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Northumberland
Northumberland
(/nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/;[2] abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria
Cumbria
to the west, County Durham
County Durham
and Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
to the south and the Scottish Borders
Scottish Borders
to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64-mile (103 km) long distance path.[3] The county town is Alnwick,[4] although the county council is in Morpeth.[5] The county of Northumberland
Northumberland
included Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
until 1400, when the city became a county of itself.[6] Northumberland
Northumberland
expanded greatly in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth
Tynemouth
in 1536, Redesdale
Redesdale
around 1542 and Hexhamshire
Hexhamshire
in 1572.[7] Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland
Northumberland
in 1844.[8] Tynemouth
Tynemouth
and other settlements in North Tyneside
North Tyneside
were transferred to Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland
Northumberland
has been the site of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the Northumberland
Northumberland
National Park. Northumberland
Northumberland
is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.

Contents

1 History 2 Physical geography 3 Ecology and environment

3.1 Green belt

4 Economy and industry

4.1 Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology

5 Education 6 Demographics 7 Politics 8 Culture

8.1 Flag

9 Media 10 People

10.1 Notable people born in Northumberland 10.2 Notable people linked with Northumberland

11 Settlements

11.1 Parishes 11.2 Historic areas

12 Surnames 13 See also 14 Notes and references 15 Bibliography 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Northumberland

Long Crag
Long Crag
summit

Northumberland
Northumberland
originally meant 'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'.[9] The present county is the core of that former land, and has long been a frontier zone between England
England
and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall. It was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north of the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge
Corbridge
over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills
into present Scotland
Scotland
to Trimontium (Melrose). As evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland
Northumberland
has more castles than any other county in England,[10] including those of Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth. Northumberland
Northumberland
has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, and stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini
Votadini
people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes
Brigantes
to the south. Later, the region of present-day Northumberland
Northumberland
formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia
Bernicia
(from ca. 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria
Northumbria
under King Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the Humber
Humber
in the south to the Forth in the north. Following the battle of Nechtansmere
Nechtansmere
its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts gradually reclaimed the land previously invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian that contains present-day Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland
Northumberland
is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria
Northumbria
(reigned 634–642) invited monks from Iona
Iona
to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
Gospels (ca. 700). It became the home of St Cuthbert (ca. 634–687, abbot from ca. 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh
Bamburgh
is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal" castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England
England
under the monarchs of the House of Wessex
House of Wessex
in the 10th century. The Earldom of Northumberland
Northumberland
was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237). The Earls of Northumberland
Northumberland
once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England
England
from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland
Northumberland
has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569–1570) against Elizabeth I of England. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur
Harry Hotspur
(1364–1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1. The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped[by whom?] of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland
Northumberland
was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
under King James I and VI in 1603.[11] Northumberland
Northumberland
played a key role in the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland
Northumberland
until the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Blyth, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland
Northumberland
remains largely rural, and is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its scenic beauty and historical sites. Physical geography[edit]

Physical geography of Northumberland
Northumberland
and surrounding areas

Northumberland
Northumberland
has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat near the North Sea
North Sea
coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. The Cheviot Hills, in the northwest of the county, consist mainly of resistant Devonian
Devonian
granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies the Whin Sill
Whin Sill
(on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of Carboniferous
Carboniferous
dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the Whin Sill
Whin Sill
the county lies on Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape.[12] Lying off the coast of Northumberland
Northumberland
are the Farne Islands, another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life. There are coal fields in the southeast corner of the county, extending along the coastal region north of the river Tyne. The term 'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings.

River Coquet.

