NORTHUMBERLAND (/nɔːrˈθʌmbərlənd/ locally
/nɔːˈθʊmbələnd/ ) (abbreviated NORTHD) is a county in North
England . The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria
to the west,
County Durham and
Tyne and Wear to the south and the
Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the
North Sea coastline
with a 64-mile (103 km) long distance path. The county town is
Alnwick , although the county council is in Morpeth .
The county of
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400,
when the city became a county of itself .
greatly in the
Tudor period , annexing
Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482,
Tynedale in 1495,
Tynemouth in 1536,
Redesdale around 1542 and
Hexhamshire in 1572.
Islandshire , Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire
were incorporated into
Northumberland in 1844.
Tynemouth and other
North Tyneside were transferred to
Tyne and Wear in
1974 under the
Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972 .
Lying on the
Anglo-Scottish border ,
Northumberland has been the site
of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped
landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the
Northumberland National Park
Northumberland National Park .
Northumberland is the most sparsely
populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
* 1 History
* 2 Physical geography
* 3 Ecology
* 4 Economy and industry
* 4.1 Pharmaceuticals, healthcare and biotechnology
* 5 Education
* 6 Demographics
* 7 Politics
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Flag
* 9 Media
* 10 People
* 10.1 Famous people born in
* 10.2 Famous people linked with
* 11 Settlements
* 11.1 Parishes
* 11.2 Historic areas
* 12 Surnames
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes and references
* 15 Bibliography
* 16 External links
History of Northumberland
Long Crag summit
Northumberland originally meant 'the land of the people living north
of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former
land, and has long been a frontier zone between
During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay
north of Hadrian's Wall, and was only controlled by Rome for the brief
period of its extension north the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere
Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of
Cheviot Hills into present
Scotland to Trimontium (Melrose). As
evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland
has more castles than any other county in England, including those of
Bamburgh , Dunstanburgh , Newcastle and Warkworth .
Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art
, hillforts such as
Yeavering Bell and stone circles like the
Duddo Five Stones . Most of the area was occupied by
the Brythonic -Celtic
Votadini people, with another large tribe, the
Brigantes to the south.
Later, the region of present-day
Northumberland formed the core of
the Anglian kingdom of
Bernicia (from ca. 547), which united with
Deira (south of the
River Tees ) to form the kingdom of
the 7th century. The historical boundaries of
Northumbria under King
Edwin (reigned 616–633) stretched from the
Humber in the south to
the Forth in the north, although in 1018 its northern part, between
the Tweed and the Forth (including
Lothian , the region which contains
Edinburgh ), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland.
Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in
England, because Christianity flourished on
Lindisfarne —a tidal
island north of
Bamburgh , also called Holy Island—after King Oswald
Northumbria (reigned 634–642) invited monks from
Iona to come to
convert the English.
Lindisfarne saw the production of the Lindisfarne
Gospels (ca. 700) and it became the home of St Cuthbert (ca.
634–687, abbot from ca. 665), who is buried in
Durham Cathedral .
Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal"
castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of
the monarchs of the
House of Wessex in the 10th century.
The Earldom of
Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal
family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland
relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York
(1237). The Earls of
Northumberland once wielded significant power in
English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords ,
they had the task of protecting
England from Scottish invasion.
Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the
government, as seen in the
Rising of the North (1569–1570) against
Elizabeth I of
England . These revolts were usually led by the Earls
of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the
Percys, the dashing
Harry Hotspur (1364–1403), the hero of his Henry
IV, Part 1 . The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful
Northern families such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts; the latter
were stripped of all power and titles after the
English Civil War of
After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman
Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support.
Northumberland was long a wild county, where outlaws and Border
Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border
skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after
Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns of
England under King James I and
VI in 1603.
Northumberland played a key role in the
Industrial Revolution from
the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in
the widespread closures in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at
Ashington , Bedlington, Blyth , Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and
Pegswood . The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in
other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the
collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways.
Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries
before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s.
Northumberland remains largely rural, and is the least-densely
populated county in England. In recent years the county has had
considerable growth in tourism due to its scenic beauty and the
abundant evidence of its historical significance.
Physical geography of
Northumberland and surrounding areas
Northumberland has a diverse physical geography. It is low and flat
North Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the
Cheviot Hills , in the northwest of the county, consist
mainly of resistant
Devonian granite and andesite lava . A second area
of igneous rock underlies the
Whin Sill (on which Hadrian's Wall
runs), an intrusion of
Carboniferous dolerite . Both ridges support a
rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of the
Whin Sill the
county lies on
Carboniferous Limestone , giving some areas of karst
landscape . Lying off the coast of
Northumberland are the Farne
Islands , another dolerite outcrop, famous for their bird life.
