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North India
India
is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India
India
are the Indus-Gangetic Plain
Indus-Gangetic Plain
and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
and Central Asia. The term North India
India
has varying definitions—the Ministry of Home Affairs in its Northern Zonal Council
Zonal Council
Administrative division included the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh.[1][4] while the Ministry of Culture in its North Culture Zone includes the state of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
but excludes Delhi[2] whereas the Geological Survey of India
India
includes Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Delhi
Delhi
but excludes Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Chandigarh.[3] Other states sometimes included are Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and West Bengal.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] North India
India
has been the historical centre of the Mughal, Delhi Sultanate and British Indian Empires. It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu
Hindu
pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Allahabad, Vaishno Devi
Vaishno Devi
and Pushkar, the Buddhist
Buddhist
pilgrimage centres of Sarnath
Sarnath
and Kushinagar, the Sikh
Sikh
Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho
Khajuraho
temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Bhimbetka
Bhimbetka
Caves, Sanchi
Sanchi
monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra
Agra
Fort, Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
and the Taj Mahal. The languages that have official status in one or more of the states and union territories located in North India
India
are Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi and English.[12]

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 Government of India
India
definitions 1.2 Wider definition

1.2.1 Indian press definition 1.2.2 Latitude-based definition 1.2.3 Anecdotal usage

2 History

2.1 "North of the Vindhyas" 2.2 Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influences

3 Geography

3.1 General climate 3.2 Precipitation 3.3 Traditional seasons

4 Demographics

4.1 Religion 4.2 Languages

5 Culture

5.1 Dance 5.2 Clothing

6 Flora and fauna

6.1 Wildlife parks and reserves

7 Places of interest

7.1 Nature 7.2 Pilgrimage 7.3 Historical

8 Universities 9 Economy 10 See also 11 References and bibliography 12 External links

Definitions[edit] Different authorities and sources define North India
India
differently.

States under Northern India
India
Zonal Council
Zonal Council
in orange

Government of India
India
definitions[edit] The Northern Zonal Council
Zonal Council
is one of the advisory councils, created in 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act
to foster interstate cooperation under the Ministry of Home Affairs, which included the states of Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan.[1][4] The Ministry of Culture established the North Culture Zone in Patiala, Punjab on 23 March 1985. It differs from the North Zonal Council
Zonal Council
in its inclusion of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and the omission of Delhi.[2] In contrast, the Geological Survey of India
India
(part of the Ministry of Mines) included Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Delhi
Delhi
in its Northern Region, but excluded Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Chandigarh, with a regional headquarters in Lucknow.[3] Wider definition[edit] Indian press definition[edit] The Hindu
Hindu
newspaper puts Bihar, Delhi
Delhi
and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
related articles on its North pages.[5] Articles in the Indian press have included the states of Bihar,[6] Gujarat,[9][8] Madhya Pradesh,[7] and West Bengal[11][10] in North India
India
as well. Latitude-based definition[edit] The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, and could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country.[13] Indian states that are entirely above the Tropic of Cancer are Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar
Bihar
and most of North East Indian states. However that definition would also include major parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
and West Bengal
West Bengal
and minor regions of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
and Gujarat. Anecdotal usage[edit] The term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe people from Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar, often using the term bhaiya (which literally means 'elder brother') in a derogatory sense, though some press reports have contradicted this.[14] In Punjab, people from the same region ( Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar) are often referred to as Purabias, or Easterners.[15] The Government of Bihar
Bihar
official site places the state in the eastern part of India.[16] Within Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."[17][18] History[edit] The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India include:

Maurya Empire, 326 – 187 BCE Indo-Greek Kingdom, c.150 BCE – 10 CE ( Menander I
Menander I
conquered Punjab) Northern Satraps, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE Gupta Empire, during the reign of Samudragupta, c.335 – c.550 CE Empire of Harsha, 606 to 647 CE Pala Empire, 770 to 810 CE Pratihara Empire, mid-7th to the 11th century Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, 1206–1526 Mughal Empire, 1526–1540, then 1555–1857, interrupted briefly by the Sur Empire, Sur Empire
Sur Empire
1540–1556 Sikh
Sikh
Empire 1799–1849 Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
1761–1818 British Indian Empire
British Indian Empire
1858–1947