Being in the far north of England, above 55° latitude, and having many areas of high land, Northumberland
Northumberland
is one of the coldest areas of the country. It has an average[clarification needed] annual temperature of 7.1 to 9.3 °C, with the coldest temperatures inland.[13] However, the county lies on the east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, between 466 and 1060 mm annually, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the west.[14] Between 1971 and 2000 the county averaged[clarification needed] 1321 to 1390 hours of sunshine per year.[15] Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the Northumberland
Northumberland
National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian's Wall. Most of the park is over 240 metres (800 feet) above sea level. The Northumberland Coast
Northumberland Coast
is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). A small part of the North Pennines
North Pennines
AONB is also in the county. Natural England
England
recognises the following natural regions, or national character areas, that lie wholly or partially within Northumberland:[16]

North Northumberland
Northumberland
Coastal Plain South East Northumberland
Northumberland
Coastal Plain Cheviot Fringe Cheviot Hills Northumberland
Northumberland
Sandstone Hills Mid Northumberland Tyne Gap
Tyne Gap
& Hadrian's Wall Border Moors & Forests Tyne & Wear Lowlands

Ecology and environment[edit] There is a variety of notable habitats and species in Northumberland including: Chillingham Cattle
Chillingham Cattle
herd; Holy Island; Farne Islands; and Staple Island. Moreover, 50% of England's red squirrel population lives in the Kielder Water and Forest Park along with a large variety of other species including roe deer and wildfowl.[citation needed] Green belt[edit] Further information: North East Green Belt Northumberland's green belt is in the south of the county, surrounding Cramlington
Cramlington
and other communities along the county border, to afford a protection from the Tyneside
Tyneside
conurbation. The belt continues west along the border, past Darras Hall, and on to Hexham, stopping before Haydon Bridge. Its border there is shared with the North Pennines AONB. There are also some separated belt areas, for example to the east of Morpeth. The green belt was first drawn up in the 1950s. Economy and industry[edit]

Housedon Hill

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Northumberland
Northumberland
at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross value added[17] Agriculture[18] Industry[19] Services[20]

1995 2,585 130 943 1,512

2000 2,773 108 831 1,833

2003 3,470 109 868 2,494

Northumberland
Northumberland
has a relatively weak economy amongst the counties and other local government areas of the United Kingdom.[21] The county is ranked sixth lowest[clarification needed] amongst these 63 council areas. In 2003, 23% of males and 60% of females were earning less than the Council of Europe's decency threshold. As of May 2005 unemployment was at 2.3%, in line with the national average. Between 1999 and 2003 the number of businesses in the county grew 4.4% to 8,225, making 0.45% of registered businesses in Great Britain. Coal mining
Coal mining
in the county goes back to Tudor times. Coal mines continue to operate today; many of them are open cast mines. Planning approval was given in January 2014 for an open cast mine at Halton Lea Gate near Lambley, Northumberland.[22] A major source of employment and income in the county is tourism. In the early 2000s the county annually received 1.1 million British visitors and 50,000 foreign tourists, who spent a total of £162 million there. Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology[edit] Northumberland's industry is dominated by some multi-national corporations: Coca-Cola, MSD, GE and Drager all have significant facilities in the region.[23] Pharmaceutical, healthcare and emerging medical biotechnology companies form a very significant part of the county's economy.[24] Many of these companies are part of the approx. 11,000 worker[25] Northeast of England
England
Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) and include Aesica Pharmaceuticals,[26] Covance, MSD, Piramal Healthcare, Procter & Gamble, SCM Pharma,[27] Shasun Pharma Solutions,[28] Specials Laboratory,[29] and Thermo Fisher Scientific. The cluster also includes Cambridge Bioresearch, GlaxoSmithKline, Fujifilm Dyosynth Biotech, Leica Bio, Data Trial, High Force Research, Non-Linear Dynamics, and Immuno Diagnostic Systems (IDS). Newcastle University and Northumbria