There are coal fields in the southeast corner of the county,
extending along the coastal region north of the river Tyne. The term
'sea coal' likely originated from chunks of coal, found washed up on
beaches, that wave action had broken from coastal outcroppings.
River Coquet .
Being in the far north of England, above 55° latitude , and having
many areas of high land,
Northumberland is one of the coldest areas of
the country. It has an average annual temperature of 7.1 to 9.3 °C,
with the coldest temperatures inland. However, the county lies on the
east coast, and has relatively low rainfall, between 466 and 1060 mm
annually, with the highest amounts falling on the high land in the
west. Between 1971 and 2000 the county averaged 1321 to 1390 hours of
sunshine per year.
Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the
Northumberland National Park
Northumberland National Park , an area of outstanding landscape that
has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park
stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian\'s Wall
. Most of the park is over 240 metres (800 feet) above sea level. The
Northumberland Coast is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural
England recognises the following natural regions, or national
character areas , that lie wholly or partially within Northumberland:
North Northumberland Coastal Plain
* South East
Northumberland Coastal Plain
* Cheviot Fringe
Northumberland Sandstone Hills
Tyne Gap & Hadrian\'s Wall
* Border Moors & Forests
* Tyne Holy Island ;
Farne Islands ; and
Staple Island . Moreover,
50% of England's red squirrel population lives in the Kielder Water
and Forest Park along with a large variety of other species including
roe deer and wildfowl .
ECONOMY AND INDUSTRY
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of
Northumberland at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British
REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED
Northumberland has a relatively weak economy amongst the counties and
other local government areas of the United Kingdom. The county is
ranked sixth lowest amongst these 63 council areas. In 2003, 23% of
males and 60% of females were earning less than the Council of Europe
's decency threshold. As of May 2005 unemployment was at 2.3%, in line
with the national average. Between 1999 and 2003 the number of
businesses in the county grew 4.4% to 8,225, making 0.45% of
registered businesses in Great Britain.
Coal mining in the county goes back to Tudor times. Coal mines
continue to operate today; many of them are open cast mines. Planning
approval was given in January 2014 for an open cast mine at Halton Lea
Lambley, Northumberland .
A major source of employment and income in the county is tourism. In
the early 2000s the county annually received 1.1 million British
visitors and 50,000 foreign tourists, who spent a total of £ 162
PHARMACEUTICALS, HEALTHCARE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Northumberland's industry is dominated by some multi-national
Coca-Cola , MSD, GE and Drager all have significant
facilities in the region.
Pharmaceutical , healthcare and emerging
medical biotechnology companies form a very significant part of the
county's economy. Many of these companies are part of the approx.
11,000 worker Northeast of
England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC)
and include Aesica Pharmaceuticals ,
Covance , MSD , Piramal
Healthcare , Procter making it one of the largest schools in England.
The Blyth Academy in south-east
Northumberland can hold 1500 students
throughout the building.
Astley Community High School in Seaton
Delaval , which accepts students from Seaton Delaval, Seaton Sluice
and Blyth , has been the subject of controversial remarks from
politicians claiming it would no longer be viable once
opened in Blyth, a claim strongly disputed by the headteacher. Haydon
Bridge High School , in rural Northumberland, is claimed to have the
largest catchment area of any school in England, reputedly covering an
area larger than that encompassed by the M25 motorway around London.
The county of
Northumberland is served by one Catholic high school,
St Benet Biscop Catholic Academy in
Bedlington , which is attended by
students from all over the area. Students from
attend independent schools such as the Royal Grammar School in
At the Census 2001
Northumberland registered a population of 307,190,
estimated to be 309,237 in 2003, The 2011 census gave a population
In 2001 there were 130,780 households, 10% of which were all retired,
and one third were rented.
Northumberland has a very low ethnic
minority population at 0.985% of the population, compared to 9.1% for
England as a whole. In the 2001 census , 81% of the population
reported their religion as Christianity, 0.8% as "other religion", and
12% as having no religion.
Being primarily rural with significant areas of upland, the
population density of
Northumberland is only 62 persons per square
kilometre, giving it the lowest population density in
Northumberland County Council
Northumberland County Council See also: List of
Parliamentary constituencies in
Northumberland is a unitary authority area and is the largest unitary
area in England. The County Council is based in Morpeth .
