Insular Scandinavian languages:
Greenlandic Norse (†)
Extinct Norn was spoken in Orkney,
Caithness in what is
Scotland until the 19th century.
Greenlandic Norse was spoken in the Norse settlements of
Greenland until their demise in the late 15th century.
Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the
Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along
with the West
Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic
languages. The language group is sometimes referred to as the "Nordic
languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among
Danish, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic and Norwegian scholars and
In Scandinavia, the term "Scandinavian languages" refers specifically
to the generally mutually intelligible languages of the three
continental Scandinavian countries, and is thus used in a more narrow
sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular
subset of Faroese and Icelandic. Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are
also referred to as
Continental Scandinavian or Nordic languages,
while Faroese and Icelandic are grouped together as Insular
Scandinavian or Nordic languages. The term Scandinavian arose in the
18th century as a result of the early linguistic and cultural
Scandinavist movement, referring to the people, cultures, and
languages of the three Scandinavian countries and stressing their
The term "
North Germanic languages" is used in comparative
linguistics, whereas the term "Scandinavian languages" appears in
studies of the modern standard languages and the dialect continuum of
Approximately 20 million people in the
Nordic countries speak a
Scandinavian language as their native language, including an
approximately 5% minority in Finland. Languages belonging to the North
Germanic language tree are also commonly spoken on
Greenland and, to a
lesser extent, by immigrants in North America.
1 Modern languages and dialects
2.1 Distinction from East and West Germanic
2.2 Features shared with West Germanic
North Germanic features
2.4 Middle Ages
4.1 Mutual intelligibility
4.3 Language boundaries
4.4 Family tree
4.5 Classification difficulties
4.6 Written norms of Norwegian
5 See also
8 External links
Modern languages and dialects
The modern languages in this group are:
South Swedish dialects
East Swedish dialects
Trønder dialects (
Norway and parts of Sweden)
East Norwegian dialects (
Norway and minor parts of Sweden)
West Norwegian dialects
North Norwegian dialects
Distinction from East and West Germanic
Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups:
West, East and North Germanic. Their exact relation is difficult to
determine from the sparse evidence of runic inscriptions, and they
remained mutually intelligible to some degree during the Migration
Period, so that some individual varieties are difficult to classify.
Dialects with the features assigned to the northern group formed from
Proto-Germanic language in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern
At last around the year 200 AD, speakers of the
North Germanic branch
became distinguishable from the other Germanic language speakers. The
early development of this language branch is attested through runic
Features shared with West Germanic
North Germanic group is characterized by a number of phonological
and morphological innovations shared with West Germanic:
The retraction of Proto-Germanic ē (/ɛː/, also written ǣ) to
Proto-Germanic *jēran ‘year’ >
Northwest Germanic *jāran
North Germanic *āra >
Old Norse ár; and
West Germanic *jāra >
Old High German
Old High German jār,
Old English ġēar
[jæ͡ɑːr]; vs. Gothic jēr.
The raising of [ɔː] to [oː] (and word-finally to [uː]). The
original vowel remained when nasalised *ōn [ɔ̃ː] and when before
/z/, and was then later lowered to [ɑː].
Proto-Germanic *geƀō ‘gift’ [ˈɣeβɔː] > Northwest
Germanic *geƀu >:
North Germanic *gjavu > with u-umlaut *gjǫvu > ON gjǫf, and
West Germanic *gebu > OE giefu; cf. Goth giba (vowel lowering).
Proto-Germanic *tungōn ‘tongue’ [ˈtuŋɡɔ̃ː] > late
Northwest Germanic *tungā > *tunga > ON tunga, OHG zunga, OE
tunge (unstressed a > e); vs. Goth tuggō.
Proto-Germanic gen.sg. *geƀōz ‘of a gift’ [ˈɣeβɔːz] >
Northwest Germanic *geƀāz >:
North Germanic *gjavaz > ON gjafar, and
West Germanic *geba > OHG geba, OE giefe (unstressed a > e); vs.
The development of i-umlaut.
