India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern
part of India. The dominant geographical features of North
Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region
Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia.
The term North
India has varying definitions—the Ministry of Home
Affairs in its Northern
Zonal Council Administrative division included
the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and
Rajasthan and Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh. while the
Ministry of Culture in its North Culture Zone includes the state of
Uttarakhand but excludes Delhi whereas the Geological Survey of
Uttar Pradesh and
Delhi but excludes
Chandigarh. Other states sometimes included are Bihar, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
India has been the historical centre of the Mughal, Delhi
Sultanate and British Indian Empires. It has a diverse culture, and
Hindu pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Haridwar,
Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Allahabad,
Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the
Buddhist pilgrimage centres of
Sarnath and Kushinagar, the
Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi
Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar
Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red
Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal.
The languages that have official status in one or more of the states
and union territories located in North
India are Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi
1.1 Government of
1.2 Wider definition
1.2.1 Indian press definition
1.2.2 Latitude-based definition
1.2.3 Anecdotal usage
2.1 "North of the Vindhyas"
2.2 Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influences
3.1 General climate
3.3 Traditional seasons
6 Flora and fauna
6.1 Wildlife parks and reserves
7 Places of interest
10 See also
11 References and bibliography
12 External links
Different authorities and sources define North
States under Northern
Zonal Council in orange
Zonal Council is one of the advisory councils, created in
1956 by the
States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act to foster interstate cooperation
under the Ministry of Home Affairs, which included the states of
Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu and Kashmir,
Punjab and Rajasthan.
The Ministry of Culture established the North Culture Zone in Patiala,
Punjab on 23 March 1985. It differs from the North
Zonal Council in
its inclusion of
Uttarakhand and the omission of Delhi.
In contrast, the Geological Survey of
India (part of the Ministry of
Uttar Pradesh and
Delhi in its Northern Region, but
Rajasthan and Chandigarh, with a regional headquarters in
Indian press definition
Hindu newspaper puts Bihar,
Uttar Pradesh related
articles on its North pages. Articles in the Indian press have
included the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and
West Bengal in North
India as well.
The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the
tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, and
could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the
country. Indian states that are entirely above the Tropic of
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Uttar Pradesh and
Bihar and most of North East
Indian states. However that definition would also include major parts
of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,
West Bengal and minor
Chhattisgarh and Gujarat.
The term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe people from
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, often using the term bhaiya (which literally
means 'elder brother') in a derogatory sense, though some press
reports have contradicted this. In Punjab, people from the same
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) are often referred to as Purabias, or
Easterners. The Government of
Bihar official site places the state
in the eastern part of India. Within
Uttar Pradesh itself, "the
cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with
the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the
perception of the westerners."
The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India
Maurya Empire, 326 – 187 BCE
Indo-Greek Kingdom, c.150 BCE – 10 CE (
Menander I conquered Punjab)
Northern Satraps, 1st century BCE to 1st century CE
Gupta Empire, during the reign of Samudragupta, c.335 – c.550 CE
Empire of Harsha, 606 to 647 CE
Pala Empire, 770 to 810 CE
Pratihara Empire, mid-7th to the 11th century
Delhi Sultanate, 1206–1526
Mughal Empire, 1526–1540, then 1555–1857, interrupted briefly by
the Sur Empire,
Sur Empire 1540–1556
Sikh Empire 1799–1849
Maratha Empire 1761–1818
British Indian Empire
British Indian Empire 1858–1947
Delhi Sultanate, Mughal and British Indian Empires had
their capital for some or all of their rule.
"North of the Vindhyas"
One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the
Vindhya mountain range. In centuries past this sometimes formed a
border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by
the Gupta emperor Samudragupta. The Vindhyas also find mention in
the narrative of
Agastya as a dividing feature between North and
South India. The
Manusmṛti also describes the southern limit of
Aryavarta (i.e. the abode of the Aryans) as being defined by the
Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influences
Several sources consider sizable
Muslim populations and deep-seated
Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining
characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and
culturally. Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the
Kushan Empire (modern day Afghanistan) that
maintained twin capitals in
Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh) and
Peshawar (in the present-day Pakistani
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province),
as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule
over large parts of North India.
Shilla (7026 m) above the
Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh
Thar desert near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan
India lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular
India.[Which part lies on insular India?] Towards its
north are the
Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian
subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert,
shared between North
Pakistan and the Aravalli Range, beyond
which lies the state of Gujarat. The
Vindhya mountains are, in some
interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India.
