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NORTH WALES (Welsh : Gogledd Cymru) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales
Wales
. Retail, transport and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham
Wrexham
, Rhyl
Rhyl
, Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
, Llandudno
Llandudno
and Bangor . It is bordered to the south by the counties of Ceredigion
Ceredigion
and Powys in Mid Wales
Wales
, and to the east by the counties of Shropshire
Shropshire
in the West Midlands and Cheshire
Cheshire
in North West England .

North Wales
Wales
was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(or Gwynedd
Gwynedd
above the Conwy), defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy ); Lower Gwynedd
Gwynedd
(or Gwynedd below the Conwy, also known as the Perfeddwlad and defined as the region east of the River Conwy and west of the River Dee ); and Ynys Môn (or Anglesey), a large island off the north coast..

The southern boundary is arbitrary and its definition may depend on the use being made of the term. For example, the boundary of North Wales
Wales
Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales
Wales
area of the Natural Resources Wales
Wales
and the North Wales
Wales
Regional Transport Consortium (Taith). The historic boundary follows the pre 1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire
Denbighshire
which in turn closely follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy
Aran Fawddwy
, then crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn
Cadair Berwyn
, and then following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire
Shropshire
border. Montgomeryshire is sometimes referred to as being in north Wales.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 World Heritage & Biosphere Sites

* 2 Political divisions

* 2.1 Related constituencies

* 3 Geography * 4 Geology
Geology
* 5 Language

* 6 Local media

* 6.1 Local newspapers

* 6.1.1 Trinity Mirror titles * 6.1.2 NWN Media titles

* 6.2 Online * 6.3 Radio * 6.4 Television

* 7 Sport

* 7.1 Football * 7.2 Rugby League * 7.3 Rugby Union

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

See also: Kingdom of Gwynedd

The region is steeped in history and was for almost a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd . The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales
Wales
— only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language
Welsh language
and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity.

WORLD HERITAGE the rest of North Wales
Wales
is covered by Mid and West Wales
Wales
.

GEOGRAPHY

Llanddwyn Island 's old lighthouse, with Snowdonia in background

The area is mostly rural with many mountains and valleys . This, in combination with its coast (on the Irish Sea ), has ensured that tourism is the principal industry. Farming , which was once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance. The average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status.

The eastern part of North Wales
Wales
contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham
Wrexham
and Deeside . Wrexham
Wrexham
is North Wales' largest town , with a population of 63,084 in 2001. The total population of North Wales
Wales
is 687,937 (2011). The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns , such as Rhyl
Rhyl
, Llandudno
Llandudno
and Pwllheli
Pwllheli
. The A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester
Manchester
, Liverpool
Liverpool
and Birmingham
Birmingham
and the port of Holyhead
Holyhead
for ferries to Ireland
Ireland
; few routes connect North Wales
Wales
with South Wales
Wales
. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles (e.g., Criccieth , Dolbadarn , Dolwyddelan , Harlech , Caernarfon Castle
Castle
, Beaumaris , Conwy ) The area of North Wales
Wales
is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it slightly larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.

The highest mountain in Wales, (and also higher than anywhere in England
England
or Ireland), Snowdon , is situated in north west Wales.

GEOLOGY

See also: Geology
Geology
of Wales
Wales

North Wales
Wales
has a very diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian
Cambrian
dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia . In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd
Gwynedd
whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh
Denbigh
and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen
Llangollen
, to the north on Halkyn Mountain
Mountain
and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey
Anglesey
are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain
Mountain
and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper
Jasper
and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists .

LANGUAGE

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North Wales
Wales
has a distinct regional identity. Its dialect of the Welsh language
Welsh language
differs from that of other regions such as South Wales in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk"; a simple sentence such as go upstairs now might be Dos i fyny'r grisiau rŵan in North Wales, and Cer lan y stâr nawr in South Wales. Colloquially , a person from North Wales (especially one who speaks with this dialect or accent) is known as a North Walian, or a Gog (from the Welsh gogledd, meaning "north"). Areas close to the border with Cheshire
Cheshire
can have Scouse accents of English, and along the coast Manchester
Manchester
accents are common.