Northumbria
University are the leading academic institutions nearby. The local industry includes commercial or academic activity in pre-clinical research and development, clinical research and development, pilot-scale manufacturing, full-scale active pharmaceutical ingredient/intermediate manufacturing, formulation, packaging, and distribution.[30] The towns of Alnwick, Cramlington, Morpeth, Prudhoe
Prudhoe
all have significant pharmaceutical factories and laboratories.[31] Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in Northumberland Northumberland
Northumberland
has a completely comprehensive education system, with 15 state schools, two academies and one independent school. Like Bedfordshire, it embraced the comprehensive ideal with the three tier system of lower/middle/upper schools with large school year sizes (often around 300). This eliminated choice of school in most areas: instead of having two secondary schools in one town, one school became a middle school and another became an upper school. A programme introduced in 2006 known as Putting the Learner First has eliminated this structure in the former areas of Blyth Valley and Wansbeck, where two-tier education has been introduced. Although the two processes are not officially connected, the introduction of two tiers has coincided with the move to build academy schools in Blyth, with Bede Academy and in Ashington
Ashington
at Hirst. One response to these changes has been the decision of Ponteland High School to apply for Trust status. Cramlington Learning Village
Cramlington Learning Village
has almost 400 pupils in each school year; making it one of the largest schools in England. The Blyth Academy in south-east Northumberland
Northumberland
can hold 1500 students throughout the building. Astley Community High School in Seaton Delaval, which accepts students from Seaton Delaval, Seaton Sluice
Seaton Sluice
and Blyth, has been the subject of controversial remarks from politicians claiming it would no longer be viable once Bede Academy opened in Blyth, a claim strongly disputed by the headteacher. Haydon Bridge
Haydon Bridge
High School, in rural Northumberland, is claimed to have the largest catchment area of any school in England, reputedly covering an area larger than that encompassed by the M25 motorway around London. The county of Northumberland
Northumberland
is served by one Catholic high school, St Benet Biscop Catholic Academy in Bedlington, which is attended by students from all over the area. Students from Northumberland
Northumberland
also attend independent schools such as the Royal Grammar School in Newcastle. Demographics[edit] At the Census 2001 Northumberland
Northumberland
registered a population of 307,190,[32] estimated to be 309,237 in 2003,[33] The 2011 census gave a population of 316,028.[34] In 2001 there were 130,780 households, 10% of which were all retired, and one third were rented. Northumberland
Northumberland
has a very low ethnic minority population at 0.985% of the population, compared to 9.1% for England
England
as a whole. In the 2001 census, 81% of the population reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and 12% as having no religion.[35] Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the population density of Northumberland
Northumberland
is only 62 persons per square kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in England. Politics[edit] Main article: Northumberland
Northumberland
County Council See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland Northumberland
Northumberland
is a unitary authority area and is the largest unitary area in England. The County Council is based in Morpeth. Like most English shire counties Northumberland
Northumberland
had until April 2009 a two-tier system of local government, with one county council and six districts, each with their own district council, responsible for different aspects of local government. These districts were, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick
Alnwick
and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The districts were abolished on 1 April 2009, the county council becoming a unitary authority. Elections for the new unitary authority council first took place on 1 May 2008. The County Council elections in 2013 returned the following results:

