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The Info List - Notodontidae


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Biretinae Ceirinae Matsumura, 1929 Cerurinae Butler, 1881 Dicranurinae Duponchel, 1845 =Stauropinae Matsumura, 1925 =Fentoniinae Matsumura, 1929 Dioptinae
Dioptinae
Walker, 1862 = Josiidae
Josiidae
Piepers & Snellen, 1900 Disphraginae Thiaucourt, 1995 Dudusinae Matsumura, 1929 =Tarsolepidinae Kiriakoff, 1950 Hemiceratinae Guenee, 1852 Heterocampinae Neumogen & Dyar, 1894 Notodontinae
Notodontinae
Stephens, 1829 Nystaleinae Forbes, 1948 Phalerinae Butler, 1896 Platychasmatinae Nakamura, 1956 Ptilodoninae
Ptilodoninae
Packard, 1864 =Ptilophorinae Matsumura, 1929 Pygaerinae
Pygaerinae
Duponchel, 1854 =Melalophidae Grote, 1895 =Ichthyurinae Packard, 1895 =Spataliinae Matsumura, 1929 =Gluphisiinae Packard, 1895 Rifarginae Thiaucourt, 1995 Roseminae Forbes, 1939 Scranciinae Miller, 1991 Thaumetopoeinae
Thaumetopoeinae
Aurivillius, 1889 and see below

Notodontidae
Notodontidae
is a family of moths with approximately 3,800 known species.[1] Moths of this family are found in all parts of the world, but they are most concentrated in tropical areas, especially in the New World
New World
(Miller, 1992). The Thaumetopoeidae
Thaumetopoeidae
(processionary moths) are sometimes included here as a subfamily. Species of this family tend to be heavy-bodied and long-winged, the wings held folded across the back of the body at rest. They rarely display any bright colours, usually being mainly grey or brown, with the exception of the Dioptinae
Dioptinae
subfamily (Grimaldi and Engel, 2005). These features mean they rather resemble Noctuidae
Noctuidae
although the families are not closely related. The adults do not feed. Many species have a tuft of hair on the trailing edge of the forewing which protrudes upwards at rest. This gives them the common name of prominents. The common names of some other species reflect their hairiness, such as Puss Moth
Moth
and the group commonly known as kittens (Furcula spp.), so named as they resemble small versions of the Puss Moth.

Contents

1 Life cycle

1.1 Egg 1.2 Larvae 1.3 Adults

2 Importance 3 Systematics 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Life cycle[edit] Egg[edit] The egg is hemispherical or almost spherical, and lacks any ribs (Scoble, 1995). Larvae[edit] The caterpillars are usually hairless, but may have tubercules, spines, or humps (Scoble 1995), and often rest with both ends raised. The last set of prolegs is frequently vestigial, or may be long, with glands that can be everted. Some larvae undergo shape modification and colour changes with each instar (Weller, 1992). Notodontid larvae are notable for their often bizarre shapes, and some have chemical defenses (cyanic acid, formic acid, and other ketones: Blum, 1981) not commonly found in other Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
(Weller 1992). Schizura
Schizura
unicornis and S. badia have a mixture of formic acid, acetic acid and other compounds which they spray accurately at their attacker (Attygalle et al., 1993).

