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Northeast China
China
(simplified Chinese: 中国东北; traditional Chinese: 中國東北; pinyin: Zhōngguó Dōngběi) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Manchuria[a] in the English language. It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin
Jilin
and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省, Dōngběi sānshěng), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia.[b] The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia
Russia
to the north largely by the Amur, Argun and Ussuri
Ussuri
rivers, from North Korea
North Korea
to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China
China
Plain. Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its economic growth, the region is called the Rust Belt
Rust Belt
in China.[1] As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan
Northeast Area Revitalization Plan
has been launched by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, in which five prefecture-level cities of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan and Hulunbuir, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast.[2] The region is nearly congruent with some definitions of "Manchuria" in historical foreign usage.[c] Another term for the area is Guandong (关东 / 關東, Guāndōng), meaning "east of the Pass", referring to the famous Shanhai Pass between Liaoning
Liaoning
Province and the neighboring Hebei
Hebei
Province (and also North China) to the west. This name was also used by the occupying Japanese colonists referring to their leased territory of Dalian
Dalian
after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the Kwantung Chou (関東州), which gave name to the occupying Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
that was later mobilized to set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Contents

1 Administrative divisions 2 History 3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Economy 5 Culture

5.1 Dialects 5.2 Cuisine 5.3 Folk dance and sports

6 Major universities 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Administrative divisions[edit]

GB[3] ISO №[4] Province Chinese Name Capital Population Density Area Abbreviation/Symbol

LN 21 Liaoning
Liaoning
Province 辽宁省 Liáoníng Shěng Shenyang 43,746,323 299.83 145,900 辽 Liáo

JL 22 Jilin
Jilin
Province 吉林省 Jílín Shěng Changchun 27,462,297 146.54 187,400 吉 Jí

HL 23 Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province 黑龙江省 Hēilóngjiāng Shěng Harbin 38,312,224 84.38 454,000 黑 Hēi

History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Manchuria

Ancient period

Early tribes Dangun Joseon Gija Joseon Wiman Joseon Yan Han dynasty Sushen Donghu Wuhuan Xianbei
Xianbei
state Cao Wei Buyeo Goguryeo Sima Jin dynasty Yuwen Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Northern Yan Kumo Xi Khitan Northern Wei Mohe Shiwei

Medieval period

Tang dynasty Balhae Liao dynasty Jurchen Jin dynasty Yuan rule Northern Yuan dynasty Ming rule Qing rule

Modern period

Republic of China Russian Empire Far Eastern Republic Green Ukraine Manchukuo Soviet Union P.R. China
China
(Northeast China) Russia
Russia
(Outer Manchuria)

v t e

A wooden Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
statue, Jin dynasty, Shanghai Museum

Northeast China
China
was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including the Manchus
Manchus
(or Jurchens), Ulchs, Hezhen
Hezhen
(also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Xianbei, and Mohe have risen to power in the Northeast. Many Korean kingdoms have also risen to power in Manchuria, including Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Balhae. Yan State
Yan State
once occupied the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula, Han Chinese
Han Chinese
dynasties in China
China
loosely controlled the southern parts of the region. During the Song dynasty, the Khitan set up the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
in Northeast China. Later, the Jurchen overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to conquer northern China. In AD 1234, the Jin dynasty fell to the Mongols, whose Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
was later replaced by the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
in 1368. In 1644, the Manchu
Manchu
conquered the entirety of China
China
and established the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1912). Northeast China
China
came under influence of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
through Harbin
Harbin
to Vladivostok. The Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
replaced Russian influence in the region as a result of the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
in 1904–1905, and Japan laid the South Manchurian Railway
South Manchurian Railway
in 1906 to Port Arthur. During the Warlord Era in China, Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
established himself in Northeast China, but was murdered by the Japanese for being too independent. The last Qing dynasty emperor, Puyi, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. After the atomic bombing of Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded the region as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Northeast China was a base area for the Communist
Communist
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, the area was used as a staging ground during the Civil War for the Chinese Communists, who were victorious in 1949 and have been controlling this region since. Demographics[edit]

