/O engines. Using the
existing SFT-II software RAID functionality present in the core, disks
could be mirrored between the two machines without special hardware.
The two machines could be separated as far as the server-to-server
link would permit. In case of a server or disk failure, the surviving
server could take over client sessions transparently after a short
pause since it had full state information. SFT-III was the first
NetWare version able to make use of SMP hardware – the I/O engine
could optionally be run on its own CPU.
NetWare SFT-III, ahead of its
time in several ways, was a mixed success.
NetWare 3 an improved routing protocol,
NetWare Link Services
Protocol , has been introduced which scales better than Routing
Information Protocol and allows building large networks.
Version 4 in 1993 introduced
NetWare Directory Services, later
Novell Directory Services (NDS), based on
X.500 , which
replaced the Bindery with a global directory service , in which the
infrastructure was described and managed in a single place.
Additionally, NDS provided an extensible schema , allowing the
introduction of new object types. This allowed a single user
authentication to NDS to govern access to any server in the directory
tree structure. Users could therefore access network resources no
matter on which server they resided, although user license counts were
still tied to individual servers. (Large enterprises could opt for a
license model giving them essentially unlimited per-server users if
Novell audit their total user count)
Version 4 also introduced a number of useful tools and features, such
as transparent compression at file system level and RSA public/private
Another new feature was the
NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface
(NASI). It allowed network sharing of multiple serial devices, such as
modems . Client port redirection occurred via an
MS-DOS or Microsoft
Windows driver allowing companies to consolidate modems and analog
The upgrade was not without its flaws – initially
NetWare 4 could
not coexist with earlier versions on the same network because of
NETWARE FOR OS/2
Promised as early as 1988, when the Microsoft-
IBM collaboration was
still ongoing and
OS/2 1.x was still a
16-bit product, the product
didn't become commercially available until after
parted ways and
OS/2 2.0 had become a 32-bit, pre-emptive multitasking
and multithreading OS.
By August 1993,
Novell released its first version of "
OS/2". This first release supported
OS/2 2.1 (1993) as the base OS,
and required that users first buy and install
IBM OS/2, then purchase
NetWare 4.01, and then install the
OS/2 product. It
retailed for $200.
By around 1995, and coincidental with IBM´s renewed marketing push
OS/2 Warp OS, both as a desktop client and as a LAN
OS/2 Warp Server),
OS/2 began receiving some good
press coverage. "
NetWare 4.1 for OS/2" allowed to run Novell´s
network stack and server modules on top of IBM´s
32-bit kernel and
network stack. It was basically
NetWare 4.x running as a service on
top of OS/2. It was compatible with third party client and server
NetWare Loadable Modules .
OS/2 included Netbios,
IPX/SPX and TCP/IP
support, this means that sysadmins could run all three most popular
network stacks on a single box, and use the
OS/2 box as a workstation
OS/2 shared memory on the system with OS/2
seamlessly. The book "Client Server survival Guide with OS/2"
described it as "glue code that lets the unmodified
NetWare 4.x server
program think it owns all resources on a
OS/2 system". It also claimed
NetWare server running on top of
OS/2 only suffered a 5% to 10%
NetWare running over the bare metal hardware, while
gaining OS/2´s pre-emptive multitasking and object oriented GUI.
Novell continued releasing bugfixes and updates to
NetWare for OS/2
up to 1998
Novell's strategy with
NetWare 286 2.x and 3.x proved very
successful; before the arrival of
Windows NT Server,
90% of the market for PC based servers.
While the design of
NetWare 3.x and later involved a
DOS partition to
NetWare server files, this feature became a liability as new
users preferred the Windows graphical interface to learning DOS
commands necessary to build and control a
have eliminated this technical liability by retaining the design of
NetWare 286, which installed the server file into a
and allowed the server to boot from the
Novell partition without
creating a bootable
Novell finally added support for
this in a Support Pack for
IPX/SPX instead of
TCP/IP , they were poorly
positioned to take advantage of the Internet in 1995. This resulted in
Novell servers being bypassed for routing and Internet access in favor
of hardware routers,
Unix -based operating systems such as
and SOCKS and HTTP Proxy Servers on Windows and other operating
NETWARE 4.1X AND NETWARE FOR SMALL BUSINESS
NetWare 4.10 similarly to
NetWare 3.12, allowing
customers who resisted NDS (typically small businesses) to try it at
NetWare version 4.11 in 1996 which included
many enhancements that made the operating system easier to install,
easier to operate, faster, and more stable. It also included the first
32-bit client for
Microsoft Windows -based workstations, SMP
support and the
NetWare Administrator (NWADMIN or NWADMN32), a
GUI-based administration tool for NetWare. Previous administration
tools used the Cworthy interface, the character-based
GUI tools such
as SYSCON and PCONSOLE with blue text-based background. Some of these
tools survive to this day, for instance MONITOR.NLM.