LOCAL MEDIA

LOCAL NEWSPAPERS

Two daily newspapers are published in the region. The region-wide "North Wales
Wales
edition" of the Daily Post , based at Trinity Mirror's offices in Llandudno
Llandudno
Junction , is distributed from Monday to Saturday, whilst The Leader (formerly the Evening Leader) publishes three editions for Wrexham, Chester and Flintshire
Flintshire
and is based at the headquarters of NWN Media in Mold .

Additionally, nine weekly newspapers provide local and community news:

Trinity Mirror Titles

* Caernarfon
Caernarfon
and Denbigh
Denbigh
Herald (Arfon and Dwyfor editions) * The Mail (Bangor/ Anglesey
Anglesey
and Holyhead/ Anglesey
Anglesey
editions) * North Wales
Wales
Weekly News (General, Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
and Conwy Valley editions)

NWN Media Titles

* Denbighshire
Denbighshire
Free Press * Flintshire
Flintshire
Standard * The Journal (Rhyl, Prestatyn and Abergele editions) * North Wales
Wales
Chronicle (North Gwynedd
Gwynedd
and Anglesey) * North Wales
Wales
Pioneer ( Llandudno
Llandudno
and Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
editions) * Wrexham
Wrexham
Leader

The weekly Aberyswyth-based Cambrian
Cambrian
News covers southern Gwynedd
Gwynedd
and publishes separate editions for the Arfon/Dwyfor and Meirionydd districts.

A weekly Welsh-language newspaper, Y Cymro
Y Cymro
is published each week by the Cambrian
Cambrian
News from its Porthmadog
Porthmadog
office alongside two localised Welsh titles, Y Cyfnod (Bala ) and Y Dydd ( Dolgellau
Dolgellau
). Yr Herald Gymraeg is distributed by Trinity Mirror as a pull-out section in the Wednesday edition of the Daily Post. There are also 24 Papurau Bro (area papers) providing community news and generally published each month.

ONLINE

A number of hyper-local websites in the area provide locally sourced news online. In Conwy county, BaeColwyn.com gives Welsh language coverage of the Colywn Bay area since 2011 and AbergelePost.com has been serving the Abergele area since 2010. Wrexham.com is a full-time operation covering Wrexham
Wrexham
and the surrounding area, and is based at offices in Wrexham
Wrexham
town centre. A full-time citizen led online news site Deeside.com started in early 2013 and covers Connah\'s Quay , Mancot
Mancot
, Pentre , Shotton , Queensferry , Sealand , Broughton , Hawarden , Ewloe , Sandycroft and parts of Saltney .

RADIO

Although no BBC
BBC
local radio stations exist in Wales, the Corporation's national services BBC
BBC
Radio Wales
Wales
and BBC
BBC
Radio Cymru cover the region from their broadcasting centres in Bangor , and Wrexham
Wrexham
. The Bangor studios produce a large amount of Radio Cymru programmes with some music and feature output for Radio Wales originating from Wrexham.

Three commercial radio stations serve the area — Capital North West and Wales
Wales
broadcasts local breakfast and drivetime programming for Wrexham, Flintshire, Denbighshire
Denbighshire
and Conwy county as well as Cheshire and the Wirral with a Welsh language
Welsh language
opt-out service for the former Coast FM area on 96.3 FM. Capital Cymru airs an extended local programming service, predominantly in the Welsh language, for Gwynedd and Anglesey. Across the entire region, Heart North Wales
Wales
also airs local peak-time programming in English, including an extended news programme on weeknights. All three stations broadcast from studios in Gwersyllt
Gwersyllt
on the outskirts of Wrexham.