The rhotacism of /z/ to /r/, with presumably a rhotic fricative of
some kind as an earlier stage.
This change probably affected
West Germanic much earlier and then
spread from there to North Germanic, but failed to reach East Germanic
which had already split off by that time. This is confirmed by an
intermediate stage ʀ, clearly attested in late runic East Norse at a
West Germanic had long merged the sound with /r/.
The development of the demonstrative pronoun ancestral to English
Germanic *sa, sō, þat ‘this, that’ (cf. ON sá m., sú f., þat
n.; OE se, sēo, þæt; Goth sa m., so f., þata n.) + proximal *si
‘here’ (cf. ON si, OHG sē, Goth sai ‘lo!, behold!’);
Runic Norse: nom.sg. sa-si, gen. þes-si, dat. þeim-si, etc., with
declension of the 1st part;
fixed form with declension on the 2nd part: ON sjá, þessi m., OHG
these m., OE þes m., þēos f., þis n.
Some have argued that after East Germanic broke off from the group,
the remaining Germanic languages, the
Northwest Germanic languages,
divided into four main dialects: North Germanic, and the three
groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely
North Sea Germanic
North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic languages, ancestral to the
Anglo-Frisian languages and Low German)
Weser-Rhine Germanic (Low Franconian languages)
Elbe Germanic (High German languages)
Under this view, the properties that the West
Germanic languages have
in common separate from the North
Germanic languages are not inherited
from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language
contact among the
Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not
reaching those spoken in Scandinavia.
North Germanic features
Some innovations are not found in West and East Germanic such as:
Sharpening of geminate /jj/ and /ww/ according to Holtzmann's law
Occurred also in East Germanic, but with a different outcome.
Proto-Germanic *twajjôN ("of two") >
Old Norse tveggja, Gothic
twaddjē, but >
Old High German
Old High German zweiio
Word-final devoicing of stop consonants.
Proto-Germanic *band ("I/he bound") > *bant > Old West Norse
batt, Old East Norse bant, but
Old English band
Loss of medial /h/ with compensatory lengthening of the preceding
vowel and the following consonant, if present.
Proto-Germanic *nahtuN ("night", accusative) > *nāttu > (by
u-umlaut) *nǭttu >
Old Norse nótt
/ɑi̯/ > /ɑː/ before /r/ (but not /z/)
Proto-Germanic *sairaz ("sore") > *sāraz > *sārz > Old
Norse sárr, but > *seira >
Old High German
Old High German sēr.
With original /z/ Proto-Germanic *gaizaz > *geizz > Old Norse
General loss of word-final /n/, following the loss of word-final short
vowels (which are still present in the earliest runic inscriptions).
Proto-Germanic *bindanaN > *bindan >
Old Norse binda, but >
Old English bindan.
This also affected stressed syllables: Proto-Germanic *in > Old
Vowel breaking of /e/ to /jɑ/ except after w, j or l (see "gift"
The diphthong /eu/ was also affected (also l), shifting to /jɒu/ at
an early stage. This diphthong is preserved in
Old Gutnish and
survives in modern Gutnish. In other Norse dialects, the /j/-onset and
length remained, but the diphthong simplified resulting in variously
/juː/ or /joː/.
This affected only stressed syllables. The word *ek ("I"), which could
occur both stressed and unstressed, appears varyingly as ek
(unstressed, with no breaking) and jak (stressed, with breaking)
throughout Old Norse.
Loss of initial /j/ (see "year" above), and also of /w/ before a round
Proto-Germanic *wulfaz >
North Germanic ulfz >
Old Norse ulfr
The development of u-umlaut, which rounded stressed vowels when /u/ or
/w/ followed in the next syllable. This followed vowel breaking, with
ja /jɑ/ being u-umlauted to jǫ /jɒ/.
The approximate extent of
Old Norse and related languages in the early
Old West Norse dialect
Old East Norse dialect
Germanic languages with which
Old Norse still
retained some mutual intelligibility
After the Proto-Norse and
Old Norse periods, the North Germanic
languages developed into an East Scandinavian branch, consisting of
Danish and Swedish; and, secondly, a West Scandinavian branch,
consisting of Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic and, thirdly, an Old
Gutnish branch. Norwegian settlers brought Old West Norse to
Iceland and the
Faroe Islands around 800. Of the modern Scandinavian
languages, written Icelandic is closest to this ancient language.