County Council Election 2017: Northumberland

Conservatives Labour Liberal Democrats Independents UKIP Green Turnout

44,387 27,122 12,150 11,592 3,114 2,270 100,635

Overall Council seats as of 2017

Conservative Labour Independents LibDem UKIP Green Total

33 (12) 24 (8) 7 (4) 3 (8) 0 () 0 () 47

Northumberland
Northumberland
is included within the North East England
England
European Parliament constituency which is represented by three Members of the European Parliament. Northumberland
Northumberland
is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies ; Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck and Hexham. The UK General election returned the following results:

General Election 2015 : Northumberland

Liberal Democrats Labour Conservative UKIP Others Green English Democrats Turnout

19,322 - 31,496 53,925 + 5,907 56,169 + 10,132 24,413 + 20,531 0 – 3,401

6.840 + 6,239 88 – 239

133,110

Overall Number of seats as of 2015

Labour Conservative Liberal Democrats BNP UKIP Others Green English Democrats

2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

On 23 June 2016, Northumberland
Northumberland
took part in the UK-wide referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. Northumberland
Northumberland
decided decisively to Leave the European Union.

EU Referendum 2016 : Northumberland

Leave Remain Majority Turnout

96,699 54.1%

82,022 45.89%

14,677 8.21%

178,721

Culture[edit] Northumberland
Northumberland
has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These include the rapper sword dance, the Clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe, a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish bagpipe. Northumberland
Northumberland
also has its own tartan or check, sometimes referred to in Scotland
Scotland
as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumberland
Northumberland
music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria
Northumbria
and the Lowlands of Scotland, and the large Irish population on Tyneside. The Border ballads of the region have been famous since late mediaeval times. Thomas Percy, whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who sang the Border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider popularity. William Morris
William Morris
considered them to be the greatest poems in the language, while Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne
knew virtually all of them by heart. One of the best-known is the stirring Chevy Chase, which tells of the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the Border 'maugre the doughty Douglas'. Of it, the Elizabethan courtier, soldier and poet Sir Philip Sidney
Sir Philip Sidney
famously said: 'I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet'. Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
said that he would give all his works to have written Chevy Chase. Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the north east of England
England
in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland and Northern English culture than with that of Southern England. One reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria, a fact borne out by the linguistic links between the two regions. These include many Old English words not found in other forms of Modern English, such as bairn for child (see Scots language
Scots language
and Northumbria).[36][37] The other reason for the close cultural links is the clear pattern of net southward migration. There are more Scots in England
England
than English people north of the border. Much of this movement is cross-county rather than distant migration, and the incomers thus bring aspects of their culture as well as reinforce shared cultural traits from both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border. Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus thought by some that the Anglo-Scottish border
Anglo-Scottish border
is largely political rather than cultural.[37][38] Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland
Northumberland
culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian
Northumbrian
Language Society to preserve the unique dialects ( Pitmatic and other Northumbrian
Northumbrian
dialects) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent.[36][37] Northumberland's county flower is the Bloody Cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS Northumberland. Flag[edit]

Northumberland
Northumberland
flag

Northumberland
Northumberland
has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of Northumberland
Northumberland
County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia (which the first County Council used until was granted its own arms). The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by Bede's brief description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century.[39] The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland
Northumberland
in 1995.[40] Media[edit] Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television
Tyne Tees Television
and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area (The Journal, Evening Chronicle). It is worth remembering however that although Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre – Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
– remains an essential element within the entity we know as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its Northumbrian
Northumbrian
hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the Northumberland
Northumberland
Gazette, Morpeth Herald, Berwick Advertiser, Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader. Lionheart Radio, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by OFCOM. Radio Borders
Radio Borders
covers Berwick and the rural north of the county. People[edit]

George Stephenson
George Stephenson
was born in Northumberland

Notable people born in Northumberland[edit] Ashington
Ashington
was the birthplace of the three famous footballers Bobby and Jack Charlton
Jack Charlton
in 1937 and 1935 respectively; and Jackie Milburn previously in 1924. In 1978 Steve Harmison, an international cricketer was born here. Mickley was the birthplace of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist in 1753 and Bob Stokoe, a footballer and F.A. Cup winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973) born 1930. Other notable births include:

Thomas Addison, a physician born at Longbenton
Longbenton
in 1793 George Airy, an astronomer and geophysicist born at Alnwick
Alnwick
in 1802 Alexander Armstrong, a comedy actor born at Rothbury
Rothbury
in 1970 Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, landscape and garden designer born at Kirkharle
Kirkharle
in 1715 Josephine Butler, social reformer born at Milfield
Milfield
in 1828 Basil Bunting, a poet born at Scotswood-on-Tyne
Scotswood-on-Tyne
in 1900 Eric Burdon, singer and leader of The Animals
The Animals
and War born at Walker-on-Tyne
Walker-on-Tyne
in 1941 Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood born at Newcastle upon Tyne in 1748 Grace Darling, a heroine born at Bamburgh
Bamburgh
in 1815 Pete Doherty, a musician born at Hexham
Hexham
in 1979 Bryan Donkin, an engineer and industrialist born at Sandhoe
Sandhoe
in 1768 Wilfrid Wilson Gibson, a poet born at Hexham
Hexham
in 1878 Daniel Gooch, an engineer and politician born at Bedlington
Bedlington
in 1816 Sir Alistair Graham (1942–), noted public figure[clarification needed] Tom Graveney, former England
England
cricketer and President of the Marylebone Cricket
Cricket
Club 2004/5, born in Riding Mill
Riding Mill
in 1927. Robson Green, an actor and singer born at Hexham
Hexham
in 1964 Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, British Prime Minister born at the family seat of Howick Hall
Howick Hall
in 1764 William Hewson,[41] British physician, "Father of Haematology", at Hexham, 14 Nov 1739 Jean Heywood actress born at Blyth best known for Our Day Out and All Creatures Great and Small. Marie Lebour
Marie Lebour
(1876–1971), British marine biologist Matt Ridley, a journalist, writer, and businessman, and son of Viscount Ridley John Rushworth
John Rushworth
(1793–1860), an historian born at Acklington
Acklington
Park, Warkworth George Stephenson, an engineer born at Wylam
Wylam
in 1781 Trevor Steven, footballer born in Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
in 1963 Percival Stockdale, poet and abolitionist Ross Noble, a stand-up comedian born and raised in Cramlington
Cramlington
in the 1970s and 1980s Hugh Trevor-Roper
Hugh Trevor-Roper
(1914–2003), an historian, born at Glanton William Turner, ornithologist and botanist born at Morpeth in 1508 Sid Waddell, a sports commentator and children's television screenwriter born at Alnwick
Alnwick
in 1940 Veronica Wedgwood (1910–1997), an historian, usually published as C. V. Wedgwood The Rt Rev Dr N. T. Wright, Anglican theologian and author, born in Morpeth in 1948 Kevin Whately, actor born in Humshaugh, near Hexham
Hexham
in 1951. Richard Pattison, climber born in Ashington
Ashington
in 1975.

