The Info List - Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(/ˌnoʊvə ˈskoʊʃə/; Latin for "New Scotland"; French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (45/sq mi).[1]


1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 History

3.1 Overview 3.2 17th and 18th centuries 3.3 19th century

4 Demography

4.1 Population since 1851 4.2 Counties by population 4.3 Ethnic
origins 4.4 Language 4.5 Religion

5 Economy 6 Government, law and politics 7 Culture

7.1 Fine arts 7.2 Film and television 7.3 Literature 7.4 Music 7.5 Sports 7.6 Cuisine 7.7 Events and festivals 7.8 Tourism

8 Education 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Etymology[edit] "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin[5] and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which also simply means "New Scotland". The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.[6] Geography[edit]

Looking over the narrowest part of the Annapolis Valley
Annapolis Valley
towards Bridgetown from Valleyview Provincial Park

Main article: Geography of Nova Scotia See also: List of provincial parks in Nova Scotia
List of provincial parks in Nova Scotia
and List of protected areas of Nova Scotia

Köppen climate types of Nova Scotia

Map of Nova Scotia.

Topography of Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is more than 67 km (42 mi) from the ocean.[7] Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks,[8] approximately 175 km (110 mi) from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are particularly rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils. The province contains 5,400 lakes.[9] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean.[10] However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
to the north, the Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
to the west, the Gulf of Maine
Gulf of Maine
to the southwest, and Atlantic Ocean to the east.[10]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Nova Scotia[11]

Location July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

Halifax 23/14 73/58 0/−8 32/17

Sydney 23/12 73/54 −1/−9 30/14

Kentville 25/14 78/57 −1/−10 29/14

Truro 24/13 75/55 −1/−12 29/9

Liverpool 25/14 77/57 0/–9 32/15

Shelburne 23/12 73/54 1/−8 33/17

Yarmouth 21/12 69/55 1/−7 33/19

History[edit] Main articles: History of Nova Scotia
History of Nova Scotia
and Military history of Nova Scotia Overview[edit] The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki (mi'gama'gi).[12] The Mi'kmaq people
Mi'kmaq people
inhabited Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
at the time the first European colonists arrived.[13] In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada
(and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.[14][15] The British conquest of Acadia
took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island (Île Royale) to the French. Present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Immediately after the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson
Francis Nicholson
announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal
Annapolis Royal
in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
moved from Annapolis Royal
Annapolis Royal
to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population (the Acadians) were forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians; New England Planters
New England Planters
arrived between 1759 and 1768 to replace them.

Port Royal, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, situated on the Annapolis River where it widens to form the Annapolis Basin

In 1763, most of Acadia
(Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists.[16] In 1867, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation.[17] 17th and 18th centuries[edit]

Fort Edward – the oldest blockhouse in North America (1750).

A View of Louisburg in North America, November 11, 1762.

The warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries significantly influenced the history of Nova Scotia.[18][need quotation to verify] The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for possession of the area. These encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John,[19] Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg (1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). The Acadian Civil War
Acadian Civil War
took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War
King William's War
in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French (and ultimately expelled much of their population) and made peace with the Mi'kmaq:

King William's War
King William's War
(1688–1697), Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
(1702–1713), Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War
(1722–1725), King George's War
King George's War
(1744–1748), Father Le Loutre’s War
Father Le Loutre’s War
(1749–1755) The Seven Years' War, also called the French and Indian War (1754–1763)

The battles during these wars took place primarily Port Royal, Saint John, Canso, Chignecto, Dartmouth (1751), Lunenburg (1756) and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia
in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq, who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso. The Mi'kmaq signed a series of peace and friendship treaties with Great Britain, beginning after Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War
(1725). In 1725, the British signed a treaty (or "agreement") with the Mi'kmaq, but the authorities[which?] have often disputed its definition of the rights of the Mi'kmaq to hunt and fish on their lands.[20][21]

Monument at Millbrook, near Truro, Nova Scotia
Truro, Nova Scotia
paying tribute to Glooscap--a legendary figure to Mi'kmaq people
Mi'kmaq people
of Nova Scotia.

A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War
Father Le Loutre's War
began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749.[22][23] A General Court, made up of the governor and the Council, was the highest court in the colony at the time.[24] Jonathan Belcher was sworn in as chief justice of the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Supreme Court on October 21, 1754.[24] The first legislative assembly in Halifax, under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on October 2, 1758.[25] During the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
of 1756-1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters
New England Planters
to resettle the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the Burial of the Hatchet Ceremony between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made treaties with the Mi’kmaq.

