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Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species[3] of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
in southern South America
South America
(Chile, Argentina) and Australasia
Australasia
(east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea
New Guinea
and New Caledonia). The species are ecological dominants in many temperate forests in these regions.[4] Some species are reportedly naturalised in Germany
Germany
and Great Britain.[2] The genus has a rich fossil record of leaves, cupules and pollen, with fossils extending into the late Cretaceous and occurring in Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica
Antarctica
and South America.[5] In the past, they were included in the family Fagaceae, but genetic tests revealed them to be genetically distinct,[6] and they are now included in their own family, the Nothofagaceae (literally meaning "false beeches" or "bastard beeches").[7] The leaves are toothed or entire, evergreen or deciduous. The fruit is a small, flattened or triangular nut, borne in cupules containing one to seven nuts. Nothofagus
Nothofagus
species are used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus, including A. eximia and A. virescens. Many individual trees are extremely old, and at one time, some populations were thought to be unable to reproduce in present-day conditions where they were growing, except by suckering (clonal reproduction), being remnant forest from a cooler time. Sexual reproduction has since been shown to be possible.[8] Although the genus now mostly occurs in cool, isolated, high-altitude environments at temperate and tropical latitudes the fossil record shows that it survived in climates that appear to be much warmer than those that Nothofagus
Nothofagus
now occupies.[9] Taxonomy[edit] The genus is classified in these subgenera:[10]

Subgenus Brassospora - type N. brassi (or genus Trisyngyne[11])

Nothofagus
Nothofagus
aequilateralis (New Caledonia) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
balansae (New Caledonia) Nothofagus baumanniae
Nothofagus baumanniae
(New Caledonia) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
brassii (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
carrii (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
codonandra (New Caledonia) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
crenata (New Guinea) Nothofagus discoidea
Nothofagus discoidea
(New Caledonia) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
flaviramea (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
grandis (New Guinea) Nothofagus nuda
Nothofagus nuda
(New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
perryi (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
pseudoresinosa (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
pullei (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
resinosa (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
rubra (New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
starkenborghii (New Guinea) Nothofagus stylosa
Nothofagus stylosa
(New Guinea) Nothofagus womersleyi
Nothofagus womersleyi
(New Guinea) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
mucronata (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
serrata (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
balfourensis (extinct) (Tasmania, Late Oligocene-Early Miocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
cooksoniae (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
peduncularis (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
robusta (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
smithtonensis (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
palustris (extinct) (New Zealand, Late Oligocene-Early Miocene)[12]

Subgenus Fuscospora
Fuscospora
- type N. fusca (or genus Fuscospora[11])

Nothofagus alessandri
Nothofagus alessandri
(Central Chile) Nothofagus fusca
Nothofagus fusca
(New Zealand) Nothofagus gunnii
Nothofagus gunnii
(Australia: Tasmania) Nothofagus solandri
Nothofagus solandri
(New Zealand) Nothofagus truncata
Nothofagus truncata
(New Zealand) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
cethanica (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5]

Beech trees in New Zealand

Subgenus Lophozonia
Lophozonia
- type N. menziesii (or genus Lophozonia[11])

Nothofagus alpina
Nothofagus alpina
(=N. procera) (Central Chile/Argentina) Nothofagus cunninghamii
Nothofagus cunninghamii
(Australia: Victoria, Tasmania) Nothofagus glauca
Nothofagus glauca
(Central Chile) Nothofagus macrocarpa
Nothofagus macrocarpa
(Central Chile, prov. Argentina) Nothofagus menziesii
Nothofagus menziesii
(New Zealand) Nothofagus moorei
Nothofagus moorei
(Australia: New South Wales, Queensland) Nothofagus obliqua
Nothofagus obliqua
(Chile/Argentina) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
smithtonensis (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
muelleri (extinct) (New South Wales, Late Eocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
novae-zealandiae (extinct) (New Zealand, Mid-Late Miocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
pachyphylla (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Pleistocene)[13] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
tasmanica (extinct) (Tasmania, Eocene - Early Oligocene)[5]

Subgenus Nothofagus
Nothofagus
- type N. antarctica

Nothofagus antarctica
Nothofagus antarctica
(Southern Argentina
Argentina
and Chile) Nothofagus betuloides
Nothofagus betuloides
(Southern Argentina
Argentina
and Chile) Nothofagus dombeyi
Nothofagus dombeyi
(Central Chile
Chile
and Andean Patagonia-Argentina) Nothofagus nitida
Nothofagus nitida
(Southern Chile
Chile
and probably Argentina) Nothofagus pumilio
Nothofagus pumilio
(Argentina/Chile) Nothofagus
Nothofagus
lobata (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5] Nothofagus
Nothofagus
bulbosa (extinct) (Tasmania, Early Oligocene)[5]

Subgenus uncertain

Nothofagus beardmorensis (extinct) (Antarctica, either ~3 million or ~15 million years old), see Antarctica# Neogene
Neogene
Period (23–0.05 mya) and Meyer Desert Formation biota[14][15]

It was recently proposed that the generic classification of the Nothofagaceae should be revised, with the four subgenera elevated to full genera.[11] This proposed change is not taxonomically essential [2][16] and has not been accepted outside New Zealand.

