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Tax
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The terms Norwegian Empire,[1] Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
(Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Norwegian Realm refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240. The kingdom was a loosely unified nation including the territory of modern-day Norway, modern-day Swedish territory of Jämtland, Herjedalen, Ranrike and Idre
Idre
and Särna, as well as Norway's overseas possessions which had been settled by Norwegian seafarers for centuries before being annexed or incorporated into the kingdom as 'tax territories'. To the North, Norway
Norway
also bordered extensive tax territories on the mainland. Norway, whose expansionalism starts from the very foundation of the Kingdom in 872, reached the peak of its power in the years between 1240 and 1319. At the peak of Norwegian expansion before the civil war (1130–1240), Sigurd I
Sigurd I
successfully led the Norwegian Crusade
Norwegian Crusade
(1107–1110) in order to convert Muslim-occupied territory in Europe to Christianity: this included Lisbon. Sigurd and his Norwegian force then went to the Middle East to aid Baldwin I in establishing the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Kingdom of Norway
Norway
was the second European country after England
England
to enforce a unified code of law to be applied for the whole country, called Landslov (1274). One of the most noteworthy facts about the Kingdom is undoubtedly the story of the official hirdman Leif Erikson, who colonised North America almost 500 years before Columbus rediscovered the continents, with either himself or his crew sharing the story, to find that it sparked interest only as far as Bremen, Germany.[citation needed] The secular power was at its strongest at the end of King Haakon Haakonsson's reign in 1263. An important element of the period was the ecclesiastical supremacy of the archdiocese of Nidaros
Nidaros
from 1152. There are no reliable sources for when Jämtland
Jämtland
was placed under the archbishop of Uppsala. Uppsala
Uppsala
was established later, and was the third metropolitan diocese in Scandinavia after Lund
Lund
and Nidaros. The church participated in a political process both before and during the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
that aimed at[clarification needed] Swedish side, to establish a position for Sweden
Sweden
in Jämtland. This area had been a borderland in relation to the Swedish kingdom, and probably in some sort of alliance with Trøndelag, just as with Hålogaland. A unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century. His efforts in unifying the petty kingdoms of Norway, resulted in the first known Norwegian central government. The country however fragmented soon, and was again collected into one entity in the first half of the 11th century. Norway
Norway
has been a monarchy since Fairhair, passing through several eras.

Contents

1 History 2 Mainland

2.1 Administrative divisions 2.2 Tax
Tax
territory

3 Expansion and unification 4 Overseas

4.1 Crown dependencies

4.1.1 Vassals

5 Monarchs of the hereditary kingdom 6 Civil war era 7 Ancient and medieval aristocracy 8 Background

8.1 Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland 8.2 Hebrides 8.3 Isle of Man 8.4 Faroe Islands 8.5 Iceland 8.6 Greenland 8.7 Bohuslän 8.8 Jämtland 8.9 Herjedalen 8.10 Finnmark
Finnmark
and Lapland 8.11 Kola (Murmansk)

9 End of the self-rule 10 See also 11 Notes and references

11.1 Notes 11.2 References

12 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Norway
Norway
and Viking
Viking
Age When Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
became king of Norway
Norway
after the battle at Hafrsfjord, he looked west to the isles that had been colonised by Norwegians
Norwegians
for a century already, and by 875 the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
of Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
had been brought under his rule and given to Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Jarl of Møre. This is considered the first year of the Norwegian Empire. Iceland
Iceland
was more reluctant to give up their independent rule, so the Icelandic saga author Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
was given royal invitation to the court of King Haakon Haakonsson
Haakon Haakonsson
and was there convinced that Iceland
Iceland
was by right Norwegian. So began the Age of the Sturlungs, a time of political strife in Iceland, the Sturlungs worked for bringing Iceland
Iceland
to Norwegian rule and spread propaganda through their position at the Althing
Althing
and even resorted to violence before, in 1262, the Old Covenant was signed, which brought total Norwegian rule over the island. In Ranríki Konunghella was built as a royal city alongside Túnsberg and Biorgvin. It remained Norwegian until the 1658 Roskilde treaty. Herjárdalr became Norwegian during the 12th century and remained so for five centuries. Jamtaland started paying taxes to Norway
Norway
during the 13th century and was later absorbed into a part of the mainland territory the same century. It was occupied by the Swedish during the Nordic Seven Years' War, but later returned to Denmark- Norway
Norway
as a result of the Stettin treaty of 1570. Idre
Idre
and Særna, Norwegian since the 12th century, were conquered by Sweden
Sweden
during the Hannibal controversy. Ranríki, Herjárdalr, Jamtaland, Idre
Idre
and Særna were permanently surrendered to Sweden
Sweden
by the Peace of Brömsebro the 13th of August 1645. Mainland[edit] See also: Counties of Norway
Norway
§ Fylke, and List of possessions of Norway
Norway
§ Former dependencies and homelands Administrative divisions[edit]

