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The North Eastern Province ( so, Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
in
Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya ( sw, Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At , Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population of more than 47.6 million people in the 2019 census, Kenya is the ...
. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km2, with its capital at
Garissa Garissa ( so, Gaarisa) is the capital of Garissa County, Kenya. It is situated in the former North Eastern Province. Residential areas in Garissa are called ''bulas''. The main bulas are Bula Taqwa, Mzuri, Garissa yarey, Bula punda, Bula sheikh and ...
. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), the North Eastern Province territory was carved out of the present-day southern
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
during the colonial period. However, during negotiations for Kenya’s independence, Britain granted administration of the NFD to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite showing the overwhelming desire of the region’s population to join the newly formed Somali Republic. It is and has historically been mostly inhabited by ethnic Somalis.Rhoda E. Howard, ''Human Rights in Commonwealth Africa'', (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: 1986), p.95


History

The Northern Frontier District came into being in 1925, when it was carved out of the present-day southern
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
. At the time under British colonial administration, the northern half of Jubaland was ceded to
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europ ...
as a reward for the Italians' support of the Allies during
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
. Britain retained control of the southern half of the territory, which was later called the Northern Frontier District (subsequently renamed the North Eastern Province). On 26 June 1960, four days before granting
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somaliland ...
independence, the British government declared that all Somali-inhabited areas of East Africa,
Greater SomaliaGreater Somali ( so, Soomaaliweyn 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒓𐒗𐒕𐒒, ar, الصومال الكبير ''As-Sumal al-Kabir'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis li ...
should be unified in one administrative region. However, after the dissolution of the former British colonies in the region, Britain granted administration of the Northern Frontier District to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed
Somali Republic The Somali Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, it, Repubblica Somala, ar, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the name of a sovereign state composing of Somalia and Somaliland, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Som ...
, and the fact that the NFD was almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis.Francis Vallat, ''First report on succession of states in respect of treaties: International Law Commission twenty-sixth session 6 May-26 July 1974'', (United Nations: 1974), p.20 In December 1962, at the urging of the Somalia government, the British appointed a commission to ascertain the desires of the inhabitants of the Northern Frontier District regarding its future. The commissioners reported that the inhabitants of five of the six administrative areas of the Northern Frontier District favored union with the Somali Republic. According to the Somali Republic, unification was favored by 88% of the inhabitants. Early in 1963, Britain assured Somalia that no decision would be made regarding the Northern Frontier District without prior consultation with the Republic. However, Britain did not follow the wishes of the overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the Northern Frontier District and cede the territory to the Somalia Republic. Instead, on 8 March 1963, Britain announced the creation of the North East Region out of the Northern Frontier District. Unsatisfied with this solution, the Somali Republic severed diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 18 March 1963. On the eve of Kenya's independence in August 1963, British officials belatedly realized that the new Kenyan regime was not willing to give up the Somali-inhabited areas it had just been granted administration of. Led by the Northern Province People's Progressive Party (NPPPP), Somalis in the NFD vigorously sought union with their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. In response, the Kenyan government enacted a number of repressive measures designed to frustrate their efforts in what came to be known as the shifta period: Somali leaders were routinely placed in preventive detention, where they remained well into the late 1970s. The North Eastern Province was closed to general access (along with other parts of Kenya) as a "scheduled" area (ostensibly closed to all outsiders, including members of parliament, as a means of protecting the nomadic inhabitants), and news from it was very difficult to obtain. A number of reports, however, accused the Kenyans of mass slaughters of entire villages of Somali citizens and of setting up large "protected villages"—in effect
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects". Thus, while it can simply me ...
s. The government refused to acknowledge the ethnically based irredentist motives of the Somalis, making constant reference in official statements to the ''
shiftaShifta (Ge'ez: ሽፍታ, or "shufta") is term used in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Tanzania, and Somalia for ''rebel'', ''outlaw'', or ''bandit''. The word is derived from ''shúfto''. Historically, the shifta served as a local militia in particularly ...
'' (bandit) problem in the area. Although the main conflict ended in a cease-fire in 1967, Somalis in the region still identify and maintain close ties with their brethren in Somalia.Godfrey Mwakikagile, ''Kenya: identity of a nation'', (Godfrey Mwakikagile: 2007), p.79. They have traditionally married within their own community and formed a cohesive ethnic network.