This church at Grand Pre, Nova Scotia, commemorates the beginning of the Acadian expulsion where the men were gathered to hear their fate from the British in 1755.

The American Revolution
American Revolution
(1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of Britain, and rebellion flared at the Battle of Fort Cumberland
Battle of Fort Cumberland
(1776) and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and looting almost every community outside of Halifax. These American raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into supporting the British. By the end of the war Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
had outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping.[26] British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia. However the British navy failed to establish naval supremacy. While the British captured many American privateers in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax
Naval battle off Halifax
(1782), many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely fought convoy battle, the Naval battle off Cape Breton
Naval battle off Cape Breton

An interpretive sign along the Heritage Trail at the Black Loyalist Heritage Society's Birchtown museum.

After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Tories or Loyalists (the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. (The British administration divided Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and carved out the present-day province of New Brunswick in 1784). The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
with additional capital and skills. However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters
New England Planters
settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. However unfair treatment and harsh conditions caused about one-third of the Black Loyalists to resettle in Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
in 1792, where they founded Freetown and became known in Africa as the Nova Scotian Settlers. 19th century[edit]

Statue of Joseph Howe, Province House, created by famed Quebec sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert

During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war effort involved communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels.[27] Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
occurred when HMS Shannon escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax. During this century, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
became the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire
British Empire
to achieve responsible government in January–February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe.[28] Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
had established representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated by the erection of the Dingle Tower in 1908.

Welsford-Parker Monument, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia
– the only Crimean War monument in North America

Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War
Crimean War
of 1853–1856.[29] The Welsford-Parker Monument
Welsford-Parker Monument
in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument in Canada
(1860) and the only Crimean War
Crimean War
monument in North America. It commemorates the 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol. Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the North.[30] The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) declared itself neutral in the conflict. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia's economy boomed during the Civil War. Soon after the American Civil War, Pro- Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
premier Charles Tupper
Charles Tupper
led Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
into the Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
on July 1, 1867, along with New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and the Province of Canada. The Anti-Confederation Party
Anti-Confederation Party
was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months later, in the election of September 18, 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay
Donald McKay
and William Dawson Lawrence. The fame Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum
Joshua Slocum
became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). International attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose
schooner. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate (born at Halifax, Nova Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line. Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. (Early in the 20th century Sobey's
was established, as was Maritime Life.) Demography[edit] Main article: Demographics of Nova Scotia Population since 1851[edit]

Year Population Five year  % change Ten year  % change

1851 276,854 n/a n/a

1861 330,857 n/a 19.5

1871 387,800 n/a 17.2

1881 440,572 n/a 13.6

1891 450,396 n/a 2.2

1901 459,574 n/a 2.0

1911 492,338 n/a 7.1

1921 523,837 n/a 6.4

1931 512,846 n/a −2.1

1941 577,962 n/a 12.7

1951 642,584 n/a 11.2

1956 694,717 8.1 n/a

1961 737,007 6.1 14.7

1966 756,039 2.6 8.8

1971 788,965 4.4 7.0

1976 828,570 5.0 9.6

1981 847,442 2.3 7.4

1986 873,175 3.0 5.4

1991 899,942 3.1 6.2

1996 909,282 1.0 4.1

2001 908,007 −0.1 0.9

2006 913,462 0.6 0.5

2011 921,727 0.9 1.5

2016 923,598 0.2 0.11

[31][32] Counties by population[edit]

Historical county[33] Historical county seat[34] Population (2016)[35] Population (2011)[35] Change [35] Land area (km²)[35] Population density[35] Highest Historical Population

Annapolis Annapolis Royal 20,591 20,756 3000205049142416649♠−0.8% 7003318848000000000♠3,188.48 6.5/km2 23,631 (1991)

Antigonish Antigonish 19,301 19,589 2999852978712542750♠−1.5% 7003145781000000000♠1,457.81 13.2/km2 19,589 (2011)

Cape Bretona Sydney 98,722 101,619 2999714915517767350♠−2.9% 7003247060000000000♠2,470.60 40.0/km2 131,507 (1961)

Colchester Truro 50,585 50,968 3000248548108617170♠−0.8% 7003362794000000000♠3,627.94 13.9/km2 50,968 (2011)

Cumberland Amherst 30,005 31,353 2999570057091825340♠−4.3% 7003427264999999999♠4,272.65 7.0/km2 41,191 (1921)

Digby Digby 17,323 18,036 2999604679529829230♠−4.0% 7003251523000000000♠2,515.23 6.9/km2 21,852 (1986)

Guysborough Guysborough 7,625 8,143 2999363870809284050♠−6.4% 7003404423000000000♠4,044.23 1.9/km2 18,320 (1901)