Viken, counties under Borgarþing:

Ránríki Vingulmórk Vestfold Grenafylki (extending to Tvedestrand)

Oppland, counties under Heiðsævisþing:

Heinafylki (current day Hedmarken
Hedmarken
and Gjøvik) Haðafylki (consisting of Hadeland, Land, Ringerike, and Toten) Raumaríki (consisting of Glåmdalen, and Romerike) Guðbrandsdalir Eystridalir (including Särna
Särna
and Idre)

Vestlandet, counties under Gulaþing:

Sunnmærafylki Firðafylki (consisting of Nordfjord
Nordfjord
and Sunnfjord) Sygnafylki Horðafylki Rygjafylki Egðafylki Vøllðres Haddingjadalr

Trøndelag, counties under Frostaþing:

Raumsdølafylki Norðmørafylki Naumdølafylki Sparbyggjafylki Eynafylki Verdølafylki Skeynafylki Stjórdølafylki Strindafylki Gauldølafylki Orkdølafylki

Rest of Norway, counties not attached to a thing:

Jamtaland Herdalir Háleygjafylki

Tax
Tax
territory[edit] See also: Norway– Russia
Russia
border § History

Finnmòrk, as the areas north of Malangen, present-day Murmansk in Russia, and parts of northern Lapland in Finland.[citation needed]

Expansion and unification[edit]

Southern part of mainland Norway

See also: Petty kingdoms of Norway, Unification of Norway, and Viking expansion

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

From the 600s Western Norwegian fish farmers began an exodus the nearby islands in the North Sea, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland, later on to the Western Isles like the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Man, and westward to the Faroe Islands, Iceland
Iceland
and Greenland. Some of these islands were inhabited when the Norwegians
Norwegians
arrived, but the local population was displaced or assimilated by the Norwegian immigrants. Consistently the islands' populations had a Norwegian ancestry, who kept in touch with the homeland over the North Sea. These Norwegian developed had their own chiefs or kings by Norwegian pattern, which was subject to the Norwegian royal power when it eventually got national authority. Often Norwegian kings had enough to contend with the mainland, so the local power in the villages were often in the hands of local earls who operated on behalf of the king. Holdings in Sweden
Sweden
were in varying degrees Norwegian. At 800-900s it is reasonable to assume that the population of Båhuslen, Jämtland and Herjedalen had no national affiliation, neither of Norway, Svealand
Svealand
or Götaland. It lay to the increasingly centralized monarchy to create this, which had to consolidate its right in the border areas above the neighboring kingdoms. Norway
Norway
was then the first to integrate these areas into its kingdom.

Overseas[edit]

Map of the Norwegian Colonial Empire in the Viking Age
Viking Age
(from Gjerset (1915), History of the Norwegian People)

Northern part of mainland Norway

See also: List of possessions of Norway
Norway
§ Former dependencies and homelands Crown dependencies[edit]

Ísland (Iceland) Grænland (Greenland) Færeyar (Faroe Islands) Mann (Isle of Mann) Hjaltland (Shetland) Orkneyar ( Orkney
Orkney
Islands) Suðreyar (The Hebrides)

Iceland, Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland
Greenland
remained under Norwegian administration until 1814. The treaty of Perth (1266) accepted Norwegian sovereignty over Shetland
Shetland
and Orkney; in turn Norway
Norway
had to give the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Isle of Man
Isle of Man
to Scotland. Vassals[edit] Main article: Earldom of Orkney

Katanes (Caithness) and Suðrland (Sutherland)[2][3][4][5]

Monarchs of the hereditary kingdom[edit] See also: List of Norwegian monarchs, Monarchy
Monarchy
of Norway, and Hereditary Kingdom of Norway