An additional language, known as Norn, developed on
Vikings had settled there around 800, but this language
became extinct around 1700.
In medieval times, speakers of all the Scandinavian languages could
understand one another to a significant degree, and it was often
referred to as a single language, called the "Danish tongue" until the
13th century by some in Sweden and Iceland. In the 16th
century, many Danes and Swedes still referred to
North Germanic as a
single language, which is stated in the introduction to the first
Danish translation of the Bible and in Olaus Magnus' A Description of
the Northern Peoples. Dialectal variation between west and east in Old
Norse however was certainly present during the Middle Ages and three
dialects had emerged: Old West Norse, Old East Norse and Old Gutnish.
Old Icelandic was essentially identical to Old Norwegian, and together
they formed the Old West Norse dialect of
Old Norse and were also
spoken in settlements in Faroe Islands, Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of
Man, and Norwegian settlements in Normandy. The Old East Norse
dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Russia,
England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The
Old Gutnish dialect
was spoken in
Gotland and in various settlements in the East.
Yet, by 1600, another classification of the
North Germanic language
branches had arisen from a syntactic point of view, dividing them
into an insular group (Icelandic and Faroese) and a continental group
(Danish, Norwegian and Swedish). The division between Insular
Scandinavian (önordiska/ønordisk/øynordisk) and Continental
Scandinavian (Skandinavisk) is based on mutual intelligibility
between the two groups and developed due to different influences,
particularly the political union of
which led to significant Danish influence on central and
eastern Norwegian dialects (
Germanic languages are national languages in Denmark,
Norway and Sweden, whereas the non-Germanic Finnish is spoken
by the majority in Finland. In inter-Nordic contexts, texts are today
often presented in three versions: Finnish, Icelandic, and one of the
three languages Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Another official
language in the
Nordic countries is Greenlandic (in the Eskimo–Aleut
family), the sole official language of Greenland.
Southern Jutland in southwestern Denmark, German is also spoken by
the North Schleswig Germans, and German is a recognized minority
language in this region. German is the primary language among the
Danish minority of Southern Schleswig, and likewise, Danish is the
primary language of the North Schleswig Germans. Both minority groups
are highly bilingual.
Traditionally, Danish and German were the two official languages of
Denmark–Norway; laws and other official instruments for use in
Norway were written in Danish, and local administrators
spoke Danish or Norwegian. German was the administrative language of
Holstein and the Duchy of Schleswig.
Sami languages form an unrelated group that has coexisted with the
North Germanic language group in
Scandinavia since prehistory.
Sami, like Finnish, is part of the group of the Uralic languages.
During centuries of interaction, Finnish and Sami have imported many
more loanwords from North
Germanic languages than vice versa.
Finland, Sweden, European Union, Nordic Council
Denmark, Faroe Islands, European Union, Nordic
Norway, Nordic Council
* The figure includes 450,000 members of the Swedish-speaking
population of Finland
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
The present-day distribution of the
Germanic languages in Europe:
North Germanic languages
Norwegian (partially national boundaries)
Swedish (partially national boundaries)
Danish (partially national boundaries)
West Germanic languages
Dutch (partially national boundaries)
Low German (partially national boundaries)
Dots indicate a few of the areas where multilingualism is common.
In historical linguistics, the
North Germanic family tree is divided
into two main branches, West Scandinavian languages (Norwegian,
Faroese and Icelandic) and East Scandinavian languages (Danish and
Swedish), along with various dialects and varieties. The two branches
are derived from the western and eastern dialect groups of Old Norse
respectively. There was also an
Old Gutnish branch spoken on the
island of Gotland. The continental Scandinavian languages (Swedish,
Norwegian and Danish) were heavily influenced by Middle Low German
during the period of Hanseatic expansion.