The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, Mughal and British Indian Empires had Delhi
Delhi
as their capital for some or all of their rule. "North of the Vindhyas"[edit] See also: Hindi
Hindi
Belt One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the Vindhya
Vindhya
mountain range.[19] In centuries past this sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta.[20] The Vindhyas also find mention in the narrative of Rishi
Rishi
Agastya
Agastya
as a dividing feature between North and South India.[21] The Manusmṛti
Manusmṛti
also describes the southern limit of Aryavarta
Aryavarta
(i.e. the abode of the Aryans) as being defined by the Vindhya
Vindhya
range.[22] Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influences[edit] Several sources consider sizable Muslim
Muslim
populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally.[23] Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the Bactrian-originated Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
(modern day Afghanistan) that maintained twin capitals in Mathura
Mathura
(now in Uttar Pradesh) and Peshawar
Peshawar
(in the present-day Pakistani Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province), as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India.[24] Geography[edit]

Shilla (7026 m) above the Spiti Valley
Spiti Valley
in Himachal Pradesh

The Thar desert
Thar desert
near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

North India
India
lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular India.[citation needed][Which part lies on insular India?] Towards its north are the Himalayas
Himalayas
which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert, shared between North India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Aravalli Range, beyond which lies the state of Gujarat. The Vindhya
Vindhya
mountains are, in some interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India. The predominant geographical features of North India
India
are:

the Indo-Gangetic plain, which spans the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and Bihar; the Himalayas, which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir; the Thar desert, which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan.

The state of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has large areas under forest cover, as do Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Chhattisgarh.[25] General climate[edit]

India's Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
map[26] is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.(Major categories)   (Am) Tropical monsoon   (Aw) Tropical savanna, wet & dry   (BWh) Hot desert   (BWk) Cold desert   (BSh) Hot semi arid   (Cwa) Subtropical humid summer, dry winter   (Cwb) Subtropical highland, dry wint

North India
India
lies mainly in the north temperate zone of the Earth.[27] Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern. North India
India
is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, the temperature often rises above 35 °C across much of the Indo-Gangetic plain, reaching as high as 60 °C in the Thar desert, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and up to 49 in Delhi. During winter, the lowest temperature on the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below the freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of North India
India
is notorious for heavy fog during winters. Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from −45 °C (−49 °F) in Dras, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir[28] to 50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan. Dras
Dras
is claimed to be the second-coldest inhabited place on the planet (after Siberia), with a recorded low of -60 °C.[29][30][31] Precipitation[edit] The region receives rain and snow precipitation through two primary weather patterns: the Indian Monsoon
Monsoon
and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon
Monsoon
carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest.[32][33] Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean.[34][35][36][37] They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of North India, wheat.[35] The states of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
receive sustained snowfall in winter months. Traditional seasons[edit] Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the region: summer (grishma or garmi, May–June), rainy (varsha, July–August), cool (sharad, September–October, sometimes thought of as 'early autumn'), autumn (hemant, November–December, also called patjhar, lit. leaf-fall), winter (shishir or sardi, January–February) and spring (vasant, March–April). The literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was prevalent.[38][39][40] In the mountainous areas, sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g. Kashmiri chillai kalaan) and "little winter" (chillai khurd).[41] Demographics[edit] The people of North India
India
mostly belong to the Indo-Aryan ethno linguistic branch,[citation needed] and include various ethnic groups such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Banias, Jats, Ahirs, Gurjars, Kolis, Khatris, Kambojs and Dalits.[42][43][44] Other minority ethno-linguistic communities such as Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austroasiatic exist throughout the region. Religion[edit] Hinduism
Hinduism
is the dominant religion in North India.[citation needed] Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá'í, Christianity, and Buddhism. The states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
are overwhelmingly Hindu. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Bihar
and West Bengal
West Bengal
have Hindu
Hindu
majorities with a significantly large minority of Muslims; the combined Muslim population of these three states surpasses many of the biggest Islamic nations. Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
is a Muslim
Muslim
majority state while Punjab has a Sikh
Sikh
majority population. Languages[edit] Further information: Languages of India

Distribution of Indo-Aryan languages.