The predominant geographical features of North
the Indo-Gangetic plain, which spans the states of Punjab, Haryana,
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar;
the Himalayas, which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal
Jammu and Kashmir;
the Thar desert, which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan.
The state of
Madhya Pradesh has large areas under forest cover, as do
Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification map is based on native
vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.(Major
(Am) Tropical monsoon
(Aw) Tropical savanna, wet & dry
(BWh) Hot desert
(BWk) Cold desert
(BSh) Hot semi arid
(Cwa) Subtropical humid summer, dry winter
(Cwb) Subtropical highland, dry wint
India lies mainly in the north temperate zone of the Earth.
Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the
general pattern. North
India is one of the most climatically diverse
regions on Earth. During summer, the temperature often rises above
35 °C across much of the Indo-Gangetic plain, reaching as high
as 60 °C in the Thar desert,
Rajasthan and up to 49 in Delhi.
During winter, the lowest temperature on the plains dips to below
5 °C, and below the freezing point in some states. Heavy to
moderate snowfall occurs in Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand.
Much of North
India is notorious for heavy fog during winters.
Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from
−45 °C (−49 °F) in Dras,
Jammu and Kashmir to
50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan.
Dras is claimed to
be the second-coldest inhabited place on the planet (after Siberia),
with a recorded low of -60 °C.
The region receives rain and snow precipitation through two primary
weather patterns: the Indian
Monsoon and the Western Disturbances. The
Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in
late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest.
Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather
phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea,
Caspian Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. They primarily
occur during the winter season and are critically important for the
Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of
North India, wheat. The states of
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Uttarakhand receive sustained snowfall in winter months.
Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the
region: summer (grishma or garmi, May–June), rainy (varsha,
July–August), cool (sharad, September–October, sometimes thought
of as 'early autumn'), autumn (hemant, November–December, also
called patjhar, lit. leaf-fall), winter (shishir or sardi,
January–February) and spring (vasant, March–April). The
literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these
six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when
Sanskrit was prevalent. In the mountainous areas,
sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g.
Kashmiri chillai kalaan) and "little winter" (chillai khurd).
The people of North
India mostly belong to the Indo-Aryan ethno
linguistic branch, and include various ethnic groups
such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Banias, Jats, Ahirs, Gurjars, Kolis,
Khatris, Kambojs and Dalits. Other minority
ethno-linguistic communities such as Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and
Austroasiatic exist throughout the region.
Hinduism is the dominant religion in North India.
Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam,
Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá'í, Christianity, and
Buddhism. The states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya
Himachal Pradesh are overwhelmingly Hindu. The
states of Uttar Pradesh,
West Bengal have
with a significantly large minority of Muslims; the combined Muslim
population of these three states surpasses many of the biggest Islamic
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is a
Muslim majority state while Punjab has
Sikh majority population.
Further information: Languages of India
Distribution of Indo-Aryan languages.
India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages. It
is in this region, or its proximity, that
Sanskrit and the various
Prakrits are thought to have evolved. The most widely
spoken language in this region is Hindi. It has official status in the
states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Uttarakhand and Uttar
Pradesh as well as in the union territory of Delhi. Punjabi has
predominance in the state of Punjab where it is the official language.
It also has significant presence in the nearby regions.
official status in Delhi,
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. Further
Jammu and Kashmir, major languages are
Dogri and Kashmiri.
Languages like Bengali,
Bhili and Nepali are also spoken in notable
numbers throughout the region. A large part of North
taken up by the so-called
Hindi Belt, which here subsumes most of the
Rajasthani languages, dialects of Western Hindi, Bhojpuri, Awadhi,
Garhwali and Kumaoni.
Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken in the Himalayan region like
Kinnauri, Ladakhi and Lahuli–Spiti languages. Austro-Asiatic
languages like Korwa/Kodaku is also spoken in some parts of this
Dance of North
India too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among
the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, Ghoomar of
Rajasthan and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many
with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded
classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance,
and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh.
Further information: Punjabi clothing,
Jammu dress, and Phiran
Each state of North
India has its own regional forms of clothing:
Dogri suthan and kurta/churidar pajama and kurta.
Phiran and poots.
Himachal Pradesh: Shalwar kameez, Kurta, Churidar,
Dhoti and angarkha.