Four community radio stations broadcast on FM — Calon FM serving Wrexham
Wrexham
County Borough and parts of southern Flintshire, Tudno FM broadcasting to Llandudno
Llandudno
and surrounding areas, Point FM serving Rhyl , parts of the Vale of Clwyd and eastern areas of Conwy county and Môn FM across the Isle of Anglesey. Radio Glan Clwyd - an extension of hospital service Radio Ysbyty Glan Clwyd - broadcasts on 1287 AM in the Bodelwyddan, St Asaph, Rhuddlan, Towyn and Kinmel Bay areas.

Towards the western side of North Wales, local hills mean national BBC
BBC
FM coverage can be quite poor, often suffering interference from Irish stations from the west.

TELEVISION

News coverage of North Wales
Wales
is generally provided within the BBC
BBC
's Wales
Wales
Today , Newyddion and Ffeil programmes (the latter two broadcast on S4C
S4C
) and on ITV 's ITV News Cymru Wales
Wales
. BBC
BBC
Cymru Wales
Wales
news teams are based at the Corporation's Bangor, Wrexham
Wrexham
and Mold studios while ITV Cymru Wales
Wales
runs a newsroom in Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
.

S4C
S4C
has an administrative office in Caernarfon
Caernarfon
, where a cluster of independent production companies are also based or partly based including Rondo Media, Cwmni Da, Antena, Owain Roberts Animations and Tinopolis.

SPORT

FOOTBALL

The badge of Wrexham
Wrexham
A.F.C.

Wrexham
Wrexham
A.F.C. play in the English football league system
English football league system
; having been a member of the Football League for over 80 years, in 2008 they were relegated into the Conference National for the first time in their existence. They now play in the Vanarama National League. They remain the highest ranked team in the region, and play at the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham
Wrexham
and train at Colliers Park , Gresford
Gresford
. Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
F.C. also play in the English pyramid at Northern Premier level.

There are a number of teams including Bangor City F.C. who have appeared in UEFA
UEFA
competitions, playing within the semi-professional domestic leagues the Welsh Premier League
Welsh Premier League
and the Cymru Alliance .

Due to the close proximity of North Wales
Wales
to the North West of England, support for the English clubs of Liverpool
Liverpool
F.C. , Everton F.C. and Manchester
Manchester
United F.C. has been historically strong.

RUGBY LEAGUE

Wales
Wales
was represented in the European Super League by Crusaders Rugby League , they re-located to Wrexham
Wrexham
for the 2010 season from south Wales
Wales
. They played at the Racecourse Ground and trained at Stansty Park both in Wrexham
Wrexham
before folding in 2011. They have now been replaced by the Championship 1 side, North Wales
Wales
Crusaders .

North Wales
Wales
has its own amateur league, the North Wales
Wales
Championship .

RUGBY UNION

In September 2008 it was announced by the Welsh Rugby Union that a development team based in North Wales
Wales
would be created, with a long-term goal of becoming the fifth Welsh team in the Celtic League . It was envisaged that this would both help the growth of the game in the area, and provide a larger pool of players for the Welsh national team to be selected from. The team was named RGC 1404 .

SEE ALSO

* Geography of Wales
Wales
* South Wales
Wales
* West Wales
Wales
* Mid Wales
Wales
* The North Wales
Wales
Regional Hospital, Wrexham
Wrexham
* North Wales
Wales
Police * North Wales
Wales
Police and Crime Commissioner * North Wales
Wales
Fire and Rescue Service * Kingdom of Gwynedd

REFERENCES

* ^ Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct
World Heritage Site, UNESCO * ^ Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd World Heritage Site, UNESCO * ^ Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey, A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
* ^ Structural Funds: Eligible areas in region West Wales
Wales
& The Valleys for Objective 1 between 2000 and 2006, European Commission Regional Policy * ^ "Heritage, Language & Culture". Visit North Wales. Visit North Wales. Retrieved 2016-05-09. * ^ "WRU plan for northern development team". The Independent
The Independent
. 9 September 2008. * ^ Crump, Eryl; Rob Griffiths (9 September 2008). "Strongest hint yet that North Wales
Wales
will be fifth rugby region". Daily Post .

EXTERNAL

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