Linguistically, North India
India
is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages. It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved.[citation needed] The most widely spoken language in this region is Hindi. It has official status in the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Uttar Pradesh as well as in the union territory of Delhi. Punjabi has predominance in the state of Punjab where it is the official language. It also has significant presence in the nearby regions. Urdu
Urdu
enjoys official status in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and Uttar Pradesh. Further north in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, major languages are Dogri
Dogri
and Kashmiri. Languages like Bengali, Bhili and Nepali are also spoken in notable numbers throughout the region.[12] A large part of North India
India
is taken up by the so-called Hindi
Hindi
Belt, which here subsumes most of the Rajasthani languages, dialects of Western Hindi, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Garhwali and Kumaoni. Several Sino-Tibetan languages
Sino-Tibetan languages
are spoken in the Himalayan region like Kinnauri,[12] Ladakhi and Lahuli–Spiti languages. Austro-Asiatic languages like Korwa/Kodaku is also spoken in some parts of this region.[45][46] Culture[edit] Dance[edit] Dance of North India
India
too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, Ghoomar of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh. Clothing[edit] Further information: Punjabi clothing, Jammu
Jammu
dress, and Phiran Each state of North India
India
has its own regional forms of clothing:

Jammu: Kurta/ Dogri
Dogri
suthan and kurta/churidar pajama and kurta. Kashmir: Phiran
Phiran
and poots. Himachal Pradesh: Shalwar kameez, Kurta, Churidar, Dhoti
Dhoti
and angarkha. Punjab/Haryana: Salwar (Punjabi) Suit, Patiala
Patiala
salwar, Punjabi Tamba and Kurta, Sikh
Sikh
Dastar, Phulkari, Punjabi Ghagra Uttarakhand: Rangwali Phichora

Flora and fauna[edit]

Chinkara
Chinkara
in Madhya Pradesh, India

Further information: Wildlife of India North Indian vegetation is predominantly deciduous and coniferous. Of the deciduous trees, sal, teak, walnut, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and poplar are some which are important commercially.[47] The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers.[48][49][50][51] The birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due to the extensive use of birch paper (Sanskrit: bhurja patra) as parchment for many ancient Indian texts.[52][53] The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges from Alpine to temperate thorn, coniferous to evergreen, and thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods.[48][54] There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles in the region. Animal species in North India
India
include elephant, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, sambar (Asiatic stag), chital (spotted deer), hangul (red deer), hog deer, chinkara (Indian gazelle), blackbuck, nilgai (blue bull antelope), porcupine, wild boar, Indian fox, Tibetan sand fox, rhesus monkey, langur, jungle cat, hyena, jackal, black bear, Himalayan brown bear, sloth bear, and the endangered caracal. Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles.[55] Venomous snakes found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion, spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees, silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured bir bahuti is also found in this region.[56] The region has a wide variety of birds, including peafowl, parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian crane. Other birds include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes (including the celebrated sarus crane), and hornbills. great pied hornbill, Pallas's fishing eagle, grey-headed fishing eagle, red-thighed falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds found here are tawny fish owl, scale-bellied woodpecker, red-breasted parakeet, Himalayan swiftlet, stork-billed kingfisher and Himalayan or white-tailed rubythroat.[57][58] Wildlife parks and reserves[edit] Important national parks and tiger reserves of North India
India
include:

Jim Corbett National Park

Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park[59] along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first National Park, and was designated a Project Tiger
Tiger
Reserve in 1973. Situated in Nainital district
Nainital district
of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India. Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area of 500 km2 out of which 350 km2 is core reserve. This park is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its scenic beauty. Nanda Devi National Park
Nanda Devi National Park
and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals. Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve in the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is home to the hangul (a red deer species, also called the Kashmir
Kashmir
stag). Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal Pradesh and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife resident here includes the snow leopard, the Himalayan brown bear
Himalayan brown bear
and the musk deer. Desert National Park: Located in Rajasthan, this national reserve features extensive sand dunes and dry salt lakes. Wildlife unique to the region includes the desert fox and the great Indian bustard. Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of stories, "The Jungle Book". The Kanha National Park
Kanha National Park
in Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, created in 1974 under Project Tiger. Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary: Located in the state of Bihar, it is the only protected zone for the endangered Ganges and Indus river dolphin. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by sambar, chital, nilgai and boar. Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km2 along the Indo- Nepal
Nepal
border in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, is best known for the barasingha or swamp deer. The grasslands and woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros, elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets, sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital. Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km2 with an estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India's finest example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in India. Situated near the small town of Sawai Madhopur
Sawai Madhopur
it boasts of variety of plant and animal species of North India. Kalesar National Park: Kalesar is a sal forest in the Shivalik Hills of eastern Haryana
Haryana
state. Primarily known for birds, it also contains a small number of tigers and panthers. Places of interest[edit]

Akshardham Temple, Delhi

Nature[edit] The Indian Himalayas, the Thar desert
Thar desert
and the Indo-Gangetic plain dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of India
India
such as Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie, Kausani
Kausani
and Mount Abu. Several spots in the states of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
and Himachal Pradesh provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or jeep safaris of the Thar desert
Thar desert
are also popular in the state of Rajasthan. North India
India
includes several national parks such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Ranthambore National Park. Pilgrimage[edit] North India
India
encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centres of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Varanasi, Haridwar, Allahabad, Char Dham, Vaishno Devi, Rishikesh, Ayodhya, Mathura/Vrindavan, Pushkar, Prayag and seven of the twelve Jyotirlinga
Jyotirlinga
sites), the most sacred destinations of Buddhism
Buddhism
(Bodh Gaya, Sarnath
Sarnath
and Kushinagar), the most regarded pilgrimage centres of Sikhism
Sikhism
( Amritsar
Amritsar
and Hemkund) and some of the highly regarded destinations in Sufi Islam
Islam
( Ajmer
Ajmer
and Delhi). The largest Hindu
Hindu
temple, Akshardham Temple, the largest Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in India, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, and the largest Sikh
Sikh
shrine, Golden Temple, are all in this region.[60][61] Historical[edit]

Amer Fort
Amer Fort
in Rajasthan

North India
India
includes some highly regarded historical, architectural and archaeological treasures of India. The Taj Mahal, an immense mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is one of the universally admired buildings of world heritage.[62] Besides Agra, Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
and Delhi
Delhi
also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. In Punjab, Patiala
Patiala
is known for being the city of royalty while Amritsar is a city known for its Sikh
Sikh
Architecture and the Golden Temple. Lucknow
Lucknow
has the famous Awadhi Nawab culture while Kanpur
Kanpur
reflects excellent British architecture with monuments like Edward Hall, Police Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc. Khajuraho
Khajuraho
temples constitute another famous world heritage site. The state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
is known for exquisite palaces and forts of the Rajput
Rajput
clans. Historical sites and architecture from the ancient and medieval Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
periods of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as sites from the bronze age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda and Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India. Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the second oldest in India
India
after Nalanda. Bhimbetka
Bhimbetka
is an archaeological site of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent. Universities[edit] North India
India
has several universities, including

Agra
Agra
University All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences Allahabad
Allahabad
University Aligarh Muslim
Muslim
University Avadh University Benaras Hindu
Hindu
University Birla Institute of Technology and Science Central University of Rajasthan Delhi
Delhi
University Delhi
Delhi
Technological University Gautam Buddha University Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Gurukul Kangri University Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology Haryana
Haryana
Agricultural University Jai Narain Vyas University Jawaharlal Nehru University Jiwaji University Kanpur
Kanpur
University Kumaon University Kurukshetra University Maharaja Ganga Singh University Maharana Pratap University O. P. Jindal Global University,[63] Panjab University Patna
Patna
University Punjab Technical University Srm university University of Ajmer University of Jammu University of Kashmir University of Kota University of Lucknow University of Rajasthan Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Technical University Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University

