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Northern Low Saxon (in High German: ') is a subgroup of West Low German dialects of Low German (also known as Low Saxon). As such, it covers a great part of the West Low German-speaking areas of northern Germany, with the exception of the border regions where Eastphalian and Westphalian are spoken, and Gronings dialect in the Netherlands.

Dialects

Northern Low Saxon can be divided into Holsteinisch, Schleswigsch, East Frisian Low Saxon, Dithmarsisch, North Hanoveranian, Emsländisch, and Oldenburgisch in Germany, with additional dialects in the Netherlands such as Gronings. ' is spoken in Holstein, the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, in Dithmarschen, around Neumünster, Rendsburg, Kiel and Lübeck. The Lübeck dialect ("Lübsch") was a lingua franca for the Hanseatic league in the Middle Ages. ' () is spoken in Schleswig, which is divided between Germany and Denmark. It is mainly based on a South Jutlandic substrate. Therefore, it has some notable differences in pronunciation and grammar with its southern neighbour dialects. The dialects on the west coast of Schleswig (Nordfriesland district) and some islands show some North Frisian influences. Oldenburg dialect (Low Saxon: ', german: Oldenburger Platt|link=no) is spoken around the city of Oldenburg. It is limited to Germany. The main difference between it and East Frisian Low Saxon, which is spoken in the Frisian parts of Lower Saxony, is the lack of an East Frisian substrate. ''Ollnborger Platt'' is spoken in the city of Bremen as ''Breemsch'' ("Bremian"), which is the only capital where ''Ollnborger Platt'' is spoken. Minden in Westphalia, where ''Ollnborger Platt'' is traditionally spoken, possibly belongs partially to the area. Gronings dialect, Netherlands.

Characteristics

The most obvious common character in grammar is the forming of the perfect participle. It is formed without a prefix, as in all North Germanic languages, as well as English and Frisian, but unlike standard German, Dutch and some dialects of Westphalian and Eastphalian Low Saxon: *''gahn'' (to go): ''Ik bün'' ''gahn'' (I have gone/I went) *''seilen'' (to sail): ''He hett'' ''seilt'' (He (has) sailed) *''kopen'' (to buy): ''Wi harrn'' ''köfft'' (We had bought) *''kamen'' (to come): ''Ji sünd'' ''kamen'' (You (all) have come/You came) *''eten'' (to eat): ''Se hebbt'' ''eten'' (They have eaten/They ate) The diminutive (''-je'') (Dutch and East Frisian Low Saxon ''-tje'', Eastphalian ''-ke'', High German ''-chen'', Alemannic ''-le'', ''li'') is hardly used. Some examples are ''Buscherumpje'', a fisherman's shirt, or ''lüttje'', a diminutive of ''lütt'', little. Instead the adjective ''lütt'' is used, e.g. ''dat lütte Huus'', ''de lütte Deern'', ''de lütte Jung''. There are a lot of special characteristics in the vocabulary, too, but they are shared partly with other languages and dialects, e.g.: *Personal pronouns: ''ik'' (like Dutch ik), ''du'' (like German Du), ''he'' (like English he), ''se'' , ''dat'' (Dutch dat), ''wi'' , ''ji'' (similar to English ye, Dutch jij), ''se'' . *Interrogatives (English/High German): ''wo'' , ''woans'' (how/''wie''), ''wo laat'' (how late/''wie spät''), ''wokeen'' (who/''wer''), ''woneem'' (where/''wo''), ''wokeen sien'' / ''wen sien'' (whose/''wessen'') *Adverbs (English/High German): ''laat'' (late/''spät''), ''gau'' (fast/''schnell''), ''suutje'' (slowly, carefully/''langsam'', ''vorsichtig'', from Dutch ''zoetjes'' ‘nice and easy’, adverbial diminutive of ''zoet'' ‘sweet’), ''vigeliensch'' (difficult, tricky/''schwierig'') *Prepositions (English/High German): ''bi'' (by, at/''bei''), ''achter'' (behind/''hinter''), ''vör'' (before, in front of/''vor''), ''blangen'' (beside, next to, alongside/''neben''), ''twüschen'' (betwixt, between/''zwischen''), ''mang'', ''mank'' (among/''unter'')


See also


* Languages of Germany


References





External links



Plattmakers' Northern Low Saxon dictionary
{{Authority control Category:Low German Category:German dialects