Stauropus fagi larva

The larvae of some species are truly extraordinary: That of the Puss Moth
Moth
has a fearsome-looking "face" and two long whip-like "tails" (actually highly modified prolegs) and it rears both ends in a threatening display when disturbed. The larva of the Lobster Moth
Moth
is even more remarkable, resembling a crustacean. Others, such as Cerura vinula mimic the edge of a leaf that has been damaged and is turning brown (they rest and feed along the edge of the leaf). Most are solitary feeders, but some are gregarious, and this is most common in the processionary moths, Thaumetopoeinae. They feed on trees and shrubs, except in the subfamily Dioptinae, which feed on herbaceous plants (Miller, 1992). The larvae typically feed on only one family of trees, but closely related species will feed on distantly related plants; for example different members of the genus Datana feed on Juglandaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Ericaceae
Ericaceae
and Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
(Miller 1992). Adults[edit] Adults have tympanal organs on the metathorax that opens towards the top, and the tibial spurs have serrated edges (Scoble, 1995). Mouthparts vary from well-developed to absent. The Dioptinae, which was formerly considered a separate family, are colourful and fly by day, while the rest of the notodontids are nocturnal. Some of these Dioptinae
Dioptinae
have non-functional tympanal hearing organs which are normally defensive against bats (Fullard et al., 1997). Importance[edit] Some notodontids cause noticeable defoliation of their hosts. Well-known defoliators include: the saddled prominent Heterocampa guttivita, poplar defoliator Clostera cupreata, California oakworm Phryganidia californica, the beech caterpillar, Quadricalcarifera punctatella, variable oakleaf caterpillar Lochmaeus manteo, Epicerura pergisea, yellownecked caterpillars Datana ministra, and walnut caterpillar Datana integerrima, among others. Systematics[edit] Notable species are:

Buff-tip
Buff-tip
(Phalera bucephala) Puss Moth
Moth
(Cerura vinula) Lobster Moth
Moth
(Stauropus fagi) Poplar Kitten
Poplar Kitten
(Furcula bifida) Coxcomb Prominent
Coxcomb Prominent
(Ptilodon capucina) Rough Prominent
Rough Prominent
( Nadata gibbosa)

Some subfamily genera:

Dudusinae

Crinodes

Hemiceratinae

Hemiceras

Dicranurinae

Parasinga

Heterocampinae

Rifargia

Apart from the subfamilies listed in the two places above, there are numerous notodontid genera of uncertain relationships. These are:

Afilia Antheua Antimima Antithemerastis Astylis Cardiga Cascera Commonia Datana - Phalerinae? Destolmia Didugua Ecnomodes Elymiotis Euhyparpax Farigia Gallaba Gargettiana Hippia Hobartina Hylaeora

Hyparpax Lasioceros Lirimiris Litodonta Lochmaeus Macrurocampa Medanella Misogada Nadata - Notodontinae? Neola Notela Notodontella Oligocentria Omichlis Ortholomia Paracerura Paradestolmia Pentobesa Pheraspis Pheressaces

Polychoa Praeschausia Psalidostetha Pseudhapigia Pseudoteleclita Resomera Resto Rodneya Sagamora Schizura Scrancia Scythrophanes Skewesia Sorama Sphetta Symmerista Theroa Tifama Timoraca Ursia

See also[edit]

Butterflies and moths portal Arthropods portal Animals portal Biology portal

Comparison of butterflies and moths Thaumetopoeidae, historically treated as a subfamily within Notodontidae. Ochrogaster, a genus of Australian processionary caterpillar.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Notodontidae.

Attygalle, AB, S. Smedley, J. Meinwald and T. Eisner. 1993. Defensive secretion of 2 notodontid caterpillars. J. Chem Ecol 19(10):2089-2104. Blum, M.S. 1981. Chemical Defenses of Arthropods. Academic Press, New York. Chinery, Michael. 1991. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe 1986 (Reprinted 1991) Fullard, James, Jeff W. Dawson, L. Daniel Otero, Annemarie Surlykke. 1997. Bat-deafness in day-flying moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Dioptinae). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 181(5): 477-483 Grimaldi, D, and MS Engel, 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. Miller, James. 1992. Host-plant association among prominent moths. BioScience 42 (1): 50-56. Scoble, MJ. 1995. The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Second ed. Oxford University Press. Skinner, Bernard. 1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles Weller, SJ. 1992. Survey of Adult Morphology in Nystaleinae and Related Neotropical Subfamilies
Subfamilies
(Noctuoidea: Notodontidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
31(3-4):233-277.

^ van Nieukerken; et al. (2011). "Order Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal
Animal
biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 212–221. 

External links[edit]

Family Notodontidae
Notodontidae
at Lepidoptera.pro azalea caterpillar, Datana major on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q796463 BAMONA: Notodontidae BugGuide: 168 EoL: 875 EPPO: 1NOTOF Fauna Europaea: 8692 Fossilworks: 245060 GBIF: 7016 ITIS:

.