Halifaxb Halifax 403,390 390,328 7000334641634727720♠+3.3% 7003549571000000000♠5,495.71 73.4/km2 403,390 (2016)

Hants Windsor 42,558 42,304 6999600416036308630♠+0.6% 7003305173000000000♠3,051.73 13.9/km2 42,558 (2016)

Inverness Port Hood 17,235 17,947 2999603276313590010♠−4.0% 7003383040000000000♠3,830.40 4.5/km2 25,779 (1891)

Kings Kentville 60,600 60,589 5000000000000000000♠0.0% 7003212611000000000♠2,126.11 28.5/km2 60,600 (2016)

Lunenburg Lunenburg 47,126 47,313 3000604759791177900♠−0.4% 7003290990000000000♠2,909.90 16.2/km2 47,634 (1991)

Pictou Pictou 43,748 45,643 2999584821330762660♠−4.2% 7003284562000000000♠2,845.62 15.4/km2 50,350 (1981)

Queensc Liverpool 10,351 10,960 2999444343065693430♠−5.6% 7003239863000000000♠2,398.63 4.3/km2 13,126 (1981)

Richmond Arichat 8,964 9,293 2999645970085010220♠−3.5% 7003124424000000000♠1,244.24 7.2/km2 15,121 (1881)

Shelburne Shelburne 13,966 14,496 2999634381898454750♠−3.7% 7003246465000000000♠2,464.65 5.7/km2 17,516 (1986)

Victoria Baddeck 7,089 7,115 3000634574841883350♠−0.4% 7003287085000000000♠2,870.85 2.5/km2 12,470 (1881)

Yarmouth Yarmouth 24,419 25,275 2999661325420375870♠−3.4% 7003212463999900000♠2,124.64 11.5/km2 27,891 (1991)

Total counties — 921,727 913,462 6999904799542838130♠+0.9% 7004529394400000000♠52,939.44 17.4/km2

a county boundaries contiguous with those of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. b county boundaries contiguous with those of the Halifax Regional Municipality. c county boundaries contiguous with those of the Region of Queens Municipality. Ethnic
origins[edit] According to the 2006 Canadian census[36] the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is Scottish (31.9%), followed by English (31.8%), Irish (21.6%), French (17.9%), German (11.3%), Aboriginal origin (5.3%), Dutch (4.1%), Black Canadians
(2.8%), Welsh (1.9%) Italian (1.5%), and Scandinavian (1.4%). 40.9% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian". Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has a long history of social justice work to address issues such as racism and sexism within its borders. The Nova Scotia legislature was the third in Canada
to pass human rights legislation (1963). The Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission
Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission
was established in 1967.[37] Language[edit] See also: Maritimer English, Cape Breton English, Acadian French, and Canadian Gaelic

Mother tongue
Mother tongue
in Nova Scotia: Red – majority anglophone, Orange – mixed, Blue – majority francophone.

The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 921,727. Of the 904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were:

Rank Language Population Percentage

1. English 836,085 92.46%

2. French 31,105 3.44%

3. Arabic 5,965 0.66%

4. Algonquian languages 4,685 0.52%

Mi'kmaq 4,620 0.51%

5. German 3,275 0.36%

6. Chinese 2,750 0.30%

Mandarin 905 0.10%

Cantonese 590 0.06%

7. Dutch 1,725 0.19%

8. Spanish 1,545 0.17%

9. Tagalog 1,185 0.13%

10. Persian 1,185 0.13%

Peggys Cove Harbour

Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[38] Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is home to the largest Scottish Gaelic-speaking community outside of Scotland, with a small number of native speakers in Pictou County, Antigonish County, and Cape Breton Island, and the language is taught in a number of secondary schools throughout the province. Religion[edit] In 1871, the largest religious denominations were Protestant with 103,500 (27%); Roman Catholic with 102,000 (26%); Baptist with 73,295 (19%); Anglican with 55,124 (14%); Methodist with 40,748 (10%), Lutheran with 4,958 (1.3%); and Congregationalist with 2,538 (0.65%).[39] According to the 2001 census, the largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with 327,940 (37%); the United Church of Canada
with 142,520 (17%); and the Anglican Church of Canada
with 120,315 (13%).There are also 8,505 (0.9%) Muslims according to 2011 census.[40] Economy[edit]

fishing boats in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia's per capita GDP in 2010 was $38,475, significantly lower than the national average per capita GDP of $47,605 and a little more than half of Canada's richest province, Alberta. GDP growth has lagged behind the rest of the country for at least the past decade.[41] Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has diversified in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
as a viable jurisdiction in North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf. The fishery was a pillar of the economy since its development as part of New France
in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. The collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992.[42] Other sectors in the province were also hit hard, particularly during the last two decades: coal mining in Cape Breton and northern mainland Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has virtually ceased, and a large steel mill in Sydney closed during the 1990s. More recently, the high value of the Canadian dollar relative to the US dollar has hurt the forestry industry, leading to the shutdown of a long-running pulp and paper mill near Liverpool. Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector.[43] Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an important part of the economy, although production and revenue are now declining.[41] Agriculture
remains an important sector in the province, particularly in the Annapolis Valley. Nova Scotia’s defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy each year.

