Northern Somali
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Northern Somali ( so, Af Waqooyi) is a dialect of the
Somali language Somali (Latin: ; Wadaad writing, Wadaad: ; Osmanya: ๐’–๐’ ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜ ) is an Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic languages, Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater ...
and forms the basis for Standard Somali. It is spoken by more than 60% of the entire Somali population, with its speech area stretching from
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, ุฌูŠุจูˆุชูŠ ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
,
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ''Jumhลซrฤซyat แนขลซmฤlฤซlฤnd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
,
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a regional state A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is ...

Somali Region
of
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
,
Northern Frontier District The North Eastern Province ( so, Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former Provinces of Kenya, provinces in Kenya. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km2, with its capital at Garissa. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), ...
to most parts of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
This widespread modern distribution is a result of a long series of southward population movements over the past ten centuries from the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, ุฎู„ูŠุฌ ุนุฏู†, so, Gacanka Cadmeed ๐’…๐’–๐’๐’•๐’Œ ๐’‹๐’–๐’†๐’—๐’’) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, ุจุฑุจุฑุฉ) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
littoral.


Overview

Northern Somali is spoken by more than 60% of the entire Somali population. Its primary speech area stretches from Djibouti, Somaliland and to parts of the eastern and southwestern sections of Somalia. This widespread modern distribution is a result of a long series of southward population movements over the past ten centuries from the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, ุฎู„ูŠุฌ ุนุฏู†, so, Gacanka Cadmeed ๐’…๐’–๐’๐’•๐’Œ ๐’‹๐’–๐’†๐’—๐’’) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, ุจุฑุจุฑุฉ) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
littoral. Northern Somali is subdivided into three dialects: Northern Somali proper (spoken in the northwest), the Darod group (spoken in the northeast and along the eastern Ethiopia frontier), and the Lower Juba group (spoken by northern Somali settlers in the southern riverine areas). Northern Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige out of the Somali dialects. Due to being wide spread, it forms the basis for Standard Somali. Most of the classical Somali poetry is recited and composed in the Northern Somali dialect. The dialect of the
Isaaq The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) ( so, Reer Sheekh Isxaaq, ar, ุจู†ูŠ ุฅุณุญุงู‚, Banฤซ Isแธฅฤq) is a Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’†๐’–, ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠูˆู†) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cu ...
clan-family has the highest prestige of any other Somali dialect. Northern Somali also contains many Harari loanwords.


Varieties

Lamberti divides Northern Somali into three subgroups: * ''Northern Somali proper'': spoken in the countries of
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, ุฌูŠุจูˆุชูŠ ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
and
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ''Jumhลซrฤซyat แนขลซmฤlฤซlฤnd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
(
Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, ุฃูˆุฏูŽู„) is a region in Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑูŠุฉ ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุง ...

Awdal
,
Maroodi Jeex Marodi Jeh ( so, Maroodi Jeex, ar, ู…ุฑูˆุฏูŠ ุฌูŠุญ) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in western Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuur ...
, Saaxil,
Togdheer Togdheer ( so, Togdheer, ar, ุชููˆู’ุฌู’ุฏูŽูŠู’ุฑ, Tลซjdayr) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Sahil, Somaliland, Saaxil t ...

Togdheer
,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, ุณูŽู†ูŽุงุฌ) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠู„ุงู†ุฏ ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
and Sool). The dialects belonging to this group are the Issa,
Gadabuursi The Gadabuursi (Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered ...
,
Isaaq The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) ( so, Reer Sheekh Isxaaq, ar, ุจู†ูŠ ุฅุณุญุงู‚, Banฤซ Isแธฅฤq) is a Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’†๐’–, ar, ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠูˆู†) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cu ...
and the Darood, (
Warsangeli The Warsangali ( so, Warsangeli, ar, ู‚ุจูŠู„ุฉ ูˆุฑุณู†ุฌู„ูŠ) is a major Somali sub clan, part of the Harti Harti ( so, Harti, ar, ู‡ุฑุชูŠ), meaning "strong man", is a Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’ ...
and ). The greatest number of speakers overall. * ''Darod group'': spoken in the regions of
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, ฮ’ฮฌฯฮนฮฟฮฝ, translit=Bรกrion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Cittร  Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...

Bari
, Nugal,
Mudug Mudug ( so, Mudug; it, Mudugh) is an administrative region (''gobol'') in north-central Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia ...
, in the
Somali Region The Somali Region ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แˆฑแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, ar, ุงู„ู…ู†ุทู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„ูŠุฉ), also known as Soomaali Galbeed (''Somali West'') is a regional state A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is ...

Somali Region
of Ethiopia and along the Ethiopian border in the regions of
Galguduud Galguduud ( so, Galgaduud, ar, ุฌู„ุฌุฏูˆุฏ, it, Galgudud or ''Ghelgudud'') is an administrative region (''gobol'') of Galmudug Galmudug (Arabic: ''ุฌู„ู…ุฏุฌ''; it, Galmudugh), officially Galmudug State of Somalia (Somali language, Somali: ...
,
Bakool Bakool ( so, Bakool, ar, ุจูƒูˆู„) is a region (''gobol'') in southwestern Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆู…ุงู„, aแนฃ-แนขลซmฤl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal ...
and
Gedo Gedo ( so, Gedo, Maay: ''Gethy'', ar, ุฌูŠุฐูˆ, it, Ghedo or ''Ghedu'') is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya ...

Gedo
. The dialects of this group are the North-Eastern dialects (
Majeerteen The Majeerteen ( so, Majeerteen, ar, ู…ุงุฌุฑุชูŠู†; also spelled Majerteen, Macherten, Majertain, or Mijurtin) is a sub-clan. It is one of the major Somali groups, with a vast traditional territory spanning 3 major regions of Somalia: Bari ...
) and
Ogaden Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled ''Ogadฤ“n''; so, Ogaadeen, am, แ‹แŒ‹แ‹ดแŠ•) is one of the historical names given to the modern Somali Region The Somali Regional State ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, แ‹จแˆถแˆ›แˆŒ แŠญแˆแˆ, a ...
. * ''Lower Juba group'': spoken by the part of the Northern Somali population which have immigrated into the
Lower Juba Lower Juba ( so, Jubbada Hoose, Maay: ''Jubithy Hoosy'', ar, ุฌูˆุจุง ุงู„ุณูู„ู‰, it, Basso Giuba) is an administrative region (''gobol'') in southern Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: ๐’ˆ๐’๐’‘๐’›๐’๐’˜๐’•๐’–; ar, ุงู„ุตูˆ ...
region in the last 100/150 years. As this territory was a Benaadir-speaking area before the arrival of the immigrants from the north, the Nsom of Lower Jubba presents many peculiarities typical for the Benaadir dialects and could be considered a Benaadirised Nsom.


References

{{Somali language Somali language Cushitic languages Languages of Somaliland Languages of Somalia Languages of Djibouti Languages of Kenya Languages of Ethiopia