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Northeast China
China
has a total population of about 107,400,000 people, accounting for 8% of China’s total population. The overwhelming majority of the population in the Northeast is Han Chinese, many of whose ancestors came in the 19th and 20th centuries during a migration movement called "Chuang Guandong" (闖關東, literally "venture into the east of the Pass"). Northeast China
China
historically had a significant Han Chinese
Han Chinese
population, reaching over 3 million by the end of Ming Dynasty, but they were subjected to cleansing, eviction and assimilation by the conquest of the Manchu
Manchu
Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
, who then set up Willow Palisades during the reign of Shunzhi Emperor
Shunzhi Emperor
and prohibited any settlement of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
into the region. The Northeast then remained sparsely populated until the ban was finally lifted during the late Qing in response to the Russian incursions into Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
(which resulted in the region's annexation by Russia
Russia
after the Treaty of Aigun), and a large influx of migrant settlers, mainly landless peasants from the nearby Hebei
Hebei
and Shandong
Shandong
provinces, came in a scale equivalent to the 19th century American westward expansion, resulting in the local Han Chinese
Han Chinese
population to grow over 20 million before the Second Sino-Japanese War. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China
China
at the end of the Chinese Civil War, further immigrations were organized by the Central Government to "develop the Great Northern Wilderness" (开发北大荒), eventually peaking the population over 100 million people. Because most people in Northeast China
China
trace their ancestries back to the migrants from the Chuang Guandong
Chuang Guandong
era, Northeastern Chinese were more culturally uniform compared to other geographical regions of China. People from the Northeast would first identify themselves as "Northeasterners" (东北人) before affiliating to individual provinces and cities/towns. Ethnic Manchus
Manchus
form the second significant ethnic group in Northeast China, followed by the Mongols, Koreans, and the Huis, as well as 49 other ethnic minorities such as Daurs, Sibos, Hezhens, Oroqens, Evenks, Kyrgyz, etc. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Northeast China Economy[edit] The Northeast was one of the earliest regions to industrialize in China
China
during the era of Manchukuo. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Northeast China
China
continued to be a major industrial base of the country, and has been hailed as "the Republic's eldest son" (共和国长子). Recent years, however, have seen the stagnation of Northeast China's heavy-industry-based economy, as China's economy continues to liberalize and privatize; the government has initialized the Revitalize the Northeast
Revitalize the Northeast
campaign to counter this problem, and established the Northeast Summit
Northeast Summit
to improve policy coordination and integration. The region is, on the whole, more heavily urbanised than most parts of China, largely because it was the first part of the country to develop heavy industry owing to its abundant coal reserves. Major cities include Shenyang, Dalian, Harbin, Changchun
Changchun
and Anshan, all with several million inhabitants. Other cities include the steel making centres of Fushun
Fushun
and Anshan
Anshan
in Liaoning, Jilin
Jilin
City in Jilin, and Qiqihar
Qiqihar
and Mudanjiang
Mudanjiang
in Heilongjiang. Harbin, more than any other city in China, possesses significant Russian influences: there are many Orthodox churches that have fallen out of use since the Cultural Revolution. Shenyang
Shenyang
and Dalian, meanwhile, have sizable populations of Japanese and South Koreans due to their traditional linkages. The rural population of the Northeast is heavily concentrated in the warmer southern part of the area, where very warm to hot summer weather permits crops such as maize and millet to be grown with high yields. Soybeans and flax are also very important, as are wheat and barley. The region possesses large flocks of sheep, and pigs are abundant in the more densely settled southern part. The northern half of Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
is so cold and poorly drained that agriculture is almost impossible; however, the Amur River
Amur River
provides very rich fishing prospects, and sheep are even more abundant than in southern Heilongjiang. Northeast China
China
is the country’s traditional industrial base, focusing mainly on equipment manufacturing. Major industries include the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries. The gross regional product of the three northeast provinces totaled ¥1.63 trillion in 2002. In recent years, the Chinese government has initialized the "Revitalize the Northeast campaign" to turn this region into one of China's economic growth engines. As of 2015 the region was losing population and the economy, dominated by state-owned enterprises, was stagnant.[5] Culture[edit]