Corn growing at Grafton in the Annapolis Valley
Annapolis Valley
in October 2011

[44] To date, 40% of Canada’s military assets reside in Nova Scotia.[45] Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers.[46] In 2015, the government of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
eliminated tax credits to film production in the province, jeopardizing the industry given most other jurisdictions continue to offer such credits.[47] The Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs.[48] Two hundred thousand cruise-ship passengers from around the world flow through the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, Nova Scotia
each year.[49] This industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy.[50] The province also boasts a rapidly developing Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and employs roughly 15,000 people.[51] In 2006, the manufacturing sector brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any industrial sector in Nova Scotia.[52] Michelin
remains by far the largest single employer in this sector, operating three production plants in the province. As of 2012, the median family income in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
was $67,910, below the national average of $74,540;[53] in Halifax the figure rises to $80,490.[54]

The fishing boats are completely aground at low tide along the rich fishing grounds of Fundy Bay, at Hall's Harbour, Nova Scotia.

The province is the world’s largest exporter of Christmas trees, lobster, gypsum, and wild berries.[55] Its export value of fish exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries around the world.[56] Nevertheless, the province's imports far exceed its exports. While these numbers were roughly equal from 1992 until 2004, since that time the trade deficit has ballooned. In 2012, exports from Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
were 12.1% of provincial GDP, while imports were 22.6%.[57] Government, law and politics[edit] See also: Government of Nova Scotia
Government of Nova Scotia
and Politics of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[58] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia
(presently Arthur Joseph LeBlanc ), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova Scotia. In 1937, Everett Farmer was the last person hanged (for murder) in Nova Scotia.[24]

Halifax, the provincial capital

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova Scotia (presently Stephen McNeil), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader
of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Jamie Baillie) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[59] Each of the 51 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House.[60] There are three dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party. The other two registered parties are the Green Party of Nova Scotia
Green Party of Nova Scotia
and the Atlantica Party, neither of which has a seat in the House of Assembly. The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. In 2006–07, the province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. The province participates in the HST, a blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the GST tax system. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
no longer has any incorporated cities; they were amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996. Culture[edit] Fine arts[edit]

Hector Pioneer by Nova Scotian sculptor John Wilson, Pictou, Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Dalhousie Arts Centre, Two Planks and a Passion Theatre, Ship's Company Theatre
Ship's Company Theatre
and the Symphony Nova Scotia. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry.