and many more. The Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Management
Indian Institute of Management
have campuses in several cities of North India
India
such as Delhi, Kanpur, Roorkee, Varanasi, Lucknow, Kashipur, Indore
Indore
and Patna. One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda
Nalanda
University, is in the state of Bihar. There has been plans for revival of this ancient university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by Singapore, China, India
India
and Japan. Economy[edit] Further information: Economy of India The economy of North India
India
is predominantly agrarian, but is changing fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually. Several parts of North India
India
have prospered as a consequence of the Green Revolution, including Punjab, Haryana
Haryana
and Western Uttar Pradesh, and have experienced both economic and social development.[64][65][66] The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have lagged[67][68] and the resulting disparity has contributed to a demand for separate statehood in West Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(the Harit Pradesh
Harit Pradesh
movement).[69][70] Bihar's economy has been the fastest growing state economy in India, higher than all the Indian states including Gujarat. However the birth rate in North India
India
is much higher than in other parts of the country and this can lead to poverty and related problems.[71] Joblessness is a critical problem in North India
India
and cannot be tackled easily because of the lack of hi-tech industries in the region. A large number of unskilled and skilled workers have moved to Southern India
India
and other nations because of the unavailability of jobs locally.[72] The technology boom that occurred in the past three decades in Southern India
India
has helped many Indians from the north to find jobs and live prosperous lives in Southern cities. The states with the highest GDP per capita in North India
India
are Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Punjab. The National Capital Region of Delhi
Delhi
has emerged as an economic power house with rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana
Haryana
and Rajasthan.[73] Chandigarh
Chandigarh
has the highest per-capita State Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory.[74] See also[edit]

India Northeast India East India South India West India Central India

References and bibliography[edit]