NetWare 4.11 with its Web server,
TCP/IP support and
Netscape browser into a bundle dubbed INTRANETWARE (also written
as intraNetWare). A version designed for networks of 25 or fewer users
was named INTRANETWARE FOR SMALL BUSINESS and contained a limited
version of NDS and tried to simplify NDS administration. The
intranetWare name was dropped in
During this time
Novell also began to leverage its directory service,
NDS, by tying their other products into the directory. Their e-mail
system, GroupWise , was integrated with NDS, and
Novell released many
other directory-enabled products such as ZENworks and BorderManager .
NetWare still required
IPX/SPX as NCP used it, but
Novell started to
acknowledge the demand for
NetWare 4.11 by including tools
and utilities that made it easier to create intranets and link
networks to the Internet.
Novell bundled tools, such as the IPX/IP
gateway, to ease the connection between IPX workstations and IP
networks. It also began integrating Internet technologies and support
through features such as a natively hosted web server .
With the release of
NetWare 5 in October 1998
Novell switched its
primary NCP interface from the
IPX/SPX network protocol to
meet market demand. Products continued to support IPX/SPX, but the
emphasis shifted to TCP/IP. New features included:
GUI for NetWare
Novell Storage Services (NSS), a file system to replace the
NetWare File System (which
Novell continued to support)
Java virtual machine for NetWare
Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS), an infrastructure for
printing over networks
* ConsoleOne, a Java-based
GUI administration console
Public key infrastructure services (PKIS)
* directory-enabled DNS and DHCP servers
* support for Storage Area Networks (SANs)
Novell Cluster Services (NCS), a replacement for SFT-III
* Oracle 8i with a 5-user license
The Cluster Services improved on SFT-III, as NCS did not require
specialized hardware or identical server configurations.
NetWare 5 during a time when NetWare's market share
had started dropping precipitously; many companies and organizations
NetWare servers with servers running
Windows NT operating system.
Around this time
Novell also released their last upgrade to the
NetWare 4 operating system,
NetWare 5 and above supported
Novell NetStorage for Internet-based
access to files stored within NetWare.
NetWare 5.1 in January 2000. It introduced a number
of tools, such as:
IBM WebSphere Application Server
Portal (later called
Novell Remote Manager),
web-based management of the operating system
* FTP , NNTP and streaming-media servers
NetWare Web Search Server
NetWare 6 was released in October 2001, shortly after its
predecessor. This version has a simplified licensing scheme based on
users, not server connections. This allows unlimited connections per
user to any number of
NetWare servers in the network.
Services was also improved to support 32-node clusters; the base
NetWare 6.0 product included a two-node clustering license.
NetWare 6.5 was released in August 2003. Some of the new features in
this version included:
* more open-source products such as
* a port of the Bash shell and a lot of traditional
such as wget , grep , awk and sed to provide additional capabilities
SCSI support (both target and initiator)
* Virtual Office – an "out of the box" web portal for end users
providing access to e-mail, personal file storage, company address
Domain controller functionality
* Universal password
* DirXML Starter Pack – synchronization of user accounts with
another eDirectory tree, a
Windows NT domain or Active Directory.
* exteNd Application Server – a
Java EE 1.3-compatible application
* support for customized printer driver profiles and printer usage
NX bit support
* support for USB storage devices
* support for encrypted volumes
The latest – and apparently last – Service Pack for
is SP8, released May 2009.
OPEN ENTERPRISE SERVER
Novell Open Enterprise Server
Novell announced the successor product to NetWare: Open
Enterprise Server (OES). First released in March 2005, OES completes
the separation of the services traditionally associated with NetWare
(such as Directory Services, and file-and-print) from the platform
underlying the delivery of those services. OES is essentially a set of
NetWare Core Protocol services, iPrint,
etc.) that can run atop either a
Linux or a
NetWare kernel platform.
Clustered OES implementations can even migrate services from
NetWare and back again, making
Novell one of the very few vendors to
offer a multi-platform clustering solution.
Consequent to Novell's acquisitions of
SuSE , a German
Linux distributor, it is widely observed that
Novell is moving away
NetWare and shifting its focus towards Linux. Much recent
marketing seems to be focussed on getting faithful
NetWare users to
move to the
Linux platform in future releases. The clearest
indication of this direction is Novell's controversial decision to
Open Enterprise Server in
Linux form only.
watered down this decision and stated that NetWare's 90 million users
would be supported until at least 2015. Meanwhile, many former
NetWare customers rejected Novell's
Linux efforts for other
Red Hat . Some of Novell's
NetWare supporters have
taken it upon themselves to petition
Novell to keep
OES 2 was released on October 8, 2007. It includes
NetWare 6.5 SP7,
which supports running as a paravirtualized guest inside the Xen
hypervisor and new
Linux based version using SLES10. New features
* 64-bit support
* Dynamic Storage Technology, which provide Shadow Volumes
* Domain services for Windows (provided in OES 2 service pack 1)
FROM THE 1990S
As of 2010 some organizations still used
Novell NetWare, but it had
started to lose popularity from the mid-1990s, when
NetWare was the de
facto standard for file- and printer-sharing software for the Intel
x86 server platform.