Lion carved by George Lang, Welsford-Parker Monument

Much of the historic public art sculptures in the province were made by New York sculptor J. Massey Rhind
J. Massey Rhind
as well as Canadian sculptors Hamilton MacCarthy, George Hill, Emanuel Hahn
Emanuel Hahn
and Louis-Philippe Hébert. Some of this public art was also created by Nova Scotian John Wilson (sculptor).[61] Nova Scotian George Lang was a stone sculptor who also built many landmark buildings in the province, including the Welsford-Parker Monument. Some of the province's greatest painters were William Valentine, Maria Morris, Jack L. Gray, Mabel Killiam Day, Ernest Lawson, Frances Bannerman, Alex Colville, Tom Forrestall and ship portrait artist John O'Brien. Some of most notable artists whose works have been acquired by Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
are British artist Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
(collection of Art Gallery of Nova Scotia); William Gush
William Gush
and William J. Weaver (both have works in Province House); Robert Field (Government House), as well as leading American artists Benjamin West
Benjamin West
(self portrait in The Halifax Club, portrait of chief justice in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Supreme Court), John Singleton Copley, Robert Feke, and Robert Field (the latter three have works in the Uniacke Estate). Two famous Nova Scotian photographers are Wallace R. MacAskill and Sherman Hines.[62] Three of the most accomplished illustrators were George Wylie Hutchinson, Bob Chambers (cartoonist) and Donald A. Mackay. Renowned American artists like sculptor Richard Serra, composer Philip Glass and abstract painter John Beardman
John Beardman
spent part of the year in Nova Scotia. Film and television[edit] Main article: Actors and filmmakers in Nova Scotia Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has produced numerous film actors. Academy Award
Academy Award
nominee Ellen Page
Ellen Page
(Juno, Inception) was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; five-time Academy Award
Academy Award
nominee Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(Lawrence of Arabia, High Sierra) called Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
(MASH, Ordinary People) spent most of his youth in the province. Other actors include John Paul Tremblay, Robb Wells, Mike Smith and John Dunsworth of Trailer Park Boys
Trailer Park Boys
and actress Joanne Kelly
Joanne Kelly
of Warehouse 13. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom Fitzgerald (The Hanging Garden), Daniel Petrie
Daniel Petrie
(Resurrection—Academy Award nominee) and Acadian film director Phil Comeau's multiple award-winning local story (Le secret de Jérôme). Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films: Margaret's Museum
Margaret's Museum
(starring Helena Bonham Carter); The Bay Boy (directed by Daniel Petrie
Daniel Petrie
and starring Kiefer Sutherland); New Waterford Girl; The Story of Adele H.
The Story of Adele H.
(the story of unrequited love of Adele Hugo); and two films of Evangeline
(one starring Miriam Cooper and another starring Dolores del Río). There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Feature filmmaking began in Canada
with Evangeline
(1913), made by Canadian Bioscope Company in Halifax, which released six films before it closed. The film has since been lost. Some of the award-winning feature films made in the province are Titanic (starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet); The Shipping News
The Shipping News
(starring Kevin Spacey and Julianne Moore); K-19: The Widowmaker (starring Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
and Liam Neeson) and Amelia (starring Hilary Swank, Richard Gere
Richard Gere
and Ewan McGregor). Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has also produced numerous television series: This Hour Has 22 Minutes, Don Messer's Jubilee, Black Harbour, Haven, Trailer Park Boys, Mr. D, Call Me Fitz, and Theodore Tugboat. The Jesse Stone film series on CBS
starring Tom Selleck
Tom Selleck
is also routinely produced in the province. Literature[edit] Main article: Writers in Nova Scotia

Original cover 1900

There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved international fame: Thomas Chandler Haliburton
Thomas Chandler Haliburton
(The Clockmaker); Alistair MacLeod
Alistair MacLeod
(No Great Mischief); Margaret Marshall Saunders (Beautiful Joe), Laurence B. Dakin (Marco Polo), and Joshua Slocum (Sailing Alone Around the World). Other authors include Johanna Skibsrud (The Sentimentalists), Alden Nowlan (Bread, Wine and Salt), George Elliott Clarke
George Elliott Clarke
(Execution Poems), Lesley Choyce (Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea), Thomas Raddall (Halifax: Warden of the North), Donna Morrissey (Kit's Law), Frank Parker Day
Frank Parker Day
(Rockbound). Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Some of the international best-sellers are: Last Man Out: The Story of the Springhill Mining Disaster (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion
Halifax Explosion
1917 (by Laura MacDonald); "In the Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize–winning author Elizabeth Bishop); and National Book Critics Circle Award winner Rough Crossings (by Simon Schama). Other authors who have written novels about Nova Scotian stories include: Linden MacIntyre
Linden MacIntyre
(The Bishop's Man); Hugh MacLennan (Barometer Rising); Rebecca McNutt (Mandy and Alecto); Ernest Buckler (The Valley and the Mountain); Archibald MacMechan
Archibald MacMechan
(Red Snow on Grand Pré), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
(long poem Evangeline); Lawrence Hill
Lawrence Hill
(The Book
of Negroes) and John Mack Faragher (Great and Nobel Scheme). Music[edit] Main article: Music of Nova Scotia