Notable people linked with Northumberland[edit]

Algernon Charles Swinburne, the poet, was raised in Northumberland

Charles Algernon Parsons, inventor of the steam turbine while living in Wylam, Northumberland Thomas Burt, one of the first working-class members of parliament and was secretary of the Northumberland
Northumberland
Miners' Association in 1863 Matthew Festing, 79th Grand Master, the Order of Malta. Mark Knopfler, guitarist and frontman of Dire Straits, was raised in his mother's hometown of Blyth, Northumberland. Gordon Sumner, better known by his stage name of Sting, a schoolteacher turned musician was born in Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
in 1951 Henry 'Hotspur' Percy
Henry 'Hotspur' Percy
(1365–1403), borders warlord and rebel Billy Pigg, a 20th-century musician who was vice-President of the Northumbrian
Northumbrian
Pipers Society Alan Shearer
Alan Shearer
footballer, lives in Ponteland. Algernon Charles Swinburne, a poet raised at Capheaton
Capheaton
Hall Kathryn Tickell, a modern-day player of the Northumbrian
Northumbrian
smallpipes J. M. W. Turner, Thomas Girtin
Thomas Girtin
and John Cotman
John Cotman
all painted memorable pictures of Northumberland. Turner always attributed Norham
Norham
Castle as the foundation of his fame and fortune. Jonny Wilkinson, English rugby player, currently lives in rural Northumberland. Ragnar Lodbrok, Legendary Viking leader Allan Holdsworth, guitarist, originated from Newcastle upon Tyne before moving to California.

The site [1] contains exhaustive detailed entries for notable deceased Northumbrians. Settlements[edit] See also: List of places in Northumberland and List of settlements in Northumberland
Northumberland
by population Parishes[edit] NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from the list.

Parishes of Northumberland[42]

Name Population (2001) Former district/borough

Acklington 467 Alnwick

Acomb 1,184 Tynedale

Adderstone with Lucker 195 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Akeld 82 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Allendale 2,120 Tynedale

Alnham 99 Alnwick

Alnmouth 562 Alnwick

Alnwick 7,767 Alnwick

Alwinton 71 Alnwick

Amble 6,044 Alnwick

Ancroft 885 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Bamburgh 454 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Bardon Mill 364 Tynedale

Bavington 99 Tynedale

Beadnell 528 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Belford 1,055 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Belsay 436 Castle Morpeth

Bewick 69 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Biddlestone 88 Alnwick

Bowsden 157 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Branxton 121 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Brinkburn 200 Alnwick

Callaly 150 Alnwick

Capheaton 160 Castle Morpeth

Carham 347 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Cartington 97 Alnwick

Chatton 438 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Cornhill-on-Tweed 318 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Craster 342 Alnwick

Cresswell 237 Castle Morpeth

Denwick 266 Alnwick

Doddington 146 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Earle 89 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Easington 139 Berwick-upon-Tweed