Punjab/Haryana: Salwar (Punjabi) Suit,
Patiala salwar, Punjabi Tamba
Sikh Dastar, Phulkari, Punjabi Ghagra
Uttarakhand: Rangwali Phichora
Flora and fauna
Chinkara in Madhya Pradesh, India
Further information: Wildlife of India
North Indian vegetation is predominantly deciduous and coniferous. Of
the deciduous trees, sal, teak, walnut, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and
poplar are some which are important commercially. The Western
Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue
pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers. The
birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due
to the extensive use of birch paper (Sanskrit: bhurja patra) as
parchment for many ancient Indian texts. The Eastern Himalayan
region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch
and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain
contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges
from Alpine to temperate thorn, coniferous to evergreen, and thick
tropical jungles to cool temperate woods.
There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds,
30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and
reptiles in the region. Animal species in North
elephant, tiger, leopard, snow leopard, sambar (Asiatic stag), chital
(spotted deer), hangul (red deer), hog deer, chinkara (Indian
gazelle), blackbuck, nilgai (blue bull antelope), porcupine, wild
boar, Indian fox, Tibetan sand fox, rhesus monkey, langur, jungle cat,
hyena, jackal, black bear, Himalayan brown bear, sloth bear, and the
Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard
species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles. Venomous snakes
found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion,
spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees,
silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured bir bahuti is also
found in this region.
The region has a wide variety of birds, including peafowl, parrots,
and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian crane. Other
birds include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons,
cranes (including the celebrated sarus crane), and hornbills. great
pied hornbill, Pallas's fishing eagle, grey-headed fishing eagle,
red-thighed falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds
found here are tawny fish owl, scale-bellied woodpecker, red-breasted
parakeet, Himalayan swiftlet, stork-billed kingfisher and Himalayan or
Wildlife parks and reserves
Important national parks and tiger reserves of North
Jim Corbett National Park
Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 as Hailey National
Park along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first
National Park, and was designated a Project
Tiger Reserve in 1973.
Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a
protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India.
Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area
of 500 km2 out of which 350 km2 is core reserve. This park
is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its
Nanda Devi National Park
Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located
in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national
parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World
Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is
known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of
flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered
Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve
in the state of
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000
feet above sea level. It is home to the hangul (a red deer species,
also called the
Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal
Pradesh and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife
resident here includes the snow leopard, the
Himalayan brown bear
Himalayan brown bear and
the musk deer.
Desert National Park: Located in Rajasthan, this national reserve
features extensive sand dunes and dry salt lakes. Wildlife unique to
the region includes the desert fox and the great Indian bustard.
Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and
ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of
stories, "The Jungle Book". The
Kanha National Park
Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh
came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha
created in 1974 under Project Tiger.
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary: Located in the state of Bihar,
it is the only protected zone for the endangered Ganges and Indus
Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the
world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as
well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds
and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by sambar,
chital, nilgai and boar.
Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km2 along the
Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, is
best known for the barasingha or swamp deer. The grasslands and
woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha
is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the
big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The
other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros,
elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets,
sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital.
Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km2 with an
estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India's finest
example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the
government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in
India. Situated near the small town of
Sawai Madhopur it boasts of
variety of plant and animal species of North India.
Kalesar National Park: Kalesar is a sal forest in the Shivalik Hills
Haryana state. Primarily known for birds, it also contains
a small number of tigers and panthers.
Places of interest
Akshardham Temple, Delhi
The Indian Himalayas, the
Thar desert and the Indo-Gangetic plain
dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses
several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of
India such as
Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie,
Kausani and Mount Abu.
Several spots in the states of
Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The
Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports
such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or
jeep safaris of the
Thar desert are also popular in the state of
India includes several national parks such as the
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo
National Park and Ranthambore National Park.
India encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centres of
Hinduism (Varanasi, Haridwar, Allahabad, Char Dham, Vaishno Devi,
Rishikesh, Ayodhya, Mathura/Vrindavan, Pushkar, Prayag and seven of
Jyotirlinga sites), the most sacred destinations of
Buddhism (Bodh Gaya,
Sarnath and Kushinagar), the most regarded
pilgrimage centres of
Amritsar and Hemkund) and some of the
highly regarded destinations in Sufi
Ajmer and Delhi). The
Hindu temple, Akshardham Temple, the largest
in India, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, and the
Sikh shrine, Golden Temple, are all in this region.