Denny Doherty
Denny Doherty
(left) of The Mamas & the Papas

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has produced numerous musicians. The Grammy Award
Grammy Award
winners include Denny Doherty
Denny Doherty
(from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray, and Sarah McLachlan. Other musicians include country singer Hank Snow, country singer George Canyon, jazz singer Holly Cole, opera singers Portia White
Portia White
and Barbara Hannigan, multi- Juno Award
Juno Award
nominated rapper Classified, Rita MacNeil, Matt Mays, Sloan, Feist, Todd Fancey, The Rankin Family, April Wine, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett, Grand Dérangement, and country music singer Drake Jensen. There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of Springhill (written by Peggy Seeger
Peggy Seeger
and performed by Irish folk singer Luke Kelly
Luke Kelly
a member of The Dubliners, U2); numerous songs by Stan Rogers including Bluenose, The Jeannie C (mentions Little Dover, NS), Barrett's Privateers, Giant, and The Rawdon Hills; Farewell to Nova Scotia (traditional); Blue Nose (Stompin' Tom Connors); She’s Called Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
(by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles); Acadian Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois); and My Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Home (by Hank Snow). Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has also produced some significant songwriters such as Grammy Award
Grammy Award
winning Gordie Sampson. Sampson has written songs for Carrie Underwood
Carrie Underwood
("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of This Town"), Martina McBride
Martina McBride
("If I Had Your Name", "You're Not Leavin Me"), LeAnn Rimes
LeAnn Rimes
("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon ("My Name"). Another successful Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
songwriter was Hank Snow whose songs have been recorded by The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, and Johnny Cash. Music producer Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. He got his start by being music director for CBC television's Singalong Jubilee. He later produced 12 albums for Anne Murray
Anne Murray
("Snowbird", "Danny’s Song” and "You Won't See Me"); 11 albums for Emmylou Harris
Emmylou Harris
(whom he married at his home in Halifax on January 9, 1977).[63] He also produced discs for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don Williams, Jesse Winchester
Jesse Winchester
and Linda Ronstadt.[64] Another noted writer is Cape Bretoner Leon Dubinsky, who wrote the anthem, "Rise Again", among many other songs performed by various Canadian artists.[65] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports people in Nova Scotia

Sidney Crosby
Sidney Crosby
from Cole Harbour

Sport is an important part of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
culture. There are numerous semi pro, university and amateur sports teams, for example, The Halifax Mooseheads, 2013 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup Champions, and the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, both of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The Halifax Hurricanes
Halifax Hurricanes
of the National Basketball League of Canada
is another team that calls Nova Scotia home, and were 2016 league champions.[66] The Nova Scotia Open is a professional golf tournament on the Web.com Tour since 2014. The province has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby (ice hockey), Nathan Mackinnon
Nathan Mackinnon
(ice hockey), Brad Marchand
Brad Marchand
(ice hockey), Colleen Jones (curling), Al MacInnis
Al MacInnis
(ice hockey), TJ Grant (mixed martial arts), Rocky Johnson (wrestling, and father of Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson), George Dixon (boxing) and Kirk Johnson (boxing). The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame. Cuisine[edit] The cuisine of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is typically Canadian with an emphasis on local seafood. One endemic dish (in the sense of "peculiar to" and "originating from") is the Halifax donair, a distant variant of the doner kebab prepared using thinly sliced beef meatloaf and a sweet condensed milk sauce. As well, hodge podge, a creamy soup of fresh baby vegetables, is native to Nova Scotia.[67] The province is also known for blueberry grunt.[68] Events and festivals[edit] See also: Category: Festivals
in Nova Scotia There are a number of festivals and cultural events that are recurring in Nova Scotia, or notable in its history. The following is an incomplete list of festivals and other cultural gatherings in the province:

Annapolis Valley
Annapolis Valley
Apple Blossom Festival Atlantic Theatre Festival Atlantic Film Festival Atlantic Band Festival Cape Breton International Drum Festival Celtic Colours Evolve Festival Halifax Comedy Festival Halifax Pride Halifax Pop Explosion Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Gaelic Mod Stan Rogers Folk Festival Stoked for the Holidays Strategic Partners Summer Rush The Word on the Street (literary festival) Festival Antigonish Summer Theatre Virgin Festival

Tourism[edit] Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture, scenery and coastline.

The Cabot Trail
Cabot Trail
viewed from the Skyline Hiking Trail

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap
Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site, Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Others museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
is home to several internationally renowned musicians and there are visitor centres in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita MacNeil, and Anne Murray
Anne Murray
Centre. There are also numerous music and cultural festivals such as the Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic Colours, the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Gaelic Mod, Royal Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
International Tattoo, the Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival. The province has 87 National Historic Sites of Canada, including the Habitation at Port-Royal, the Fortress of Louisbourg
Fortress of Louisbourg
and Citadel Hill (Fort George) in Halifax. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has two national parks, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton Highlands, and many other protected areas. The Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
has the highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove is internationally recognized and receives 600,000-plus visitors a year.[69] Acadian Skies and Mi'kmaq Lands is a starlight reserve in southwestern Nova Scotia. It is the first certified UNESCO-Starlight Tourist Destination. Starlight tourist destinations are locations that offer conditions for observations of stars which are protected from light pollution.[70][71] Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. In 2010, Halifax received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000.[72] A 2008 Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
tourism campaign included advertising a fictional mobile phone called Pomegranate and establishing website, which after reading about "new phone" redirected to tourism info about region.[73] Education[edit] The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act[74] and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
has more than 450 public schools for children. The public system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also private schools in the province. Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administers French instruction to students for whom the primary language is French. The Nova Scotia Community College
Nova Scotia Community College
system has 13 campuses around the province. The community college, with its focus on training and education, was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's former vocational schools. In addition to its community college system the province has 10 universities, including Dalhousie University, University of King's College, Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University, NSCAD University, Acadia
University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Cape Breton University
Cape Breton University
and the Atlantic School of Theology. There are also more than 90 registered private commercial colleges in Nova Scotia.[75] See also[edit]

portal Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia

Outline of Nova Scotia Index of Nova Scotia-related articles Acadiensis, scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada Bibliography of Nova Scotia Scotia, California
Scotia, California
named for Nova Scotia