Microsoft successfully took market share from
NetWare products from
the late-1990s. Microsoft's more aggressive marketing was aimed
directly at non-technical management through major magazines, while
Novell NetWare's was through more technical magazines read by IT
Novell did not adapt their pricing structure to current market
NetWare sales suffered, with many existing Netware
users, in addition to new users, migrating to
NETWARE LITE / PERSONAL NETWARE
Novell introduced a radically different and cheaper product,
NetWare Lite 1.0 (NWL), in answer to Artisoft's similar
Both were peer-to-peer systems, where no specialist server was
required, but instead all PCs on the network could share their
The product was upgraded to
NetWare Lite 1.1 and also came bundled
with some issues of
DR DOS 6.0. Some components of
NetWare Lite were
used in Novell's
PalmDOS 1.0 in 1992.
Significantly reworked, the product line became
Personal NetWare 1.0
(PNW) in 1993. The ODI /VLM (for Open Datalink Interface )
client portion of the drivers now supported individually loadable VLMs
for an improved flexibility and customizability, whereas the server
portion could utilize Novell's DPMS (
DOS Protected Mode Services ), if
loaded, to reduce its conventional memory footprint and run in
extended memory and protected mode . The
NetWare Lite disk cache
NLCACHE had been reworked into NWCACHE , which was easier to set up
and could utilize DPMS as well, thereby reducing the
footprint and significantly speeding up disk performance. Personal
NetWare came bundled with the network-enabled game
Personal NetWare 1.0 product saw five maintenance upgrades as
well as various comprehensive updates to the corresponding VLM client
driver suite (1.0, 1.1, 1.20, 1.21) as part of the
Novell Client Kit
The reasons for NetWare's performance advantage are given below.
FILE SERVICE INSTEAD OF DISK SERVICE
When first developed, nearly all LAN storage was based on the disk
server model. This meant that if a client computer wanted to read a
particular block from a particular file it would have to issue the
following requests across the relatively slow LAN:
* Read first block of directory
* Continue reading subsequent directory blocks until the directory
block containing the information on the desired file was found, could
be many directory blocks
* Read through multiple file entry blocks until the block containing
the location of the desired file block was found, could be many
* Read the desired data block
NetWare, since it was based on a file service model, interacted with
the client at the file
* Send file open request (if this hadn't already been done)
* Send a request for the desired data from the file
All of the work of searching the directory to figure out where the
desired data was physically located on the disk was performed at high
speed locally on the server. By the mid-1980s, most NOS products had
shifted from the disk service to the file service model. Today, the
disk service model is making a comeback, see SAN .
From the start, the
NetWare design focused on servers with copious
amounts of RAM. The entire file allocation table (FAT) was read into
RAM when a volume was mounted, thereby requiring a minimum amount of
RAM proportional to online disk space; adding a disk to a server would
often require a RAM upgrade as well. Unlike most competing network
operating systems prior to Windows NT,
NetWare automatically used all
otherwise unused RAM for caching active files, employing delayed
write-backs to facilitate re-ordering of disk requests (elevator seeks
). An unexpected shutdown could therefore corrupt data, making an
uninterruptible power supply practically a mandatory part of a server
The default dirty cache delay time was fixed at 2.2 seconds in
NetWare 286 versions 2.x. Starting with
NetWare 386 3.x, the dirty
disk cache delay time and dirty directory cache delay time settings
controlled the amount of time the server would cache changed ("dirty")
data before saving (flushing) the data to a hard drive. The default
setting of 3.3 seconds could be decreased to 0.5 seconds but not
reduced to zero, while the maximum delay was 10 seconds. The option to
increase the cache delay to 10 seconds provided a significant
performance boost. Windows 2000 and 2003 server do not allow
adjustment to the cache delay time. Instead, they use an algorithm
that adjusts cache delay.