Currently, English loanwords are influencing the languages. A 2005
survey of words used by speakers of the Scandinavian languages showed
that the number of English loanwords used in the languages has doubled
during the last 30 years and is now 1.2%. Icelandic has imported fewer
English words than the other
North Germanic languages, despite the
fact that it is the country that uses English most.
Another way of classifying the languages — focusing on mutual
intelligibility rather than the tree-of-life model — posits
Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish as Continental Scandinavian, and
Faroese and Icelandic as Insular Scandinavian. Because of the long
political union between
Norway and Denmark, moderate and conservative
Bokmål share most of the Danish vocabulary and grammar, and
was nearly identical to written Danish until the spelling reform of
1907. (For this reason,
Bokmål and its unofficial, more conservative
Riksmål are sometimes considered East Scandinavian, and
Nynorsk West Scandinavian via the West-East division shown above.)
However, Danish has developed a greater distance between the spoken
and written versions of the language, so the differences between
spoken Norwegian and spoken Danish are somewhat more significant than
the difference between their respective written forms. Written Danish
is relatively close to the other
Continental Scandinavian languages,
but the sound developments of spoken Danish include reduction and
assimilation of consonants and vowels, as well as the prosodic feature
called stød in Danish, developments which have not occurred in the
other languages (though the stød corresponds to the different tones
in Norwegian and Swedish, which are tonal languages). However,
Scandinavians are widely expected to understand some of the other
spoken Scandinavian languages. Many people[who?] may have some
difficulty, particularly with elderly dialect speakers, but a lot of
people[who?] can understand the languages, as they appear in radio and
television, of the other Scandinavian countries.
Sweden left the
Kalmar Union in 1523 due to conflicts with Denmark,
leaving two Scandinavian units: The union of
from Copenhagen, Denmark) and
Sweden (including present-day Finland).
The two countries took different sides during several wars until 1814,
when the Denmark-
Norway unit was disestablished, and made different
international contacts. This led to different borrowings from foreign
Sweden had a francophone period), for example the Old
Swedish word vindöga ‘window’ was replaced by fönster (from
Middle Low German), whereas native vindue was kept in Danish.
Norwegians, who spoke (and still speak) the Norwegian dialects derived
from Old Norse, would say vindauga or similar. The written language of
Norway however, was based on the dialect of
thus had vindue. On the other hand, the word begynde ‘begin’ (now
written begynne in Norwegian Bokmål) was borrowed into Danish and
Norwegian, whereas native börja was kept in Swedish. Even though
standard Swedish and Danish were moving apart, the dialects were not
influenced that much. Thus Norwegian and Swedish remained similar in
pronunciation, and words like børja were able to survive in some of
the Norwegian dialects whereas vindöga survived in some of the
Nynorsk incorporates much of these words, like byrja
(cf. Swedish börja, Danish begynde), veke (cf. Sw vecka, Dan uge) and
vatn (Sw vatten, Dan vand) whereas
Bokmål has retained the Danish
forms (begynne, uke, vann). As a result,
Nynorsk does not conform the
above model,[clarification needed] since it shares a lot of features
with Swedish. According to the Norwegian linguist Arne Torp, the
Nynorsk project (which had as a goal to re-establish a written
Norwegian language) would have been much harder to carry out if Norway
had been in a union with
Sweden instead of with Denmark, simply
because the differences would have been smaller.
Germanic languages § Vocabulary comparison
The mutual intelligibility between the Continental Scandinavian
languages is asymmetrical. Various studies have shown Norwegian
speakers to be the best in
Scandinavia at understanding other
languages within the language group. According to a study
undertaken during 2002–2005 and funded by the Nordic Cultural Fund,
Swedish speakers in
Stockholm and Danish speakers in
the greatest difficulty in understanding other Nordic languages.
The study, which focused mainly on native speakers under the age of
25, showed that the lowest ability to comprehend another language is
demonstrated by youth in
Stockholm in regard to Danish, producing the
lowest ability score in the survey. The greatest variation in results
between participants within the same country was also demonstrated by
the Swedish speakers in the study. Participants from Malmö, located
in the southernmost Swedish province of
Scania (Skåne), demonstrated
a better understanding of Danish than Swedish speakers to the north.