^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 census". Statcan.gc.ca. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statcan.gc.ca. January 24, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.  ^ "Population by year of Canada
of Canada
and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.  ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2013)". Statistics Canada. November 5, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2015.  ^ Scottish Settlement. Novascotia.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ Nova Scotia: The Royal Charter of 1621 to Sir William Alexander. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (Reprinted from the Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute, Vol. XIV, Part 1). 1922.  ^ Harrison, Ted (1993). O Canada. Ticknor & Fields.  ^ Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
Sable Island
Sable Island
Lifesaving and Ship Wrecks Info Sheet Archived October 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Museum.gov.ns.ca (July 27, 1999). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ "Gaspe, Canada". Princess Explorations Café (Powered by The New York Times). 2016.  ^ a b "The Climate of Nova Scotia". The Climates of Canada. Environment Canada. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2015.  ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 24, 2015.  ^ The territory of the Nation of Mi'kma'ki also includes the Maritimes, parts of Maine, Newfoundland
and the Gaspé Peninsula. ^ Info Sheet – The Mi'kmaq Archived November 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Museum.gov.ns.ca. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ Morton, Desmond (November 30, 1999). Canada: A Millennium Portrait. Dundurn. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4597-1085-6.  ^ Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Archives – An Acadian Parish Remembered. Gov.ns.ca (December 1, 2009). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. ^ In 1765, the county of Sunbury was created. This included the territory of present-day New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and eastern Maine
as far as the Penobscot River. ^ The other provinces were New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and the Province of Canada (which became the separate provinces of Quebec
and Ontario). ^ John G. Reid. "An International Region of the Northeast: Rise and Decline, 1635–1762". In Buckner, Campbell and Frank (eds) The Acadiensis
Reader: Volume 1. Third Edition. 1998. p. 31 ^ Until 1784, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
administratively formed part of Nova Scotia. ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008 ^ Thomas Beamish Akins History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7 ^ a b c "Timeline History of the Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Supreme Court" Archived October 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Statutes at Large of Nova Scotia, Volume 1, 1758–1804. ^ Roger Marsters (2004). Bold Privateers: Terror, Plunder and Profit on Canada's Atlantic Coast, pp. 87–89. ^ John Boileau. Half-hearted Enemies: Nova Scotia, New England and the War of 1812. Halifax: Formac Publishing. 2005. p. 53 ^ Beck, J. Murray. (1983) Joseph Howe: The Briton Becomes Canadian 1848–1873. (v.2). Kingston & Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-0388-9 ^ Paul R. Magocsi; Multicultural History Society of Ontario
(1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.  ^ Marquis, Greg. In Armageddon's Shadow: The Civil War and Canada's Maritime Provinces. McGill-Queen's University Press. 1998. ^ "Nova Scotia—Canada's population clock". Statcan.gc.ca. November 18, 2010. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2011.  ^ Grenier, Éric (February 8, 2017). "Census 2016: Canada's population surpasses 35 million". CBC News. CBC. Retrieved February 8, 2017. The four Atlantic provinces recorded the lowest growth in the country  ^ "History of County Boundaries". Province of Nova Scotia: Department of Municipal Affairs. October 8, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2016.  ^ Foster Stockwell (2004). "A Sourcebook for Genealogical Research: Resources Alphabetically by Type and Location". McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. p. 205. Retrieved December 29, 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling count highlight tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ Statistics Canada
(January 2005). "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census) (Nova Scotia)". Retrieved July 9, 2015.  ^ Bridglal Pachai, (Ed). Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Human Rights Commission: 25th Anniversary: A History 1967–1992. 1992. ^ Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census) ^ A history and geography of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
by John Burgess Calkin: p. 88 ^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved October 6, 2010.  ^ a b Province of Nova Scotia ^ Fish in Crisis. "The Starving Ocean". Retrieved April 26, 2007.  ^ Province of Nova Scotia, "Summary of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Mineral Production, 1994 and 1995" Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Inc. Defence, Security & Aerospace.Retrieved on: October 10, 2008. ^ Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Inc. Defence, Security & Aerospace.Retrieved on: April 16, 2010. ^ Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Film Development Corporation Production Statistics for the 12 Month Period Ended March 31, 2008. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.[dead link] ^ CTV Atlantic [3]. ^ Tourism
Industry Association of Nova Scotia. Tourism
Summit 2008. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008. ^ "Going Global, Staying Local: A Partnership Strategy for Export Development" (PDF). Government of Nova Scotia. Retrieved October 10, 2008.  ^ Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Inc. "Key Facts". Archived from the original on May 16, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ Trade Team Nova Scotia. "Information and Communications Technology". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ Invest In Canada. "Nova Scotia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ "Median total income, by family type, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2014.  ^ "Median total income, by family type, by census metropolitan area". Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2014.  ^ Tower Software. "The Nova Scotian Economy". Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ Trade Team Nova Scotia. "Fisheries & Aquaculture". Archived from the original on June 6, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ Nova Scotia's Merchandise Trade with the World [4]. ^ Canadian Heritage (February 2009). "Canadian Heritage Portfolio" (PDF) (2nd ed.). Queen's Printer for Canada: 3–4. ISBN 978-1-100-11529-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.  ^ Library of Parliament. "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.  ^ Dawson, R. MacGregor; Dawson, WF (1989). Ward, Norman, ed. Democratic Government in Canada. University of Toronto Press. pp. 16–17, 59–60, 66. ISBN 0-8020-6703-4.  ^ "RootsWeb: CAN-NS-GUYSBOROUGH-L JOHN WILSON, Sculptor, 1877–1954". Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved July 6, 2012.  ^ Sherman Hines Museum of Photography: Macaskill Collection Archived August 26, 2003, at the Wayback Machine.. Shermanhinesphotographymuseum.com. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ "The Emmylou Harris
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Bibliography[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Nova Scotia

The Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Atlas. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Geomatics Centre. Province of Nova Scotia. 2006. ISBN 0-88780-707-0  Brebner, John Bartlet. New England's Outpost. Acadia
before the Conquest of Canada
(1927) Brebner, John Bartlet. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937) Creighton, Helen (1966). Songs and Ballads from Nova Scotia. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-21703-5  Griffiths, Naomi. E. S. From Migrant to Acadian, 1604–1755: A North American Border People. Montreal and Kingston, McGill / Queen's University Press, 2004. Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2008. (ISBN 9780806138763) Landry, Peter. The Lion & The Lily. Vol. 1, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC., 2007. (ISBN 1425154506) Murdoch, Beamish. History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadie. Vol 2. BiblioBazaar, LaVergne, TN, 1865. Pryke, Kenneth G. Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Confederation, 1864–74 (1979) (ISBN 0-8020-5389-0) Thomas Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition) (ISBN 1141698536)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nova Scotia.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nova Scotia.

Government of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Links to related articles

v t e

Subdivisions of Nova Scotia

Historical counties

Annapolis Antigonish Cape Breton Colchester Cumberland Digby Guysborough Halifax Hants Inverness Kings Lunenburg Pictou Queens Richmond Shelburne Victoria Yarmouth

Economic regions

Annapolis Valley Cape Breton Island Halifax Regional Municipality North Shore Southern Nova Scotia

Regional municipalities

Cape Breton Halifax Queens

County municipalities

Annapolis Antigonish Colchester Cumberland Inverness Kings Pictou Richmond Victoria

District municipalities

Argyle Barrington Chester Clare Digby East Hants Guysborough Lunenburg Shelburne St. Mary's West Hants Yarmouth


Amherst Annapolis Royal Antigonish Berwick Bridgewater Clark's Harbour Digby Hantsport Kentville Lockeport Lunenburg Mahone Bay Middleton Mulgrave New Glasgow Oxford Parrsboro Pictou Port Hawkesbury Shelburne Stellarton Stewiacke Trenton Truro Westville Windsor Wolfville Yarmouth


Aylesford Baddeck Bible Hill Canning Chester Cornwallis Square Dover Freeport Greenwood Havre Boucher Hebbville Kingston Lawrencetown New Minas Port Williams Pugwash River Hebert St. Peter's Tatamagouche Tiverton Westport Weymouth


List of communities in Nova Scotia List of municipalities in Nova Scotia List of people from Nova Scotia

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Coordinates: 45°N 063°W / 45°N 63°W / 45; -63

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132442906 LCCN: n79089337 ISNI: 0000 0001 0806 1340 GND: 4042713-4 SELIBR: 155380 SUDOC: 034165770 BNF: cb1249