Haraldr Halfdansson, first monarch of the Fairhair dynasty

Yngling / Fairhair dynasty

Harald I Halfdansson Eric I Haraldsson Haakon I
Haakon I
Haraldsson Harald II Ericsson

Lade dynasty

Hákon Sigurðarson, first monarch of the Lade dynasty

Haakon Sigurdsson

Trygvason dynasty

Olaf Tryggvason

Lade dynasty (restored)

Eric Haakonsson
Eric Haakonsson
and Sweyn Haakonsson

Saint Olaf
Saint Olaf
dynasty

Olaf II Haraldsson

Lade dynasty (restored, second time)

Haakon Ericsson

Saint Olaf
Saint Olaf
dynasty (restored)

Magnus I Olafsson

Hardrada dynasty

Haraldr Sigurðarson, first monarch of the Hardrada dynasty

Harald Sigurdsson Magnus II Haraldsson Olaf III Haraldsson Haakon Magnusson Magnus III Olafsson Olaf IV Magnusson Eystein I
Eystein I
Magnusson Sigurd I
Sigurd I
Magnusson Magnus IV Sigurdsson

Gille dynasty

Haraldr Gilli, first monarch of the Gille dynasty

Harald IV
Harald IV
Magnusson Sigurd II
Sigurd II
Haraldsson Inge I Haraldsson Eystein II
Eystein II
Haraldsson Magnus Haraldsson Haakon II
Haakon II
Sigurdsson

Hardrada dynasty (restored)

Magnus V
Magnus V
Erlingsson

Sverre dynasty

Sverrir Sigurðarson, first monarch of the Sverre dynasty

Sverre I
Sverre I
Sigurdsson Haakon III Sverresson Guttorm I
Guttorm I
Sigurdsson

Gille dynasty (restored)

Inge II Bårdsson

Sverre dynasty
Sverre dynasty
(restored)

Haakon IV Haakonsson Haakon Haakonsson Magnus VI
Magnus VI
Haakonsson Eric II Magnusson Haakon V
Haakon V
Magnusson