Amer Fort in Rajasthan
India includes some highly regarded historical, architectural
and archaeological treasures of India. The Taj Mahal, an immense
mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is one of the universally admired
buildings of world heritage. Besides Agra,
Fatehpur Sikri and
Delhi also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. In
Patiala is known for being the city of royalty while Amritsar
is a city known for its
Sikh Architecture and the Golden Temple.
Lucknow has the famous
Awadhi Nawab culture while
excellent British architecture with monuments like Edward Hall, Police
Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc.
Khajuraho temples constitute another
famous world heritage site. The state of
Rajasthan is known for
exquisite palaces and forts of the
Rajput clans. Historical sites and
architecture from the ancient and medieval
of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as
sites from the bronze age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda and
Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India.
Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the
oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the second
India after Nalanda.
Bhimbetka is an archaeological site of
Paleolithic era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on
the Indian subcontinent.
India has several universities, including
India Institute of Medical Sciences
Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Central University of Rajasthan
Delhi Technological University
Gautam Buddha University
Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Gurukul Kangri University
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
Haryana Agricultural University
Jai Narain Vyas University
Jawaharlal Nehru University
Maharaja Ganga Singh University
Maharana Pratap University
O. P. Jindal Global University,
Punjab Technical University
University of Ajmer
University of Jammu
University of Kashmir
University of Kota
University of Lucknow
University of Rajasthan
Uttarakhand Technical University
Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University
and many more. The Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute
of Technology and
Indian Institute of Management
Indian Institute of Management have campuses in
several cities of North
India such as Delhi, Kanpur, Roorkee,
Varanasi, Lucknow, Kashipur,
Indore and Patna. One of the first great
universities in recorded history, the
Nalanda University, is in the
state of Bihar. There has been plans for revival of this ancient
university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by
India and Japan.
Further information: Economy of India
The economy of North
India is predominantly agrarian, but is changing
fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually.
Several parts of North
India have prospered as a consequence of the
Green Revolution, including Punjab,
Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh,
and have experienced both economic and social development.
The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have lagged
and the resulting disparity has contributed to a demand for separate
statehood in West
Uttar Pradesh (the
Harit Pradesh movement).
Bihar's economy has been the fastest growing state economy in India,
higher than all the Indian states including Gujarat.
However the birth rate in North
India is much higher than in other
parts of the country and this can lead to poverty and related
problems. Joblessness is a critical problem in North
cannot be tackled easily because of the lack of hi-tech industries in
the region. A large number of unskilled and skilled workers have moved
India and other nations because of the unavailability of
jobs locally. The technology boom that occurred in the past three
decades in Southern
India has helped many Indians from the north to
find jobs and live prosperous lives in Southern cities.
The states with the highest GDP per capita in North
India are Delhi,
Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The National
Capital Region of
Delhi has emerged as an economic power house with
rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh,
Haryana and Rajasthan.
Chandigarh has the highest per-capita State
Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory.
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-40 °C during winter, though it has also recorded a low of
-60 °C ...
^ Galen A. Rowell, Ed Reading (June 1980), Many people come, looking,
looking, Mountaineers, 1980, ISBN 9780916890865, ... the bleak
village of Dras, reportedly the second coldest place in Asia with
recorded temperatures of −80 °F (−62 °C) ...
^ Vidya Sagar Katiyar, "Indian
Monsoon and Its Frontiers", Inter-India
Publications, 1990, ISBN 81-210-0245-1.
^ Ajit Prasad Jain and Shiba Prasad Chatterjee, "Report of the
Irrigation Commission, 1972", Ministry of Irrigation and Power,
Government of India, 1972.
^ "Western disturbances herald winter in Northern India". The Hindu
Business Line. 2005-11-17. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
^ a b Bin Wang, "The Asian Monsoon", Springer, 2006,
^ R.K. Datta (Meteorological Office, Dum Dum) and M.G. Gupta
(Meteorological Office, Delhi), "Synoptic study of the formation and
movements of Western Depressions", Indian Journal of Meteorology &
India Meteorological Department, 1968.
^ A.P. Dimri, "Models to improve winter minimum surface temperature
forecasts, Delhi, India", Meteorological Applications, 11, pp 129-139,
Royal Meteorological Society, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
^ Geography, Yash Pal Singh, pp. 420, FK Publications,
ISBN 9788189611859, ... The sequence of the six traditional
seasons is correct only for northern and central parts of
^ The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas,
Philip Lutgendorf, pp. 22, University of California Press, 1991,
ISBN 9780520066908, ... likening the major episodes of the
narrative to various features of the river and its banks, and to the
appearance of the river in each of the six seasons of the North Indian
^ Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Susan Snow Wadley, pp. 226,
Orient Blackswan, 2005, ISBN 9788180280160, ... Yet another
cultural division of the year views it as six seasons ... This cycle
of six seasons, while known and referred to today, is more widely
Sanskrit literature ...
