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The Northern Liang
Northern Liang
(Chinese: 北涼; pinyin: Bĕi Liáng; 397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
in China. It was founded by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Juqu family, although they initially supported the Han official Duan Ye as prince, they overthrew him in 401 and took over the state for themselves. All rulers of the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
proclaimed themselves "wang" (translatable as "prince" or "king"). Most Chinese historians view the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
as having ended in 439, when its capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei, Gansu) fell to Northern Wei
Northern Wei
forces and its prince Juqu Mujian was captured. However, some view his brothers Juqu Wuhui and Juqu Anzhou, who subsequently settled with Northern Liang
Northern Liang
remnants in Gaochang
Gaochang
(高昌, in modern Turpan Prefecture, Xinjiang), as a continuation of the Northern Liang, and thus view the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
as having ended in 460 when Gaochang fell to Rouran
Rouran
and was made a vassal. It was during the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
that the first Buddhist cave shrine sites appear in Gansu
Gansu
Province.[3] The two most famous cave sites are Tiantishan ("Celestial Ladder Mountain"), which was south of the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
capital at Yongcheng, and Wenshushan ("Manjusri's Mountain"), halfway between Yongcheng and Dunhuang. Maijishan lies more or less on a main route connecting China
China
and Central Asia (approximately 150 miles (240 km) west of modern Xi'an), just south of the Weihe (Wei River). It had the additional advantage of located not too distant from a main route that also ran N-S to Chengdu and the Indian subcontinent. In 439, remnants of the Northern Liang
Northern Liang
royal family fled to Gaochang to found a new kingdom, led by Juqu Wuhui and Juqu Anzhou where they would hold on to power until 460 when they were conquered by the Rouran
Rouran
(Avars).[4] The remnants of the Juqu family were slaughtered.

Contents

1 Rulers of the Northern Liang 2 Rulers family tree 3 See also 4 Notes and references

Rulers of the Northern Liang[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations

Chinese convention: use family and given names

Northern Liang
Northern Liang
397-439 (as Gaochang
Gaochang
"wang" 442-460)

Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye (段業 Duàn Yè) 397-401 Shenxi (神璽 Shénxǐ) 397-399 Tianxi (天璽 Tiānxǐ) 399-401

Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Wuxuan (武宣 Wǔxuān) Juqu Mengxun (沮渠蒙遜 Jǔqú Méngxùn) 401-433 Yongan (永安 Yǒngān) 401-412 Xuanshi (玄始 Xuánshǐ) 412-428 Chengxuan (承玄 Chéngxuán) 428-430 Yihe (義和 Yìhé) 430-433

Did not exist Ai (哀王 āi) Juqu Mujian (沮渠牧犍 Jǔqú Mùjiān) 433-439 Yonghe (永和 Yǒnghé) 433-439

Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Wuhui (沮渠無諱 Jǔqú Wúhuí) 442-444 Chengping (承平 Chéngpíng) 443-444

Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Anzhou (沮渠安周 Jǔqú ānzhōu) 444-460 Chengping (承平 Chéngpíng) 444-460

Rulers family tree[edit]

Northern Liang
Northern Liang
rulers family tree

Juqu Mengxun 沮渠蒙逊 368-433 Wuxuan 武宣 r.401-433

Juqu Mujian 沮渠牧犍 bef.420–d.447 Ai 哀 r. 433-439

Juqu Wuhui 沮渠無諱 d. 444; r. 442-444

Juqu Anzhou 沮渠安周 d. 460; r. 444-460

See also[edit]

Xiongnu List of past Chinese ethnic groups Wu Hu Sixteen Kingdoms Gansu Gaochang Avars

Notes and references[edit]

^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%ABe%A7%BA&king=%A4%E5%AB%D2&reign=%A4%B8%B9%C5&yy=16&ycanzi=&mm=9&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%FE%A6%A6 ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 123. ^ Michael Sullivan, The Cave-Temples of Maichishan. London: Faber and Faber, 1969. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 

v t e

Sixteen Kingdoms

History

Uprising of the Five Barbarians Disaster of Yongjia Shi Le's unification of North China Wei–Jie war Wei- Xianbei
Xianbei
war Fu Jian's unification of North China Huan Wen's expeditions Battle of Fei River Liu Yu's expeditions

The 16 Kingdoms

Cheng Han Former Zhao Later Zhao Former Liang Later Liang Western Liang Northern Liang Southern Liang Former Qin Later Qin Western Qin Former Yan Later Yan Northern Yan Southern Yan Xia

Other states

Ran Wei Northern Wei Western Shu Western Yan Duan Yuwen Chouchi Zhai Wei Dai Huan Chu Duan Qi

Involved

Jin Dynasty Jie Xiongnu Qiang Xianbei Di

Key personalities

Liu Yuan Shi Le Sima Yue Ran Min Huan Wen Fu Jian Xie Xuan Liu Yu

Histories of the Era

Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Ki

.