Civil war era[edit] See also: Norwegian Civil War

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

Ancient and medieval aristocracy[edit] See also: Aristocracy of Norway

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

Background[edit] Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland[edit] See also: History of Shetland, History of Orkney, and Kingdom of the Isles From the 7th century Norwegian farmers began to exodus from Rogaland and Agder
Agder
to the nearby islands in the North Sea, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland. These islands had long been undeveloped when the Norwegians
Norwegians
arrived, the Picts, a possibly Celtic people
Celtic people
who also stayed in mainland Scotland. The Norwegian the settlement resulted in the elderly population was gone, either because they were few and went back to relatives in Scotland, or because they were made slaves (thralls). Most place names on the islands are today of old Norwegian ancestry. Old legends says that when Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
had implemented their piratical expeditions for the national collection, these islands haunt for Vikings ravaged Norway. King Harald awaking West sea and let themselves under Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and the Hebrides, and got to the Man and harried there. Sagas
Sagas
recounts further that Harald founded Earldom Orkneys, which encompassed all these islands, and he is considered to be the first Norwegian king who reigned over Kingdom of Norway. However, it is likely that these stories are the saga authors works, to corroborate later Norwegian kings claims over these islands. Some sources find it unlikely that the Norwegian kings had sovereignty in the Hebrides, Man, Orkney
Orkney
and Shetland
Shetland
back to the early 800s. Sigurd Eysteinsson
Sigurd Eysteinsson
the first Earl
Earl
of Orkney, was the brother of Rognvald Eysteinsson
Rognvald Eysteinsson
Earl
Earl
of Møre, and the earldom was in this dynasty to 1231. From the first moment the earl had tasks to protect the land and take care of land peace. He had a small lething raft and took a feast of the people. The islands were Christianized
Christianized
by King Olav Tryggvason
Olav Tryggvason
in 995. They got themselves a bishop in the 1000s, and from 1152 he heard the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Nidaros. The diocese of Orkney
Orkney
was moved to Kirkjuvåg (Kirkwall) and there it were built a cathedral church that stands today. It was the largest cathedral in the archdiocese's second after Nidaros
Nidaros
Cathedral, and was consecrated to Saint Magnus Erlendsson, who was killed in 1115. When the islanders had to put up against the King Sverre Sigurdsson at the Battle of Florvåg
Battle of Florvåg
outside Bergen
Bergen
in 1194, the king took Shetland from the earl of Orkney
Orkney
and let it directly under the king. Hebrides[edit] See also: History of the Outer Hebrides
Hebrides
and Inner Hebrides § History History of the Outer Hebrides
Hebrides
On the Hebrides
Hebrides
there were also Norwegian settlement and Norwegian government. It is estimated that the settlement here took to about 800. Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
should have inserted an Earl
Earl
here too. But supremacy in these Viking
Viking
islands was unstable. Here was the elderly population not taken out. Place names show that the Norwegians
Norwegians
lived closest to the islands Lewis
Lewis
(Ljodhus) and Skye. The Celts had a well known monastery on their sacred island of Iona, and settlers from Norway
Norway
soon became Christianized. Isle of Man[edit] See also: History of the Isle of Man The Vikings came to the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
in the year 798, and eventually became a Norwegian settlement there. The Norwegians
Norwegians
lived most of the northern and western edge of the island, while the Celts continued to live on the southern and eastern edge of the island. Many place names reminiscent yet about the Norwegian population. Man stood sometimes under their own Viking
Viking
kings or under the Norwegian king of Dublin and was long a kingdom with the Hebrides. Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
process hit previously mentioned. Magnus Barefoot's time (1102-1103) heard the kingdom Hebrides
Hebrides
and Man to the Kingdom of Norway. From 1153 every new king paid of the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Man a bilge fee of 10 gold marks to every new king of Norway. In 1266 the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Man came under Scotland
Scotland
and since came the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
under England. The Norwegian language
Norwegian language
of Man died out in the 1400s. Faroe Islands[edit] See also: History of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Norse settlement in the Faroe Islands An Irishman wrote year 825 that it had lived Irish hermits in the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
in a hundred years, but they were lost because of the Norwegian Vikings. Otherwise, there were no population on these islands when Norwegian settlers settled there. The first settler named Grímur Kamban, and the settlement should have been done something before the year 825. Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
became subject to the Norwegian kingdom in 1035 or something before. Iceland[edit] See also: History of Iceland, Settlement of Iceland, and Icelandic Commonwealth Also here lived a few Irish hermits there when the Vikings arrived, and solitaries went his way, as the settlement was made in unpopulated land. Settlement period began with the Ingolv Ørnsson from Sunnfjord took the land in Reykjavík year 874 and lasted until 930. Most settlers came from 890-910. It was mostly people who would not stand under Harald Fairhair. In 1262–1264 Iceland
Iceland
came under the control of the King of Norway, who said Icelanders should provide his tax. Terms were set out in an agreement in 1262, which the Icelanders called Gissur conciliation, after the Earl
Earl
Gissur Þorvaldsson. Here it says that the King will leave the peace and Icelandic laws, and basically it was so. Greenland[edit] See also: History of Greenland, Norse settlements in Greenland, and Norse colonization of the Americas It is no more than about 300 km from Iceland
Iceland
to Greenland, and that there was a world here, was known long before Eirik Raude
Eirik Raude
went there. Eirik Raude
Eirik Raude
stayed at Jæren, but he and his father went from Norway
Norway
due murder, and settled in Iceland. Eirik came up in murder cases there too, and was convicted outlaw. Then he proceeded to Greenland
Greenland
and found West Greenland
Greenland
and made himself familiar with the country. He came back to the Island, fighting with his old opponent, and lost. They were reconciled that Eirik had to leave Iceland. That same year, 986, came Eirik with a fleet of settlers to Greenland, 14 ships arrived. They took their settlements south of West Greenland, in the two villages called eastern parish and Western Settlement. About this there is information in the writings of the Middle Ages, and from excavations done in our time. When the settlement was at its largest, was there 16 churches, 2 monastery and 280 farms in Greenland. The biggest farm was bispgården Gardar, where the big room was 36 m2 (388 sq ft) and a banquet hall was 130 m2 (1,399 sq ft) and where they had 100 caliper bound cattle. The country became Christian
Christian
in the year 1000, the Leiv Eiriksson, commissioned by Olav Tryggvason, and was later a separate diocese. After Eric's legal position is clear that newly constructed in Greenland
Greenland
was an independent free state. In the sagas there is also Greenland
Greenland
considered as a separate country. In 1247 came a newly appointed bishop from Norway
Norway
to Greenland, with orders from King Haakon IV Håkonsson that Greenlanders should not go to the king. In 1261 there were some farmenn back from Greenland
Greenland
with the message that Greenlanders had committed itself to paying tax to the king. Bohuslän[edit] See also: History of Bohuslän