^ a b c http://interstatecouncil.nic.in/iscs/genesis/ ^ a b c "North Zone Cultural Centre". www.culturenorthindia.com. Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ a b c "Northern Region - Geological Survey of India". Geological Survey of India, MOI, Government of India. Retrieved 2 May 2015.  ^ a b http://interstatecouncil.nic.in/iscs/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/states_reorganisation_act.pdf ^ a b "The Hindu
Hindu
(NOIDA Edition)". Dropbox. Retrieved 8 April 2017.  ^ a b TNN (18 January 2016). "Marriages last the longest in north India, Maharashtra; least in northeast". The Times of India.  ^ a b FP Editors (30 April 2012). "Can North India
India
overtake 'arrogant' South in growth?". Firstpost.  ^ a b "North Indians in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 27 July 2016.  ^ a b The Hindu
Hindu
(22 May 2016). "Hot spell continues in North". The Hindu.  ^ a b Daily Bhaskar (12 May 2015). "Earthquake jolts North India". [1].  External link in website= (help) ^ a b The Hindu
Hindu
(26 January 2016). "-Intense cold in North eight die in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal". The Hindu.  ^ a b c "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 21 October 2015.  ^ Ram Nath Dubey, "Economic Geography of India", Kitab Mahal, 1961. ... The Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
divides India
India
roughly into two equal parts: the Warm Temperate and Tropical ... ^ "A clash of cultures". NDTV. 2008-02-25. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. ... no one in North India, and here I am talking of the states of Punjab, Himachal, Uttarakhand, Haryana
Haryana
and Rajasthan, considers people from eastern UP and Bihar
Bihar
as North Indians!!!  ^ "Politicians to blame for low turnout". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2001-12-11. Retrieved 2008-10-21.  ^ "Government of Bihar
Bihar
Official Web Portal". Government of Bihar. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  ^ "Unorganised Workers of Delhi
Delhi
and the Seven Day Strike of 1988". Indrani Mazumdar, Archives of Indian Labour. Retrieved 2008-10-21.  ^ Susheela Raghavan, "Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings", CRC Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8493-2842-X. ... Maharashtra, in North India, has kala masala in many versions ... ^ Kalidasa, HH Wilson (1843). The Mégha dúta; or, Cloud messenger. pp. 19–20.  ^ Bowman, John Stewart (2000). "Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture". Columbia University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0-231-11004-9. ... Samudragupta
Samudragupta
is notable for the king's tireless military campaigning and expansion of empire. He conquers the entire Aryavarta
Aryavarta
... His expeditions into south India
India
are unsuccessful; the Vindhya
Vindhya
hills form the southern boundary of empire ...  ^ Varadaraja V. Raman, "Glimpses of Indian Heritage", Popular Prakasan, 1989. ^ Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (1976), A history of South India
India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press, ... The Vindhya
Vindhya
range was the recognised southern limit of the Aryan land. Manu states distinctly that the country between the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Vindhyas and between the eastern and western oceans comprised Aryavarta, the abode of the Aryas ...  ^ Christopher Alan Bayly, "Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870", CUP Archive, 1983, ISBN 0-521-31054-7. ^ Romila Thapar, "Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300", University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0-520-24225-4. ^ "Forest Survey of India
India
- State of Forest Report 2003". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Retrieved 2008-10-20.  ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth
Earth
System Sciences. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (direct: Final Revised Paper) ^ Yash Pal Singh, Social Science Textbook for Class IX Geography, VK Publications, ISBN 978-81-89611-15-6, ... The Tropic of Cancer divides India
India
into almost two equal parts. It makes the southern half of India
India
in the Tropical Zone and the northern half in the Temperate zone ...  ^ "Dras, India
India
Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase.  ^ Sarina Singh, "India: Lonely Planet Guide", Lonely Planet, 2003, ISBN 1-74059-421-5. ^ H. N. Kaul (1998-01-01), Rediscovery of Ladakh, Indus Publishing, 1998, ISBN 9788173870866, ... With its altitude of 10000 ft. above the sea, Dras
Dras
is considered to be the second coldest inhabited place in the world after Siberia
Siberia
where mercury sinks as low as -40 °C during winter, though it has also recorded a low of -60 °C ...  ^ Galen A. Rowell, Ed Reading (June 1980), Many people come, looking, looking, Mountaineers, 1980, ISBN 9780916890865, ... the bleak village of Dras, reportedly the second coldest place in Asia with recorded temperatures of −80 °F (−62 °C) ...  ^ Vidya Sagar Katiyar, "Indian Monsoon
Monsoon
and Its Frontiers", Inter-India Publications, 1990, ISBN 81-210-0245-1. ^ Ajit Prasad Jain and Shiba Prasad Chatterjee, "Report of the Irrigation Commission, 1972", Ministry of Irrigation and Power, Government of India, 1972. ^ "Western disturbances herald winter in Northern India". The Hindu Business Line. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2008-10-20.  ^ a b Bin Wang, "The Asian Monsoon", Springer, 2006, ISBN 3-540-40610-7. ^ R.K. Datta (Meteorological Office, Dum Dum) and M.G. Gupta (Meteorological Office, Delhi), "Synoptic study of the formation and movements of Western Depressions", Indian Journal of Meteorology & Geophysics, India