Demographics

As of 2009, the North Eastern Province had a population of 2,310,757 residents. These census results were however nullified by the then Planning Minister Wycliffe Oparanya citing inconsistencies in the birth and death rates. On 21st March 2016, the court of appeal in Nairobi, declared the disputed 2009 census results valid. The North Eastern Province is predominantly inhabited by ethnic Somalis. The Somalis who live in North Eastern Province of
Greater SomaliaGreater Somali ( so, Soomaaliweyn 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒓𐒗𐒕𐒒, ar, الصومال الكبير ''As-Sumal al-Kabir'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis li ...
in the present day
Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya ( sw, Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At , Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population of more than 47.6 million people in the 2019 census, Kenya is the ...
are close to three million (3,000,000) in the 2019 Kenya National Census with another 400,000
Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
refugees in several Kenya refugee camps.


Administration

North Eastern Province has thirteen constituencies represented in the
National Assembly of Kenya National may refer to: Common uses * Nation or country ** Nationality – a ''national'' is a person who is subject to a nation, regardless of whether the person has full rights as a citizen ** National (distribution), a type of product or publi ...
Now under the
Government of Kenya , image = , caption = Coat of arms of Kenya , date = 1963 , jurisdiction = Republic of Kenya , url = http://www.mygov.go.ke/ , legislature = Parliament of Kenya , meeting_place = Parliamen ...
whose Regional Commissioner sits in Garissa. The Current Regional Commissioner is Mohamed Birik As the capital of
Garissa County Garissa County ( so, Gobolka Gaarisa) is an administrative County in the former North Eastern Province of Kenya. Its capital and largest urban area is Garissa. The county had a population of 841,353 at the 2019 Census, and a land area of about .20 ...
, Garissa is the seat of the County Government of Garissa as well as the County Assembly. The town is represented by
Aden Bare Duale Hon. Aden Bare Duale ( so, Mudane: Aadan Barre Ducaale) is the immediate former Majority Leader of the National Assembly of Kenya under the Jubilee Party. He was elected in 2013 under the United Republican Party (URP) and in 2017 under the Jubilee Pa ...
, a Somali
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different ...
for the
Garissa Township ConstituencyGarissa Township Constituency (formerly Garissa Central/Dujis Constituency) is an electoral constituency in Kenya. It is one of six constituencies in Garissa County, and was established for the 1988 elections. The constituency is further subdivided i ...
and who also doubles as the
Leader Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Often viewed as a contested term, speciali ...
of the
Majority A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-WebsterSomalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the Northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to ...
and Ethiopia's Somali Region. It has six constituencies just like the rest of the counties in the North Eastern province. These constituencies include Banissa, Lafey, Mandera East, Mandera North, Mandera South, Mandera West and Takaba.


Economy

Livestock and agricultural production is a significant part of the region's economy. Between 2005 and 2007, Garissa cattle producers earned over 1.8 billion shillings in sales in domestic and overseas markets. Construction on a new abattoir also began in October 2007. In terms of livestock imports, most of Garissa's cattle comes from cross-border trade between Somali livestock merchants.Livestock Supply in Kenya
/ref>


Transportation

North Eastern Province is served by the Wajir Airport. It handles about seven flights per day. As of September 2012, civil flights are offered twice a week by Echo. Most flights, however, are cargo. Some charter and military flights are additionally accommodated.History of Wajir Airport
/ref>


Climate and habitat

North Eastern Province has a Semi-arid climate, semi-arid and hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''BSh'' and ''BWh''). Rain falls infrequently, usually only around April or October, and quite sporadically from year to year. Although the southwestern section of the Somali autonomous region is extremely fertile where the Tana River (Kenya), Tana River is located with a lot of farmer, farming. There is a major river called Tana River (Kenya), Tana River which is located in the southwestern section of the region. Wildlife in the area include the lion, elephant, African buffalo, buffalo, zebra, hyena, gazelle, giraffe, leopard, cheetah, and ostrich. Hippopotamus and crocodiles are mainly located on the river.


Counties


After 2007


See also

*
Greater SomaliaGreater Somali ( so, Soomaaliweyn 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒓𐒗𐒕𐒒, ar, الصومال الكبير ''As-Sumal al-Kabir'') is a concept to unite all ethnic Somalis comprising the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis li ...
*Shakani


References


External links


Somalia-Ethiopia, Kenya Conflict
{{First and second-level administrative divisions of Kenya North Eastern Province (Kenya), Provinces of Kenya Disputed territories in Africa Former provinces 2013 disestablishments in Kenya Somali-speaking countries and territories