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

Jämtland[edit] See also: History of Jämtland Snorre Sturlasson
Snorre Sturlasson
writes in Heimskringla
Heimskringla
about, Ketil Jamt the son of Onund Earl
Earl
of Sparbu
Sparbu
in Trøndelag, he moved east over the ridge to people and livestock, and cleaned up Jämtland. In the saga of Egill Skallagrímsson he writes that the plundering of Harald Fairhair ascended[clarification needed] many people including Jämtland. According to Snorre, Jämtland
Jämtland
had in Harald Fairhair's time an independent position. Under Haakon the Good
Haakon the Good
gave[clarification needed] Jämts in Norway
Norway
under the King and he promised tax and Hakon put law and land rights for them. This joystick at the front in the 1000s.[clarification needed] In Eric Haakonsson
Eric Haakonsson
Earl
Earl
of Lade's, time Jämtland
Jämtland
was a part of lens division after the settlement of the great naval Battle of Svolder
Battle of Svolder
and Jämtland, Herjedalen, Rana, Båhuslen
Båhuslen
and Romsdal
Romsdal
had fallen on Erik's brother Svein after agreement with the Swedish king, Olof Skötkonung. When Olav demanded tax of Jämtland, he didn't get it. Jämtland
Jämtland
received Christianity from the east as Trøndelag
Trøndelag
did. According to an inscription in Norwegian from the mid-1000s the country was Christianized
Christianized
by a man named Austmann Gudfastsson. Ecclesiastical heard[clarification needed] country under the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Uppsala
Uppsala
some time before 1571. Also King Øystein Magnusson (1103-1122) made a claim against the Jämts, that they should go under the king of Norway. Herjedalen[edit] See also: Härjedalen
Härjedalen
§ History What about Herjedalen are told that the first settled there, was Herjulv Hornbrjot. He was noticed husband (standard bearer) with King Halfdan the Black, but came in disgrace and went to Svearike. There he became an outlaw and then he settled in Herjedalen, which then layd in Norway. This must have been around the year 850. Herjedalen became Christian
Christian
in the years 1030 to 1060, and belonged to the diocese of Nidaros. Finnmark
Finnmark
and Lapland[edit]