^ Systematic Geography Of
Jammu And Kashmir, S.A. Qazi, pp. 25, APH
Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9788176487863
^ Sarat Chandra Roy and Ral Bahadur, "Man in India", A.K. Bose, 1996.
^ Kumool Abbi, "Discourse of Zindaginama: A semio-anthropological
critique", Harman Publishing House, 2002.
^ Kiran Prem,
Haryana Gazetteers Organization, "
Gazetteers", Government of Haryana, 1970.
^ "Korwa". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
^ "Kodaku - Ethnologue". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved March 14,
^ N.C. Saxena, "The Saga of Participatory Forest Management in India",
Center for International Forestry Research, 1997,
^ a b R.L. Singh, "India: A Regional Geography", National Geographical
Society of India, 1971.
^ Bansi Lal Kaul, "Ecodegradation of Himalayas", Vinod Publishers
& Distributors, 1995.
^ S.S. Negi, "Himalayan Forests and Forestry", Indus Publishing, 2002,
ISBN 81-7387-112-4. Snippet:... Important Himalayan trees are
sal, chir pine, deodar, oaks, fir, spruce, rhododendrons, and the
giant evergreen trees of the Eastern
^ R.P. Sharma, "The Indian Forester", v.72:6-12 (Jan-June 1946).
^ Sanjukta Gupta, "Lakṣmī Tantra: A Pāñcarātra Text", Brill
Archive, 1972, ISBN 90-04-03419-6. Snippet:... the text
recommends that the bark of the Himalayan birch tree (bhurja-patra)
should be used for scribbling mantras ...
^ Amalananda Ghosh, "An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology", BRILL,
1990, ISBN 90-04-09264-1. Snippet:... Bhurja-patra, the inner
bark on the birch tree grown in the Himalayan region, was a very
common writing material ...
^ Casey A. Wood, "Through Forest and Jungle in
Kashmir and Other Parts
of North India: The Annual Smithsonian Institution Report, 1932",
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933.
India Online -
India - Flora and Fauna - Animals - Trees -
Birds - Mammals - Insects
^ John Shakespear (1817), Dictionary: Hindustani and English, Taylor
& Francis, ... bir bahuti: a small insect with a back of a bright
red colour; the scarlet or lady fly, commonly called the "Rain insect"
as it makes its appearance when the first rains have fallen ...
^ nimmi. "
India Geography - indian rivers, indian flora & fauna
wildlife, national symbols in india".
^ "Flora & Fauna North India". Archived from the original on 18
August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
^ "Edward Jim Corbett- the legendary hunter who inspired conservation
Hindu Temple: Guinness World Records
^ Masjid-i-Jahan Numa
Taj Mahal UNESCO » Culture » World Heritage
Centre » World Heritage List
^ "Obama visit may explore perplexing issues". The Hindu. Retrieved 23
^ Mohamad Riad El Ghonemy, "The Dynamics of Rural Poverty", Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. ...
Uttar Pradesh recorded spectacular production increases ...
^ V. G. Rastyannikov, "Agrarian Evolution in a Multiform Structure
Society: Experience of Independent India", Routledge & Kegan Paul,
1981, ISBN 0-7100-0755-8.
^ B. M. Bhatia, "Food Security in South Asia", Oxford & IHB Pub.
^ Robert E. B. Lucas, Gustav Fritz Papanek, "The Indian Economy:
Recent Development and Future Prospects", Westview Press, 1988,
^ Gilbert Etienne, "Rural Development In Asia: Meetings With
Peasants", Sage Publications, 1985, ISBN 0-8039-9495-8.
^ Gyanesh Kudaisya, "Region, Nation, Heartland:
Uttar Pradesh in
India's Body Politic", Sage Publications, 2006,
^ "RLD, BSP gear up as Mulayam exit looms". The Tribune, Chandigarh.
2007-02-19. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
^ "8 Indian states have more poor than 26 poorest African nations".
Times of India.
India vs South India: Who is doing better? Report says South
India Today Group.
^ "Thehindubusinessline.com". Retrieved 2007-11-10.
^ "Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation -
Publications". Government of India. Archived from the original on 1
September 2004. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
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