Dalian
Dalian
Hotel at Zhongshan Square in Dalian

In general, the culture of Northeast China
China
takes its elements from the cultures of North China
North China
and Shandong, where most of the Han Chinese migration into Northeast China, known as Chuang Guandong
Chuang Guandong
(闯关东), originated, the native Tungusic peoples, and its own innovations. Dialects[edit] There are two main dialects of Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
spoken in Northeast China. The dialect spoken in the majority of the Northeast is the Northeastern Mandarin, which is a very slight variant of the Standard Chinese but retains sporadic elements from native Tungusic languages, Japanese and Russian, where there are enough differences to give the dialect its own distinctive characteristics. However many residents in the southern fringe of the Liaodong
Liaodong
region (mostly in Dalian
Dalian
and Dandong) speak the Jiaoliao Mandarin, which is actually a Shandong dialect. Some Northeasterners often jokingly call the Northeastern dialect as the "corny accent" (Chinese: 大碴子味, referring to inland regions where maize is a staple crop), and the Jiaoliao dialect as the "oystery accent" (Chinese: 海蛎子味, referring to coastal areas like Dalian
Dalian
which are famous for seafoods). Ethnic Manchus
Manchus
speak mostly Mandarin, and the Manchu
Manchu
language is almost extinct due to widespread assimilation to Han culture over the last four centuries. Mongols tend to be bilingual in their own Mongolian tongues as well as Mandarin. Cuisine[edit] Northeastern Chinese cuisine reflects the region's ethnic diversity. Native, Manchu, Northern Chinese, Russian, Korean and Japanese cooking styles all find their traces in Manchurian cooking. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the cuisine is the use of uncooked fresh vegetables. During the long winter season, pickled Chinese cabbage, which is called "Suan Cai", is preserved and used for cooking. In almost every other region of China, vegetables are cooked thoroughly before being eaten. Most of the meat dishes are based around Pork due to how cold it can get. Often braised pork or dumplings are the main attraction of a meal. This Region's often cold climate makes it hard to grow or produce much of anything and growing seasons are very short. Folk dance and sports[edit] Errenzhuan, Yangge, Jilin
Jilin
opera and Stilts
Stilts
are popular forms of traditional entertainment in Northeast China. "Northeastern Cradle Song" (东北摇篮曲) is an example of the folk songs of this region. Because of its climatic conditions, Northeast China
China
is the base for China's winter sports. Ice hockey
Ice hockey
and ice skating athletes often come from or were educated in Northeast China. Major universities[edit]

Jilin
Jilin
University (吉林大学) Northeast Agricultural University(东北农业大学) Northeast Normal University
Northeast Normal University
(东北师范大学) Harbin
Harbin
Institute of Technology (哈尔滨工业大学) Northeastern University (东北大学) Liaoning
Liaoning
University (辽宁大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
Agricultural University (沈阳农业大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
University of Chemical Technology (沈阳化工大学) Dalian
Dalian
University of Technology (大连理工大学) Dalian
Dalian
Maritime University (大连海事大学) Northeast Forestry University
Northeast Forestry University
(东北林业大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
Normal University (沈阳师范大学) Changchun
Changchun
University of Science and Technology (长春理工大学) Northeast Petroleum University
Northeast Petroleum University
(东北石油大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
Aerospace University (沈阳航空航天大学) Harbin
Harbin
Engineering University (哈尔滨工程大学) Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
University (黑龙江大学)

Notes[edit]

^ Depending on the context, Manchuria
Manchuria
can also refer to a larger region that also includes Outer Manchuria. ^ According to the Republic of China
China
(1912–49)'s administrative divisions, the Northeast (including parts of Inner Mongolia) is divided into nine provinces and the region was historically called the Nine Northeastern Provinces (東北九省, Dōngběi Jiǔshěng). ^ It is also sometimes referred to as Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
in contrast with Outer Manchuria, provinces lost to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
during the Qing dynasty.

References[edit]

^ The nine nations of China: Rust Belt, Atlantic ^ "Northeast Revitalization Plan (2007)". State Council of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China ^ ISO 3166-2:CN ( ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China) ^ Li Yongfeng (24 September 2015). "Central Planning Got the Northeast in Trouble – and Won't Save It". Caixin. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

Thomas R. Gottschang and Diana Lary: Swallows and Settlers - The Great Migration from North China
North China
to Manchuria, Centre for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 2000 ISBN 0-89264-134-7

Michael Meyer: In Manchuria: A Village Called Wasteland and the Transformation of Rural China, Bloomsbury Press, 2015, ISBN 978-1620402863

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to China
China
Northeast, Flora of China Northeast and Geography of China
China
Northeast.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Northeast China.

The Provincial Government of Liaoning The Provincial Government of Heilongjiang The Provincial Government of Jilin

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