Tax
Tax
territory of Finnmark, stretching over the Cap of the North

See also: Finnmark
Finnmark
§ History Gjesvær
Gjesvær
in Nordkapp is mentioned in the Sagas
Sagas
(Heimskringla) as a northern harbor in the Viking
Viking
Age, especially used by Vikings on the way to Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
(see Ottar from Hålogaland), and probably also for gathering food in the nearby seabird colony. Coastal areas of Finnmark were colonized by Norwegians
Norwegians
beginning in the 10th century, and there are stories describing clashes with the Karelians. Border skirmishes between the Norwegians
Norwegians
and Novgorodians continued until 1326, when the Treaty of Novgorod settled the issue. From the 11th century Olaf III of Norway
Norway
regarded the borders of Norway
Norway
as reaching to the White Sea. The first Norwegians
Norwegians
started moving to Finnmark
Finnmark
in the 13th century. Vardøhus Fortress
Vardøhus Fortress
was erected by Norway
Norway
in 1306 further east than today's land border by King Haakon V Magnusson, supporting Norwegian land ownership. This is the world's most northern fortress. Kola (Murmansk)[edit] See also: Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
§ History, and Kola Norwegians By the 13th century, a need to formalize the border between the Novgorod Republic and the Scandinavian countries became evident.[6] The Novgorodians, along with the Karelians
Karelians
who came from the south, reached the coast of what now is Pechengsky District
Pechengsky District
and the portion of the coast of Varangerfjord
Varangerfjord
near the Voryema River, which now is a part of Norway.[6] The Sami population was forced to pay tribute.[6] The Norwegians, however, were also attempting to take control of these lands, resulting in armed conflicts.[6] In 1251, a conflict between the Karelians, Novgorodians and the servants of the king of Norway lead to the establishment of a Novgorodian mission in Norway.[6] Also in 1251, the first treaty with Norway
Norway
was signed in Novgorod regarding the Sami lands and the system of tribute collections, making the Sami people pay tribute to both Novgorod and Norway.[6] By the terms of the treaty, Novgorodians could collect tribute from the Sami as far as Lyngen
Lyngen
fjord in the west, while Norwegians
Norwegians
could collect tribute on the territory of the whole Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
except in the eastern part of Tersky Coast.[6] No state borders were established by the 1251 treaty.[6] At that time there were no permanent Norwegian settlements on the Kola Peninsula, except as late as the 1860s. The treaty lead to a short period of peace, but the armed conflicts resumed soon thereafter.[6] Chronicles document attacks by the Novgorodians and the Karelians
Karelians
on Finnmark
Finnmark
and northern Norway
Norway
as early as 1271, and continuing well into the 14th century.[6] The official border between the Novgorod lands and the lands of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
was established by the Treaty of Nöteborg
Treaty of Nöteborg
on August 12, 1323.[6] The treaty primarily focused on the Karelian Isthmus
Karelian Isthmus
border and the border north of Lake Ladoga.[6] Another treaty dealing the matters of the northern borders was the Treaty of Novgorod signed with Norway
Norway
in 1326, which ended the decades of the Norwegian-Novgorodian border skirmishes in Finnmark.[7] Per the terms of this treaty, Norway
Norway
relinquished all claims to the Kola Peninsula.[7] A signed agreement regarding the taxation of the Kola Peninsula and Finnmark.[8] No border line was drawn, creating a marchland where both countries held the right to taxation of the Sami people.[9] However, the treaty did not address the situation with the Sami people
Sami people
paying tribute to both Norway
Norway
and Novgorod, and the practice continued until 1602.[7] While the 1326 treaty did not define the border in detail, it confirmed the 1323 border demarcation, which remained more or less unchanged for the next six hundred years, until 1920.[7] End of the self-rule[edit] See also: Kalmar Union After the extinction of the male lines of the perceived Fairhair dynasty in 1319, the throne of Norway
Norway
passed through matrilineal descent to Magnus VII, who in the same year became elected as king of Sweden
Sweden
too. In 1343 Magnus had to abdicate as King of Norway
Norway
in favour of his younger son, Haakon VI of Norway. The oldest son, Eric, was explicitly removed from the future line of succession of Norway. Traditionally Norwegian historians have interpreted this clear break with previous successions as stemming from dissatisfaction among the Norwegian nobility with Norway's junior position in the union. However it may also be the result of Magnus' dynastic policies. He had two sons and two kingdoms and might have wished they should inherit one each, rather than start battling over the inheritance. Magnus was at the same time attempting to secure Eric's future election as King of Sweden. The Black Death
Black Death
of 1349–51 was a contributing factor to the decline of the Norwegian monarchy as the noble families and population in general were gravely affected. But the most devastating factor for the nobility and the monarchy in Norway
Norway
was the steep decline in income from their holdings. Many farms were deserted and rents and taxes suffered. This left the Norwegian monarchy weakened in terms of manpower, noble support, defence ability and economic power.[1]The Black Death
Black Death
ended up depleting the Population By 65%, From roughly 350,000 to 125,000.[10] After the death of Haakon VI of Norway
Norway
in 1380, his son Olav IV of Norway
Norway
succeeded to both the thrones of Norway
Norway
and Denmark
Denmark
and also claimed the Kingdom of Sweden, holding its westernmost provinces already. Only after his death at the age of 17 his mother Margaret managed to oust their rival, king Albert, from Sweden, and thus united the three Scandinavian kingdoms in personal union under one crown, in the Kalmar Union. Olav's death extinguished yet one Norwegian male royal line; he was also the last Norwegian king to be born on Norwegian soil for the next 567 years.[1]