Access to Danish television and radio, direct trains to Copenhagen
Øresund Bridge and a larger number of cross-border commuters
Øresund Region contribute to a better knowledge of spoken
Danish and a better knowledge of the unique Danish words among the
region's inhabitants. According to the study, youth in this region
were able to understand the
Danish language (slightly) better than the
Norwegian language. But they still could not understand Danish as well
as the Norwegians could, demonstrating once again the relative
distance of Swedish from Danish. Youth in
Copenhagen had a very poor
command of Swedish, showing that the Øresund connection was mostly
The results from the study of how well native youth in different
Scandinavian cities did when tested on their knowledge of the other
Continental Scandinavian languages are summarized in table format,
reproduced below. The maximum score was 10.0:
Faroese speakers (of the Insular Scandinavian languages group) are
even better than the Norwegians at comprehending two or more languages
Continental Scandinavian languages group, scoring high in
both Danish (which they study at school) and Norwegian and having the
highest score on a Scandinavian language other than their native
language, as well as the highest average score. Icelandic speakers, in
contrast, have a poor command of Norwegian and Swedish. They do
somewhat better with Danish, as they are taught Danish in school. When
speakers of Faroese and Icelandic were tested on how well they
understood the three
Continental Scandinavian languages, the test
results were as follows (maximum score 10.0):
Germanic languages share many lexical, grammatical,
phonological, and morphological similarities, to a more significant
extent than the West
Germanic languages do. These lexical,
grammatical, and morphological similarities can be outlined in the
It was a humid, grey summer day at the end of June.
It wie in stribbelige/fochtige, graue simmerdei oan de ein fan Juny.
Dit was 'n vogtige, grou somer dag aan die einde van Junie.
Het was een vochtige, grauwe zomerdag eind juni.
Es war ein feuchter, grauer Sommertag Ende Juni.
Det var en fuktig, grå sommardag i slutet av juni.
Det var en fugtig, grå sommerdag i slutningen af juni.
Det var en fuktig, grå sommerdag i slutten av juni.
Det var ein fuktig, grå sumardag/sommardag i slutten/enden av juni.
Það var rakur, grár sumardagur í lok júní.
Tað var ein rakur/fuktigur, gráur summardagur síðst í juni.
Given the aforementioned homogeneity, there exists some discussion on
whether the continental group should be considered one or several
languages. The Scandinavian languages (in the narrow sense, i.e.
the languages of Scandinavia) are often cited as proof of the aphorism
"A language is a dialect with an army and navy". The differences in
dialects within the countries of Norway, Sweden, and
Denmark can often
be greater than the differences across the borders, but the political
independence of these countries leads continental Scandinavian to be
classified into Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish in the popular mind as
well as among most linguists. The generally agreed upon language
border is, in other words, politically shaped. This is also because of
the strong influence of the standard languages, particularly in
Denmark and Sweden. Even if the language policy of
Norway has been
more tolerant of rural dialectal variation in formal language, the
prestige dialect often referred to as "Eastern Urban Norwegian",
spoken mainly in and around the
Oslo region, is sometimes considered
normative. The influence of a standard Norwegian is nevertheless less
so than in
Denmark and Sweden, since the prestige dialect in Norway
has moved geographically several times over the past 200 years. The
organised formation of
Nynorsk out of western Norwegian dialects after
Norway became independent of
Denmark in 1814 intensified the
Nordic Council has on several occasions referred to the (Germanic)
languages spoken in
Scandinavia as the "Scandinavian language"
(singular); for instance, the official newsletter of the Nordic
Council is written in the "Scandinavian language". The creation of
one unified written language has been considered as highly unlikely,
given the failure to agree upon a common standardized language in
Norway. However, there is a slight chance of "some uniformization of
spelling" between Norway,
Sweden and Denmark.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Germanic languages are descended from Old Norse. Divisions
between subfamilies of
North Germanic are rarely precisely defined:
Most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually
intelligible and the most separated ones not.