EFFICIENCY OF NETWARE CORE PROTOCOL (NCP)
Most network protocols in use at the time
NetWare was developed
didn't trust the network to deliver messages. A typical client file
read would work something like this:
* Client sends read request to server
* Server acknowledges request
* Client acknowledges acknowledgement
* Server sends requested data to client
* Client acknowledges data
* Server acknowledges acknowledgement
In contrast, NCP was based on the idea that networks worked perfectly
most of the time, so the reply to a request served as the
acknowledgement. Here is an example of a client read request using
* Client sends read request to server
* Server sends requested data to client
All requests contained a sequence number, so if the client didn't
receive a response within an appropriate amount of time it would
re-send the request with the same sequence number. If the server had
already processed the request it would resend the cached response, if
it had not yet had time to process the request it would only send a
"positive acknowledgement". The bottom line to this 'trust the
network' approach was a 2/3 reduction in network transactions and the
NON-PREEMPTIVE OS DESIGNED FOR NETWORK SERVICES
One of the raging debates of the 90s was whether it was more
appropriate for network file service to be performed by a software
layer running on top of a general purpose operating system, or by a
special purpose operating system.
NetWare was a special purpose
operating system, not a timesharing OS. It was written from the ground
up as a platform for client-server processing services. Initially it
focused on file and print services, but later demonstrated its
flexibility by running database, email, web and other services as
well. It also performed efficiently as a router, supporting IPX,
TCP/IP, and Appletalk, though it never offered the flexibility of a
In 4.x and earlier versions,
NetWare did not support preemption ,
virtual memory , graphical user interfaces , etc. Processes and
services running under the
NetWare OS were expected to be cooperative,
that is to process a request and return control to the OS in a timely
fashion. On the down side, this trust of application processes to
manage themselves could lead to a misbehaving application bringing
down the server.
Comparison of operating systems
* ^ "Products".
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Novell Product Support Lifecycle search page; search for
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NetWare 5 Ships Next Month PCWorld
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* ^ InformationWeek News Connects The Business Technology
Community. Informationweek.com. Retrieved on May 23, 2014. Archived
December 5, 2000, at the
Wayback Machine . "'The market has spoken,
TCP/IP has won,' says
Eric Schmidt of the move to IP, a
decision that was bitterly contested inside the company."
* ^ Harris, Jeffrey (2005).
Novell Open Enterprise Server
Novell Press. Pearson
Education. ISBN 9780672332784 . Retrieved August 5, 2014. OES NetWare
Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) to provide a robust
network printing infrastructure. NDPS has been in use since
* ^ Kennard, Linda (December 9, 2004). "More More More: Novell
exteNd 5.2 and the Pursuit of SOA-Called Happiness".
Magazine. Novell. Retrieved May 25, 2010. NetStorage ships with
NetWare 6.5 and enables Internet-based access to files stored in
users' iFolders and on servers running
NetWare 5 and above.
* ^ Johnson, David; Gaskin, James E.; Cheung, Daniel; Tittel, Ed
NetWare 5.x to 6 upgrade. Exam cram 2. Que Publishing.
pp. 177, 426. ISBN 978-0-7897-2788-6 . Retrieved May 25, 2010.
NetStorage is a bridge between a company's private, internal Novell
network and the public Internet. Users can use NetStorage to securely
access files from any location that has Internet access, without
having to download or install additional software on the workstation.
* ^ "How does User Access Licensing differ from earlier versions of
NetWare 6.0 - NETWARE LICENSING FREQUENTLY
Novell Inc. March 2002. p. 7. Retrieved August 20,
2012. In previous versions of
NetWare ® , a Server Connection License
model is used, where users are granted access to network services on a
per-server basis. This means each time a user accesses services on a
different server, the user consumes a license unit on that server.
Printer connections also consume a connection license. In the NetWare
6 User Access License model, users consume a single User license (per
tree) regardless of the number of
NetWare 6 servers they log on to.
Printers that connect to a
NetWare 6 server do not consume a User
license. The same is true for all other non-User connections.
* ^ "Overview-Product Features" (PDF).
NetWare 6.0 - Novell
Cluster Services Overview and Installation. Provo, UT, USA: Novell
Inc. February 2002. p. 9. Retrieved August 20, 2012. Multinode
all-active cluster (up to 32 nodes). Any
NetWare server in the cluster
can restart resources (applications, services, IP addresses, and
volumes) from a failed server in the cluster
* ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (November 30, 2006). "Novell
Open Enterprise Server 2". eWeek . Retrieved
March 26, 2007.
* ^ Galli, Peter (March 20, 2006). "
Novell Pledges Support for
NetWare 6.5 at BrainShare". eWeek . Retrieved March 26, 2007.
* ^ Bray, Hiawatha (November 1, 2005). "
Novell trips over its Linux
strategy". The Boston Globe.
* ^ "Home - I Want NetWare!". iwantnetware.com.
* ^ "How the clammy claws of
NetWare were torn from today\'s
networks". The Register. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
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Linux boosts server OS market". CNET. CBS Interactive.
* ^ "