The Nothofagus
Nothofagus
plant genus illustrates the distribution on fragments of the old supercontinent Gondwana
Gondwana
Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Fossils show that the genus originated on the supercontinent.

Distribution[edit] The pattern of distribution around the southern Pacific Rim
Pacific Rim
suggests the dissemination of the genus dates to the time when Antarctica, Australia, and South America
South America
were connected in a common land-mass or supercontinent referred to as Gondwana.[17] However, genetic evidence using molecular dating methods has been used to argue that the species in New Zealand
New Zealand
and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
evolved from species that arrived in these landmasses by dispersal across oceans.[18] There is uncertainty in molecular dates and controversy rages as to whether the distribution of Nothofagus
Nothofagus
derives from the break-up of Gondwana
Gondwana
(i.e. vicariance), or if there has been long distance dispersal across oceans. In South America
South America
the northern limit of the genus can be construed as La Campana National Park
La Campana National Park
and the Vizcachas Mountains in the central part of Chile.[19] Beech mast[edit] Every four to six years or so, Nothofagus
Nothofagus
produces a heavier crop of seeds and is known as the beech mast. In New Zealand, the beech mast causes an increase in the population of introduced mammals such as mice, rats, and stoats. When the rodent population collapses, the stoats begin to prey on native bird species, many of which are threatened with extinction.[20] This phenomenon is covered in more detail in the article on stoats in New Zealand. See also[edit]

Cyttaria, genus of ascomycete fungi found on or associated with Nothofagus Misodendrum, specialist parasites of Nothofagus

References[edit]

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ Veblen, Thomas; Hill, Robert; Read, Jennifer (1996). Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus
Nothofagus
Forests. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06423-3.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Hill, Robert (2001). "Biogeography, evolution and palaeoecology of Nothofagus
Nothofagus
(Nothofagaceae): The contribution of the fossil record". Australian Journal of Botany. 49 (3): 321. doi:10.1071/BT00026.  ^ Manos PS, Steele KP (1997) Phylogenetic analyses of 'higher' Hamamelididae based on plastid sequence data. American Journal of Botany 84, 1407-1419. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2446139 ^ Manos, Paul (1997). "Phylogenetic analyses of 'higher' Hamamelididae based on plastid sequence data". American Journal of Botany. 84 (10): 1407–1419. doi:10.2307/2446139. JSTOR 2446139.  ^ http://cgi.cse.unsw.edu.au/~lambert/cgi-bin/clim/2005/07/ ^ Carpenter, RJ; Jordan, GJ; Macphail, MK; Hill, RS (2012). "Near-tropical early eocene terrestrial temperatures at the Australo-Antarctic margin, western Tasmania". Geology. 40 (3): 267–270. Bibcode:2012Geo....40..267C. doi:10.1130/G32584.1.  ^ Nothofagus
Nothofagus
website (in French) ^ a b c d Heenan, P.B.; Smissen, R.D. (2013). "Revised circumscription of Nothofagus
Nothofagus
and recognition of the segregate genera Fuscospora, Lophozonia, and Trisyngyne (Nothofagaceae)". Phytotaxa. 146 (1): 1–31. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.146.1.1.  ^ Carpenter, RJ; Bannister, JM; Lee, DE; Jordan, GJ (2014). " Nothofagus
Nothofagus
subgenus Brassospora (Nothofagaceae) leaf fossils from New Zealand: A link to Australia
Australia
and New Guinea?". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 174 (4): 503–515. doi:10.1111/boj.12143.  ^ Jordan, GJ (1999). "A new Early Pleistocene species of Nothofagus and the climatic implications of co-occurring Nothofagus
Nothofagus
fossils". Australian Systematic Botany. 12 (6): 757–765. doi:10.1071/sb98025.  ^ Hill, R.S.; Harwood, D.M.; Webb, P.-N. (1996). "Nothofagus beardmorensis (Nothofagaceae), a new species based on leaves from the Pliocene Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 94: 11–24. doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(96)00003-6.  ^ Nothofagus beardmorensis Nothofagaceae, a new species based on leaves from the Pliocene Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica ^ Hill, RS; Jordan, GJ; Macphail, MK (2015). "Why we should retain Nothofagus
Nothofagus
sensu lato". Australian Systematic Botany. 28 (3): 190–193. doi:10.1071/sb15026.  ^ Native Forest Network (2003) Gondwana
Gondwana
Forest Sanctuary ^ Knapp, M; Stockler, K; Havell, D; Delsuc, F; Sebastiani, F; Lockhart, PJ (2005). "Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus
Nothofagus
(Southern Beech)". PLoS Biology. 3 (1): 38–43. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030014. PMC 539330 . PMID 15660155.  ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Chilean Wine Palm: Jubaea chilensis, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Archived 2012-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Beech forest: Native plants". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 

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Wikispecies
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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q218274 EoL: 107853 EPPO: 1NOFG Fossilworks: 250689 GBIF: 2874877 GRIN: 8289 IPNI: 13501-1 ITIS: 845144 NCBI: 26779 PLANTS: NOTHO7

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