Germanic languages division including West and East Scandinavian
languages and dialects
Greenlandic Norse (extinct)
Vestlandsk (Western and Southern Norway)
Arendalsk dialect (no) (
Arendal region) (influenced by Danish
Bergensk dialect (no) (
Midhordland district) (heavily influenced
by Danish and Low German)
Sogn dialect (
Sogn district) (has some wide similarities with Old West
Norse, Faroese and Icelandic)
Jærsk dialect (no) (
Jæren district) (influenced by Danish
Valle dialect (no) (Upper
Setesdal district) (one of the dialects
with the best preservation of Old West Norse)
Nordnorsk (no) (Northern Norway)
Østlandsk (no) (Eastern Norway)
Bohuslänska dialect (sv) (
Bohuslän province) (influenced by
Swedish in retrospective)
Toten dialect (no) (
Valdris dialect (
Vikværsk dialect (Viken historical district)
Härjedalska dialect (sv) (Härjedalen)
Jamtlandic dialects (
Jämtland province) (disputed, but has a larger
linguistic similarity with the
Trøndersk dialect in Norway)
Insular Danish (Ømål)
East Danish (Bornholmsk along with former East Danish dialects in
Halland and Skåne (Scanian dialect) as well as the southern
parts of Småland, now generally considered South Swedish dialects)
Jutlandic (or Jutish, in Jutland)
Southern Jutland and Southern Schleswig)
Urban East Norwegian
Urban East Norwegian (generally considered a Norwegian dialect)
Norrland dialects (Norrland, including
Westrobothnian and Kalix)
Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia
Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia (
Finland and Estonia)
Dalecarlian (Dalarna), including
Elfdalian (which is considered a
separate language from Swedish,
Jamtlandic dialects share many characteristics with both
Trøndersk and with Norrländska mål. Due to this ambiguous position,
it is contested whether Jamtlandic belongs to the West Norse or the
East Norse group.
Älvdalen speech), generally considered a
today has an official orthography and is, because of a lack of mutual
intelligibility with Swedish, considered as a separate language by
many linguists. Traditionally regarded as a Swedish dialect, but
by several criteria closer to West Norse dialects,
Elfdalian is a
separate language by the standard of mutual
Traveller Danish, Rodi, and Swedish Romani are varieties of Danish,
Norwegian and Swedish with Romani vocabulary or
collectively as the Scandoromani language. They are spoken by
Norwegian and Swedish Travellers. The Scando-Romani varieties in
Norway combine elements from the dialects of Western
Norway (Østlandet) and Trøndersk.
Written norms of Norwegian
Norwegian language conflict
Norwegian has two official written norms,
Bokmål and Nynorsk. In
addition, there are some unofficial norms.
Riksmål is more
Bokmål (that is, closer to Danish) and is used to
various extents by numerous people, especially in the cities and by
the largest newspaper in Norway, Aftenposten. On the other hand,
Høgnorsk (High Norwegian) is similar to
Nynorsk and is used by a very
Comparison of Norwegian
Bokmål and Standard Danish
Low Franconian languages
Gender in Danish and Swedish
High German languages
East Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
South Germanic languages
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "North Germanic".
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Language Family Trees
Indo-European, Germanic, North. Ethnologue: Languages of the World,
Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International
Dialect Syntax. Network for Scandinavian Dialect
Syntax. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
^ a b c Torp, Arne (2004). Nordiske sprog i fortid og nutid.
Sproglighed og sprogforskelle, sprogfamilier og sprogslægtskab.
Moderne nordiske sprog. In Nordens sprog – med rødder og fødder.
Nord 2004:010, ISBN 92-893-1041-3,
Nordic Council of Ministers'
Copenhagen 2004. (In Danish).
^ a b c Holmberg, Anders and Christer Platzack (2005). "The
Scandinavian languages". In The Comparative
Syntax Handbook, eds
Guglielmo Cinque and Richard S. Kayne. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press. Excerpt at Durham University Archived 3 December
2007 at the Wayback Machine..