Like most English shire counties
Northumberland had until April 2009
a two-tier system of local government , with one county council and
six districts, each with their own district council, responsible for
different aspects of local government. These districts were, Blyth
Castle Morpeth ,
Berwick-upon-Tweed . The districts were abolished on 1 April 2009, the
county council becoming a unitary authority .
Elections for the new unitary authority council first took place on 1
May 2008. The County Council elections in 2013 returned the following
COUNTY COUNCIL ELECTION 2013 : NORTHUMBERLAND
OVERALL COUNCIL SEATS AS OF 2013
+ 15 21
+ 4 11
– 15 0
+/- 0 3
– 4 0
+/- 0 47
Northumberland is included within the North East
Parliament constituency which is represented by three Members of the
European Parliament .
Northumberland is represented by four UK Parliamentary constituencies
; Berwick-upon-Tweed, Blyth Valley,
Wansbeck and Hexham. The UK
General election returned the following results:
GENERAL ELECTION 2015 : NORTHUMBERLAND
- 31,496 53,925
+ 5,907 56,169
+ 10,132 24,413
+ 20,531 0
– 3,401 6.840
+ 6,239 88
– 239 133,110
OVERALL NUMBER OF SEATS AS OF 2015
On 23 June 2016,
Northumberland took part in the UK-wide referendum
on the UK's membership of the EU.
Northumberland decided decisively to
Leave the European Union.
EU REFERENDUM 2016 : NORTHUMBERLAND
Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England. These
include the rapper sword dance, the Clog dance and the Northumbrian
smallpipe , a sweet chamber instrument, quite unlike the Scottish
Northumberland also has its own tartan or check , sometimes
referred to in
Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional
Northumberland music has more similarity to Lowland Scottish and Irish
music than it does to that of other parts of England, reflecting the
strong historical links between
Northumbria and the Lowlands of
Scotland , and the large Irish population on Tyneside.
Border ballads of the region have been famous since late
mediaeval times. Thomas Percy , whose celebrated Reliques of Ancient
English Poetry appeared in 1765, states that most of the minstrels who
Border ballads in London and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th
centuries belonged to the North. The activities of Sir Walter Scott
and others in the 19th century gave the ballads an even wider
William Morris considered them to be the greatest poems in
the language, while
Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne knew virtually all of
them by heart.
One of the best-known is the stirring Chevy Chase , which tells of
the Earl of Northumberland's vow to hunt for three days across the
Border 'maugre the doughty Douglas'. Of it, the Elizabethan courtier,
soldier and poet
Sir Philip Sidney famously said: 'I never heard the
old song of Percy and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more
than with a trumpet'.
Ben Jonson said that he would give all his works
to have written Chevy Chase.
Overall the culture of Northumberland, as with the north east of
England in general, has much more in common with Scottish Lowland and
Northern English culture than with that of Southern England. One
reason is that both regions have their cultural origins in the old
Anglian Kingdom of
Northumbria , a fact borne out by the linguistic
links between the two regions. These include many Old English words
not found in other forms of
Modern English , such as bairn for child
Scots language and
Northumbria ). The other reason for the
close cultural links is the clear pattern of net southward migration.
There are more Scots in
England than English people north of the
border. Much of this movement is cross-county rather than distant
migration, and the incomers thus bring aspects of their culture as
well as reinforce shared cultural traits from both sides of the
Whatever the case, the lands just north or south of the border have
long shared certain aspects of history and heritage; it is thus
thought by some that the
Anglo-Scottish border is largely political
rather than cultural.
Attempts to raise the level of awareness of
have also started, with the formation of a
Society to preserve the unique dialects (
Pitmatic and other
Northumbrian dialects) of this region, as well as to promote
Northumberland's county flower is the Bloody Cranesbill (Geranium
sanguineum ) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS
Northumberland has its own flag, which is a banner of the arms of
Northumberland County Council. The shield of arms is in turn based on
the arms medieval heralds had attributed to the Kingdom of Bernicia
(which the first County Council used until was granted its own arms).
The Bernician arms were fictional but inspired by
Bede 's brief
description of a flag used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th
The current arms were granted to the county council in 1951, and
adopted as the flag of
Northumberland in 1995.
Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media
outlets are served from nearby
Tyne and Wear , including radio
stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North , BBC Radio
Tyne Tees Television
Tyne Tees Television and
Metro Radio ), along with the
majority of daily newspapers covering the area (The Journal , Evening
Chronicle ). It is worth remembering however that although
Northumberland, like many administrative areas in England, has been
shorn of its geographical regional centre, that centre – Newcastle
upon Tyne – remains an essential element within the entity we know
as Northumberland. Newcastle's newspapers are as widely read in its
Northumbrian hinterland as any of those of the wider county: the
Northumberland Gazette ,
Morpeth Herald , Berwick Advertiser , Hexham
Courant and the
News Post Leader .
Lionheart Radio , a community radio station based in
Alnwick , has
recently been awarded a five-year community broadcasting licence by
Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the
George Stephenson was born in
FAMOUS PEOPLE BORN IN NORTHUMBERLAND
Ashington was the birthplace of the three famous footballers Bobby
Jack Charlton in 1937 and 1935 respectively; and Jackie Milburn
previously in 1924. In 1978
Steve Harmison , an international
cricketer was born here.
Mickley was the birthplace of
Thomas Bewick , an artist, wood
engraver and naturalist in 1753 and
Bob Stokoe , a footballer and F.A.
Cup winning manager (with Sunderland in 1973) born 1930.
Other notable births include:
Thomas Addison , a physician born at
Longbenton in 1793
* George Airy , an astronomer and geophysicist born at
* Alexander Armstrong , a comedy actor born at
Rothbury in 1970
* Lancelot \'Capability\' Brown , landscape and garden designer born
Kirkharle in 1715
Josephine Butler , social reformer born at
Milfield in 1828
Basil Bunting , a poet born at
Scotswood-on-Tyne in 1900
Eric Burdon , singer and leader of
The Animals and War born at
Walker-on-Tyne in 1941
Cuthbert Collingwood , Ist Baron Collingwood born at Newcastle
upon Tyne in 1748
Grace Darling , a heroine born at
Bamburgh in 1815
Pete Doherty , a musician born at
Hexham in 1979
Bryan Donkin , an engineer and industrialist born at
Wilfrid Wilson Gibson , a poet born at
Hexham in 1878
Daniel Gooch , an engineer and politician born at
Alistair Graham (1942–), noted public figure
Tom Graveney , former
England cricketer and President of the
Cricket Club 2004/5, born in
Riding Mill in 1927.
Robson Green , an actor and singer born at
Hexham in 1964
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey , British Prime Minister born at the
family seat of
Howick Hall in 1764
* William Hewson , British physician, "Father of Haematology", at
Hexham, 14 Nov 1739
Jean Heywood actress born at Blyth best known for Our Day Out and
All Creatures Great and Small.
Marie Lebour (1876–1971), British marine biologist
Matt Ridley , a journalist, writer, and businessman, and son of
John Rushworth (1793–1860), an historian born at
George Stephenson , an engineer born at
Wylam in 1781
Trevor Steven , footballer born in
Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1963
Percival Stockdale , poet and abolitionist
Ross Noble , a stand-up comedian born and raised in
the 1970s and 1980s
Hugh Trevor-Roper (1914–2003), an historian, born at
* William Turner , ornithologist and botanist born at Morpeth in
Sid Waddell , a sports commentator and children's television
screenwriter born at
Alnwick in 1940
Veronica Wedgwood (1910–1997), an historian, usually published
as C. V. Wedgwood
* The Rt Rev Dr
N. T. Wright
N. T. Wright , Anglican theologian and author, born
in Morpeth in 1948
* Gordon Dodds (1941–2010), Provincial Archivist of Manitoba and
author, born in
Kevin Whately , actor born in
Humshaugh , near
Hexham in 1951.
Richard Pattison , climber born in
Ashington in 1975.
FAMOUS PEOPLE LINKED WITH NORTHUMBERLAND
Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne , the poet, was raised in
Charles Algernon Parsons
Charles Algernon Parsons , inventor of the steam turbine while
Wylam , Northumberland
Thomas Burt , one of the first working-class members of parliament
and was secretary of the
Northumberland Miners' Association in 1863
Matthew Festing , 79th Grand Master, the Order of Malta.
Mark Knopfler , guitarist and frontman of
Dire Straits , was
raised in his mother's hometown of
Blyth, Northumberland .
* Gordon Sumner , better known by his stage name of Sting , a
schoolteacher turned musician was born in
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne in 1951
* Henry \'Hotspur\' Percy (1365–1403), borders warlord and rebel
Billy Pigg , a 20th-century musician who was vice-President of the
Northumbrian Pipers Society
Alan Shearer footballer, lives in
Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne , a poet raised at
Kathryn Tickell , a modern-day player of the Northumbrian
* Turner ,
Thomas Girtin and
John Cotman all painted memorable
pictures of Northumberland. Turner always tipped his hat towards
Norham Castle as the foundation of his fame and fortune.