East Chevington 3,192 Castle Morpeth

Edlingham 196 Alnwick

Eglingham 357 Alnwick

Ellingham 282 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Ellington and Linton 2,678 Castle Morpeth

Elsdon 205 Alnwick

Embleton 699 Alnwick

Ewart 72 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Felton 958 Alnwick

Ford 487 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Glanton 222 Alnwick

Harbottle 235 Alnwick

Hartburn 198 Castle Morpeth

Hauxley 220 Alnwick

Hebron 679 Castle Morpeth

Heddon-on-the-Wall 1,518 Castle Morpeth

Hedgeley 322 Alnwick

Hepple 139 Alnwick

Hepscott 898 Castle Morpeth

Hesleyhurst 30 Alnwick

Hexham 11,829 Tynedale

Hollinghill 90 Alnwick

Holy Island 162 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Horncliffe 374 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Ilderton 94 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Ingram 148 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Kilham 131 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Kirknewton 108 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Kyloe 323 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Lesbury 871 Alnwick

Lilburn 106 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Longframlington 979 Alnwick

Longhirst 446 Castle Morpeth

Longhorsley 798 Castle Morpeth

Longhoughton 1,442 Alnwick

Lowick 559 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Lynemouth 1,832 Castle Morpeth

Matfen 495 Castle Morpeth

Meldon 162 Castle Morpeth

Middleton 136 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Milfield 243 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Mitford 431 Castle Morpeth

Morpeth 13,833 Castle Morpeth

Netherton 194 Alnwick

Netherwitton 272 Castle Morpeth

Newton-by-the-Sea 242 Alnwick

Newton on the Moor
Newton on the Moor
and Swarland 822 Alnwick

Norham 536 Berwick-upon-Tweed

North Sunderland 1,803 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Nunnykirk 138 Alnwick

Ord, Northumberland 1,365 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Pegswood 3,174 Castle Morpeth

Ponteland 10,871 Castle Morpeth

Prudhoe 11,500 Tynedale

Rennington 305 Alnwick

Roddam 77 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Rothbury 1,740 Alnwick

Rothley 136 Alnwick

Shilbottle 1,349 Alnwick

Shoreswood 163 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Snitter 114 Alnwick

Stamfordham 1,047 Castle Morpeth

Stannington 1,219 Castle Morpeth

Thirston 510 Castle Morpeth

Thropton 409 Alnwick

Togston 340 Alnwick

Tritlington and West Chevington 218 Castle Morpeth

Ulgham 365 Castle Morpeth

Wallington Demesne 361 Castle Morpeth

Warkworth 1,493 Alnwick

Whalton 427 Castle Morpeth

Whittingham 406 Alnwick

Whitton and Tosson 223 Alnwick

Widdrington 158 Castle Morpeth

Widdrington Station and Stobswood 2,386 Castle Morpeth

Wooler 1,857 Berwick-upon-Tweed

Although not on this list, the population of Cramlington
Cramlington
is estimated at 39,000. Historic areas[edit] Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the county of Tyne and Wear:

Tyne and Wear Killingworth, Longbenton, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay

Surnames[edit] Most common surnames in Northumberland
Northumberland
at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881,[43] by order of incidence:

Thompson Smith Brown Robson Bell Scott Wilson Hall Taylor Armstrong

See also[edit]

Northumbria Duke of Northumberland List of Lord Lieutenants of Northumberland List of High Sheriffs of Northumberland Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland – List of Keepers of the Rolls Northumberland (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for the Northumberland
Northumberland
constituency List of people from Northumberland List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland List of places of interest and tourist attractions in Northumberland Northumberland
Northumberland
Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear Anglo-Scottish border

Notes and references[edit]