India
Meteorological Department, 1968. ^ A.P. Dimri, "Models to improve winter minimum surface temperature forecasts, Delhi, India", Meteorological Applications, 11, pp 129-139, Royal Meteorological Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ^ Geography, Yash Pal Singh, pp. 420, FK Publications, ISBN 9788189611859, ... The sequence of the six traditional seasons is correct only for northern and central parts of India
India
... ^ The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas, Philip Lutgendorf, pp. 22, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 9780520066908, ... likening the major episodes of the narrative to various features of the river and its banks, and to the appearance of the river in each of the six seasons of the North Indian year ... ^ Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Susan Snow Wadley, pp. 226, Orient Blackswan, 2005, ISBN 9788180280160, ... Yet another cultural division of the year views it as six seasons ... This cycle of six seasons, while known and referred to today, is more widely recognised in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature ... ^ Systematic Geography Of Jammu
Jammu
And Kashmir, S.A. Qazi, pp. 25, APH Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9788176487863 ^ Sarat Chandra Roy and Ral Bahadur, "Man in India", A.K. Bose, 1996. ^ Kumool Abbi, "Discourse of Zindaginama: A semio-anthropological critique", Harman Publishing House, 2002. ^ Kiran Prem, Haryana
Haryana
Gazetteers Organization, " Haryana
Haryana
District Gazetteers", Government of Haryana, 1970. ^ "Korwa". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.  ^ "Kodaku - Ethnologue". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.  ^ N.C. Saxena, "The Saga of Participatory Forest Management in India", Center for International Forestry Research, 1997, ISBN 979-8764-15-3. ^ a b R.L. Singh, "India: A Regional Geography", National Geographical Society of India, 1971. ^ Bansi Lal Kaul, "Ecodegradation of Himalayas", Vinod Publishers & Distributors, 1995. ^ S.S. Negi, "Himalayan Forests and Forestry", Indus Publishing, 2002, ISBN 81-7387-112-4. Snippet:... Important Himalayan trees are sal, chir pine, deodar, oaks, fir, spruce, rhododendrons, and the giant evergreen trees of the Eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
... ^ R.P. Sharma, "The Indian Forester", v.72:6-12 (Jan-June 1946). ^ Sanjukta Gupta, "Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text", Brill Archive, 1972, ISBN 90-04-03419-6. Snippet:... the text recommends that the bark of the Himalayan birch tree (bhurja-patra) should be used for scribbling mantras ... ^ Amalananda Ghosh, "An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology", BRILL, 1990, ISBN 90-04-09264-1. Snippet:... Bhurja-patra, the inner bark on the birch tree grown in the Himalayan region, was a very common writing material ... ^ Casey A. Wood, "Through Forest and Jungle in Kashmir
Kashmir
and Other Parts of North India: The Annual Smithsonian Institution Report, 1932", Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933. ^ North India
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Online - India
India
- Flora and Fauna - Animals - Trees - Birds - Mammals - Insects ^ John Shakespear (1817), Dictionary: Hindustani and English, Taylor & Francis, ... bir bahuti: a small insect with a back of a bright red colour; the scarlet or lady fly, commonly called the "Rain insect" as it makes its appearance when the first rains have fallen ...  ^ nimmi. " India
India
Geography - indian rivers, indian flora & fauna wildlife, national symbols in india".  ^ "Flora & Fauna North India". Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  ^ "Edward Jim Corbett- the legendary hunter who inspired conservation of wildlife".  ^ Largest Hindu
Hindu
Temple: Guinness World Records ^ Masjid-i-Jahan Numa ^ Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage Centre » World Heritage List ^ "Obama visit may explore perplexing issues". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  ^ Mohamad Riad El Ghonemy, "The Dynamics of Rural Poverty", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. ... Haryana
Haryana
and West Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
recorded spectacular production increases ... ^ V. G. Rastyannikov, "Agrarian Evolution in a Multiform Structure Society: Experience of Independent India", Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, ISBN 0-7100-0755-8. ^ B. M. Bhatia, "Food Security in South Asia", Oxford & IHB Pub. Co., 1985. ^ Robert E. B. Lucas, Gustav Fritz Papanek, "The Indian Economy: Recent Development and Future Prospects", Westview Press, 1988, ISBN 0-8133-7505-3. ^ Gilbert Etienne, "Rural Development In Asia: Meetings With Peasants", Sage Publications, 1985, ISBN 0-8039-9495-8. ^ Gyanesh Kudaisya, "Region, Nation, Heartland: Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in India's Body Politic", Sage Publications, 2006, ISBN 0-7619-3519-3. ^ "RLD, BSP gear up as Mulayam exit looms". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  ^ "8 Indian states have more poor than 26 poorest African nations". Times of India.  ^ "North India
India
vs South India: Who is doing better? Report says South India". India
India
Today Group.  ^ "Thehindubusinessline.com". Retrieved 2007-11-10.  ^ "Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation - Publications". Government of India. Archived from the original on 1 September 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2008. 

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