Jonny Wilkinson , English rugby player, currently lives in rural
Ragnar Lodbrok , Legendary Viking leader
Allan Holdsworth , guitarist, originated from Newcastle upon Tyne
before moving to California.
The site contains exhaustive detailed entries for famous deceased
List of places in Northumberland and List of settlements in
Northumberland by population
NOTE: New parishes have been added since 2001. These are missing from
Adderstone with Lucker
Ellington and Linton
Newton on the Moor and
Tritlington and West Chevington
Widdrington Station and Stobswood
Although not on this list, the population of
Cramlington is estimated
Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall
under the county of
Tyne and Wear :
TYNE AND WEAR
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne ,
North Shields ,
Most common surnames in
Northumberland at the time of the United
Kingdom Census of 1881 , by order of incidence:
Duke of Northumberland
* List of Lord Lieutenants of
* List of High Sheriffs of
Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland – List of Keepers of the
Northumberland (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of
MPs for the
List of people from Northumberland
List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland
* List of places of interest and tourist attractions in
Northumberland Street ,
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne , Tyne and Wear
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "
Northumberland 2017/2018". The High Sheriffs Association of
England and Wales. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
* ^ Collins English Dictionary
* ^ "
Northumberland Coast Path – LDWA Long Distance Paths".
Ldwa.org.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
* ^ "Alnwick".
Northumberland County Council. Retrieved 14 June
Northumberland County Hall moved from
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne to
Morpeth on 21 April 1981 (see notice in "No. 48579". The London
Gazette . 10 April 1981. p. 5337. )
* ^ "History of Newcastle upon Tyne" (PDF). Local Studies Factsheet
No. 6. Newcastle City Council. 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
* ^ Daniell, Christopher (2013). "Tudor Expansion of the County of
Northumberland". Atlas of Early Modern Britain, 1485–1715. London:
Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 0415729246 .
* ^ "The palatinate of Durham". Durham University Library Special
Collections Catalogue. Durham University. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
* ^ englandsnortheast.co.uk/PlaceNameMeaningsKtoO
* ^ Long, B. (1967). Castles of Northumberland. Newcastle, UK:
Northumberland National Park
Northumberland National Park Authority, n.d. "The topology and
Northumberland National Park."
Met Office , 2000. "Annual average temperature for the United
* ^ Met Office, 2000. "Annual average rainfall for the United
* ^ Met Office, 2000. "Annual average sunshine for the United
* ^ North East National Character Area map at
http://www.naturalengland.org.uk. Accessed on 7 April 2013.
* ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
* ^ includes hunting and forestry
* ^ includes energy and construction
* ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
Northumberland County Council, 2003 "
context.". MS Word, HTML (Google)
Hexham Courant 10 January 2014 'Villagers admit defeat after 15
years battling opencast'
* ^ "The leading companies shaping Northumberland\'s business
landscape". Arch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012.
Retrieved 19 September 2013.
* ^ "Invest in Northumberland: Key sectors". ARCH. Archived from
the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
* ^ NEPIC Directory 2013 Pharmaceuticals: Manufacturing Creates
Value. Northeast of
England Process Industry Cluster. May 2013. p. 33.
* ^ Aesica Pharmaceuticals
* ^ SCM Pharma
* ^ Shasun Pharma Solutions
* ^ Specials Laboratory
* ^ "Pharmaceuticals Brochure" (PDF). Northeast of
Industry Cluster. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September
2015. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
* ^ "Invest in the
Northumberland business landscape". Arch.
Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 19 September
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics , 2003. "Update on 2001 Census
figures Archived 13 September 2005 at the
Wayback Machine .." (
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister , 2003. "Local Government
Finance Settlement 2005/06." (PDF)
* ^ "Local Authority population 2011". Retrieved 1 July 2015.
* ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. "KS07 Religion: Census
2001, Key Statistics for local Authorities."
* ^ A B "North East
England History Pages".
Northeastengland.talktalk.net. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
* ^ A B C "
Northumbrian Language Society". Northumbriana.org.uk.
Retrieved 25 September 2010.
* ^ "Lowlands-L • a discussion group for people who share an
interest in languages and cultures of the Lowlands". Lowlands-l.net.
Retrieved 25 September 2010.