^ Leinonen, Therese (2011), "Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation
in Swedish dialects",
Oslo Studies in Language 3 (2) Aggregate
analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects]",
Oslo Studies in
Language 3 (2); Dahl, Östen (2000), Språkets enhet och mångfald.,
Lund: Studentlitteratur, pp. 117–119; Lars-Erik Edlund "Språklig
variation i tid och rum" in Dahl, Östen & Edlund, Lars-Erik, eds.
(2010), Sveriges nationalatlas. Språken i Sverige.Stockholm: Kungl.
Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademien, p. 9
^ Hawkins, John A. (1987). "Germanic languages". In Bernard Comrie.
The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press.
pp. 68–76. ISBN 0-19-520521-9.
^ But see Cercignani, Fausto, Indo-European ē in Germanic, in
«Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung», 86/1, 1972, pp.
^ Kuhn, Hans (1955–56). "Zur Gliederung der germanischen Sprachen".
Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. 86:
^ Bandle, Oskar (ed.)(2005). The Nordic Languages: An International
Handbook of the History of the
North Germanic Languages. Walter de
Gruyter, 2005, ISBN 3-11-017149-X.
^ a b Lund, Jørn. Language Archived 15 August 2004 at the Wayback
Machine.. Published online by Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, Version 1 – November 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
^ Lindström, Fredrik; Lindström, Henrik (2012). Svitjods undergång
och Sveriges födelse. Albert Bonniers Förlag.
ISBN 978-91-0-013451-8. , p. 259
^ Adams 1895, pp. 336–338.
^ Article Nordiska språk, section Historia, subsection Omkring
^ Jónsson, Jóhannes Gísli and Thórhallur Eythórsson (2004).
"Variation in subject case marking in Insular Scandinavian". Nordic
Journal of Linguistics (2005), 28: 223–245 Cambridge University
Press. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
^ Heine, Bernd and Tania Kuteva (2006). The Changing Languages of
Europe. Oxford University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-19-929734-7.
^ The Nordic Council's/
Nordic Council of Ministers' political magazine
Analys Norden offers three versions: a section labeled "Íslenska"
(Icelandic), a section labeled "Skandinavisk" (in either Danish,
Norwegian or Swedish), and a section labeled "Suomi" (Finnish).
^ Sammallahti, Pekka, 1990. "The Sámi Language: Past and Present". In
Arctic Languages: An Awakening. The United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Paris.
ISBN 92-3-102661-5, p. 440: "the arrival of a Uralic population
and language in Samiland [...] means that there has been a period of
at least 5000 years of uninterrupted linguistic and cultural
development in Samiland. [...] It is also possible, however, that the
earlier inhabitants of the area also spoke a Uralic language: we do
not know of any linguistic groups in the area other than the Uralic
and Indo-Europeans (represented by the present Scandinavian
^ Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006). "A language with deep roots"
Archived 5 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine..Sápmi: Language
history, 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget:
"The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...]
Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian,
Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are
consequently related to each other."
^ a b "Urban misunderstandings". In Norden this week – Monday
Nordic Council and the
Nordic Council of Ministers.
Retrieved 13 November 2007.
^ Victor Ginsburgh, Shlomo Weber (2011). How many languages do we
need?: the economics of linguistic diversity, Princeton University
^ a b c Delsing, Lars-Olof and Katarina Lundin Åkesson (2005).
Håller språket ihop Norden? En forskningsrapport om ungdomars
förståelse av danska, svenska och norska. Available in pdf format.
Numbers are from Figure 4:11. "Grannspråksförståelse bland infödda
skandinaver fördelade på ort", p.65 and Figure 4:6. "Sammanlagt
resultat på grannspråksundersökningen fördelat på område", p.58.