Norwegian kingdom stretching over the Atlantic Ocean

After the death of Olav IV of Norway
Norway
in 1387, the closest in line to the succession was the Swedish king Albert of Mecklenburg. However, his succession was politically unacceptable to the Norwegians
Norwegians
and Danes. Next in line were the descendants of the Sudreim
Sudreim
lineage, legitimate descendants of Haakon V
Haakon V
of Norway's illegitimate, but recognized daughter Agnes Haakonardottir, Dame of Borgarsyssel. However, the candidate from this lineage renounced his claim to the throne in favour of Eric of Pomerania, Queen Margaret's favoured candidate. The succession right of this lineage resurfaced in 1448 after the death of King Christopher, but the potential candidate, Sigurd Jonsson, again renounced his candidature (see Sudreim
Sudreim
claim). Eric's succession was one in a line of successions which did not precisely follow the laws of inheritance, but excluded one or a few undesirable heirs, leading to Norway
Norway
formally becoming an elective kingdom in 1450.[11] Starting with Margaret I of Denmark, the throne of Norway
Norway
was held by a series of non-Norwegian kings usually perceived as Danish, who variously held the throne to more than one Scandinavian countries, or of all of them. See also[edit]

Pre-Columbian colonization of the Americas

Notes and references[edit] Notes[edit]

^ The peak is conventionally taken to begin after the last phase of the unification during the reign of Saint Olav
Saint Olav
in the 1020s. ^ The empire was under Danish control from the Kalmar Union's beginning in 1397 and forward as the Danish colonial empire, but the possessions such as Iceland, Greenland
Greenland
and Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
remained Norwegian until the end of the Danish rule of Norway
Norway
in 1814, when they then officially become a part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ^ This number is found by adding up the areas of Jämtland, Härjedalen, Bohuslän, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Shetland
Shetland
and Orkney. The entire area of Greenland
Greenland
was not effectively controlled by anyone at the time, however it is today under the Crown of Denmark
Denmark
and therefore would have been under the Crown of Norway. ^ As a result of the Norwegian victory in the Battle of Anglesey
Anglesey
Sound in 1098 the Welsh considered the Norwegian soldiers as their liberators following Norway's victory against the Normans of England, and Magnus III regarded Anglesey
Anglesey
as part of the Kingdom of the Isles and then took the island as a possession of Norway. Since the Norwegians
Norwegians
never settled on the island, Anglesey
Anglesey
reverted to Welsh control when Gruffudd ap Cynan
Gruffudd ap Cynan
returned from Ireland the year after in 1099.

References[edit]

^ a b c A Short History of Norway
Norway
https://archive.is/mU1jM ^ The Norwegian Domination and the Norse World, C.1100-c.1400 ^ When Caithness
Caithness
Became Scottish ^ Domination and Lordship: Scotland, 1070-1230 ^ The Northern Earldoms - Orkney
Orkney
and Caithness
Caithness
from AD 870 to 1470 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Murmansk Oblast, p. 17 ^ a b c d Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Murmansk Oblast, p. 18 ^ Vassdal, Trond O. (3 August 2012). "Historisk sammendrag vedrørende riksgrensen Norge – Russland" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2012.  ^ Johanson (1999): 15 ^ Brothen, James A. "Population Decline and Plague in late medieval Norway". Annales de démographie historique (in French). 1996 (1): 137–149. doi:10.3406/adh.1996.1915.  ^ Hødnebø, Finn (ed.) (1974). Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder, bind XVIII. Gyldendal norsk forlag. p. 691. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Oscar Albert Johnsen (1924). Noregsveldets undergang : Et utsyn og et opgjør : Nedgangstiden. Kristiania: Aschehoug. Jørn Sandnes (1971). Ødetid og gjenreisning : Trøndsk busetningshistorie ca. 1200–1600. Universitetsforlaget. Per Sveaas Andersen (1977). Samlingen av Norge og kristningen av landet : 800–1130. Universitetsforlaget. Aslak Bolt (1997). Aslak Bolts jordebok. Riksarkivet.

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872–1387

Harald I Fairhair Eric I Bloodaxe Haakon I
Haakon I
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Harald Bluetooth
d & Haakon Sigurdsson
Haakon Sigurdsson
r Olaf I Tryggvason Sweyn Forkbeard
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r Olaf II the Saint Cnut the Great
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Haakon II
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Magnus VI
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Haakon V
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Christian
I ds John ds Christian
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II ds

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1524–1814

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III d Frederick II d Christian
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IV d Frederick III d Christian
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V d Frederick IV d Christian
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VI d Frederick V d Christian
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VII d Frederick VI d

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Only 1814

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Frederick

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