^ " Northumberland
Northumberland
2017/2018". The High Sheriffs Association of England and Wales. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ " Northumberland
Northumberland
definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com.  ^ " Northumberland Coast
Northumberland Coast
Path – LDWA Long Distance Paths". Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.  ^ "Alnwick". Northumberland
Northumberland
County Council. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  ^ Northumberland
Northumberland
County Hall moved from Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
to Morpeth on 21 April 1981 (see notice in "No. 48579". The London Gazette. 10 April 1981. p. 5337. ) ^ "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF). Local Studies Factsheet No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  ^ Daniell, Christopher (2013). "Tudor Expansion of the County of Northumberland". Atlas of Early Modern Britain, 1485–1715. London: Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0415729246.  ^ "The palatinate of Durham". Durham University Library Special Collections Catalogue. Durham University. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  ^ Place Name Meanings: "K to O", England's Northeast ^ Long, B. (1967). Castles of Northumberland. Newcastle, UK: Harold Hill. ^ Adams, Sharon; Goodare, Julian (2014). Scotland
Scotland
in the Age of Two Revolutions. Woodbridge: Boydell. p. 38-39. ISBN 9781843839392. Retrieved 28 Aug 2014.  ^ Northumberland National Park
Northumberland National Park
Authority, n.d. "The topology and climate of Northumberland
Northumberland
National Park." ^ Met Office, 2000. "Annual average temperature for the United Kingdom." ^ Met Office, 2000. "Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom." ^ Met Office, 2000. "Annual average sunshine for the United Kingdom." ^ North East National Character Area map at http://www.naturalengland.org.uk. Accessed on 7 April 2013. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured ^ Northumberland
Northumberland
County Council, 2003 " Northumberland
Northumberland
in context.". MS Word Archived 13 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine., HTML (Google)[dead link] ^ Hexham Courant 10 January 2014 'Villagers admit defeat after 15 years battling opencast' ^ "The leading companies shaping Northumberland's business landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ "Invest in Northumberland: Key sectors". ARCH. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ NEPIC Directory 2013 Pharmaceuticals: Manufacturing Creates Value. Northeast of England
England
Process Industry Cluster. May 2013. p. 33.  ^ Aesica Pharmaceuticals ^ SCM Pharma ^ "Shasun Pharma Solutions".  ^ "Unlicensed Medicines Supplier - Specials Medicines Manufacturing". www.specialslab.co.uk.  ^ "Pharmaceuticals Brochure" (PDF). Northeast of England
England
Process Industry Cluster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ "Invest in the Northumberland
Northumberland
business landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ Office for National Statistics, 2003. "Update on 2001 Census figures Archived 13 September 2005 at the Wayback Machine.." (PDF) ^ Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2003. "Local Government Finance Settlement 2005/06." (PDF) ^ "Local Authority population 2011". Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. "KS07 Religion: Census 2001, Key Statistics for local Authorities." ^ a b "North East England
England
History Pages". Northeastengland.talktalk.net. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ a b c " Northumbrian
Northumbrian
Language Society". Northumbriana.org.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ "Lowlands-L • a discussion group for people who share an interest in languages and cultures of the Lowlands". Lowlands-l.net. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book III, Ch. 11: "And to furnish a lasting memorial of the royal saint, they hung the King's banner of purple and gold over his tomb." ^ "The Northumberland
Northumberland
Flag Northumberland
Northumberland
Northumbria
Northumbria
England
England
UK GB (page 113)". Web.archive.org. 24 June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2005. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ Wilford, N. (1993). The life and work of William Hewson, haematol- ogist and immunologist. In: Medicine in Northumbria; Essays on the History of Medicine in the North East of England
England
(Chapter 8). New- castle-upon-Tyne.: Pybus Society for the History and Bibliography of Medicine. ISBN 978-0952209706.  ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Office for National Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Retrieved 25 September 2010.  ^ " Northumberland
Northumberland
Genealogy Resources & Parish Registers". forebears.co.uk. 

Bibliography[edit]

Sharp, Thomas (1937). Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham – a Shell Guide. B.T. Batsford.  Tomlinson, W.W. (1968) [1888]. Comprehensive guide to the county of Northumberland. Trowbridge: Redwood.  Thompson, Barbara; Norderhaug, Jennifer (2006). Walking the Northumberland
Northumberland
Dales: Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Country. Sigma Press. ISBN 1-85058-838-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Northumberland.

Northumberland
Northumberland
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Northumberland
Northumberland
County Council Visit Northumberland
Northumberland
– The Official Visitor Site Enjoy Northumberland Images of Northumberland
Northumberland
at the English Heritage Archive

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