^ Maurud, Ø (1976). Nabospråksforståelse i Skandinavia. En
undersøkelse om gjensidig forståelse av tale- og skriftspråk i
Danmark, Norge og Sverige. Nordisk utredningsserie 13. Nordiska
^ a b Nordens språk – med rötter och fötter
^ Hello Norden newsletter's language of publication is described as
skandinaviska (in Swedish)
^ The Scandinavian Languages: Their Histories and Relationships
^ Finlandssvensk som hovedspråk (in Norwegian bokmål)
^ a b Kroonen, Guus. "On the origins of the
Elfdalian nasal vowels
from the perspective of diachronic dialectology and Germanic
etymology" (PDF). Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics.
University of Copenhagen. Retrieved 27 January 2016. In many aspects,
Elfdalian, takes up a middle position between East and West Nordic.
However, it shares some innovations with West Nordic, but none with
East Nordic. This invalidates the claim that
Elfdalian split off from
^ Dalen, Arnold (2005). Jemtsk og trøndersk – to nære slektningar
Archived 18 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Språkrådet, Norway.
(In Norwegian). Retrieved 13 November 2007.
^ Ekberg, Lena (2010). "The National Minority Languages in Sweden". In
Gerhard Stickel. National, Regional and Minority Languages in Europe:
Contributions to the Annual Conference 2009 of Efnil in Dublin. Peter
Lang. pp. 87–92. ISBN 9783631603659. Retrieved 6 March
^ Dahl, Östen; Dahlberg, Ingrid; Delsing, Lars-Olof; Halvarsson,
Herbert; Larsson, Gösta; Nyström, Gunnar; Olsson, Rut; Sapir, Yair;
Steensland, Lars; Williams, Henrik (8 February 2007). "Älvdalskan är
ett språk – inte en svensk dialekt" [
Elfdalian is a language –
not a Swedish dialect]. Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Stockholm. Retrieved
7 March 2013.
^ Dahl, Östen (December 2008). "Älvdalska – eget språk eller
värsting bland dialekter?" [
Elfdalian – its own language or an
outstanding dialect?]. Språktidningen (in Swedish). Retrieved 16 May
^ Zach, Kristine (2013). "Das Älvdalische — Sprache oder Dialekt?
Elfdalian — Language or dialect? (Masters thesis)]
(PDF) (in German). University of Vienna.
^ Sapir, Yair (2004). Elfdalian, the Vernacular of Övdaln. Conference
paper, 18–19 juni 2004. Available in pdf format at Uppsala
University online archive Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback
^ LLOW – Traveller Danish
Adams, Charles Kendall (1895). Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia: A New
Edition. D. Appleton, A. J. Johnson.
Jervelund, Anita (2007), Sådan Staver Vi .
Kristiansen, Tore m.fl. (1996), Dansk Sproglære .
Lucazin, M (2010), Utkast till ortografi över skånska språket med
morfologi och ordlista. Första. revisionen (PDF),
ISBN 978-91-977265-2-8 Outlined Scanian orthography
including morphology and word index. First revision.
Maurer, Friedrich (1942), Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur
germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprachgeschichte, Stammes- und
Volkskunde, Strasbourg: Hünenburg.
Rowe, Charley. The problematic Holtzmann's Law in Germanic.
(Indogermanische Forschungen Bd. 108, 2003).
Iben Stampe Sletten red., Nordens sprog – med rødder og fødder,
2005, ISBN 92-893-1041-3, available online, also available in the
other Scandinavian languages.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Low German influence on the Scandinavian languages
Scandinavian loans in Old and Middle English, and their legacy in the
England and modern standard English
Most similar languages to Danish
Germanic languages and dialects
East Pomeranian-West Prussian
Western East Pomeranian
Eastern East Pomeranian
West Central Pomeranian
Mennonite Low German
Dutch Low Saxon
Northern Low Saxon
East Frisian Low Saxon
Namibian Black German
Parana Volga German
German Standard German
Austrian Standard German
Swiss Standard German
Italics indicate extinct languages
Bold indicates languages with more than 3 million speakers
Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their
Philology of Germanic languages
Germanic parent language
Middle Low German
Old High German
Middle High German
Mennonite Low German
Germanic substrate hypothesis
West Germanic gemination
High German consonant shift
Germanic spirant law
Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law
Great Vowel Shift
Germanic strong verb
Germanic weak verb