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The NORTH CAUCASUS (Russian : Се́верный Кавка́з; IPA: ) or CISCAUCASIA is the northern part of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region between the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
and Black Sea
Black Sea
on the west and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
on the east, within European Russia .

Geographically, the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
(territory north of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
Range) includes the Russian republics and krais of the North Caucasus. As part of the Russian Federation, the Northern Caucasus region is included in the North Caucasian and Southern Federal Districts and consists of Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
, Stavropol Krai , and the constituent republics, approximately from west to east: the Republic of Adygea , Karachay–Cherkessia , Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
, North Ossetia–Alania , Ingushetia
Ingushetia
, Chechnya
Chechnya
, and the Republic of Dagestan . The outer border of the Soviet Union's North Caucasus
Caucasus
Krai was the same as that of present-day North Caucasus
Caucasus
Economic Region (Raion) which includes an oblast ( Rostov Oblast ), two krais ( Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
and Stavropol Krai ), and seven republics. The former North Caucasus
Caucasus
Military District (Okrug) also included Astrakhan Oblast , Volgograd Oblast , and the Republic of Kalmykia . Its administrative center was Rostov-on-Don until 10 January 1934, Pyatigorsk until January 1936, then Ordzhonikidze (today Vladikavkaz) and, from 15 December 1936, Voroshilovsk (today Stavropol).

Geographically, the term North Caucasus
Caucasus
also refers to the northern slope and western extremity of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Major mountain range, as well as a part of its southern slope to the West (until the Psou River in Abkhazia). The Forecaucasus steppe area is often also encompassed under the notion of "Ciscaucasus", thus the northern boundary of the Forecaucasus steppe is generally considered to be the Manych River . Ciscaucasus was historically covered by the Pontic steppe, mostly on fertile calcareous chernozyom soils, which has been almost completely tilled and grazed. It is bounded by the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
on the west, and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
on the east. According to the Concise Atlas of the World, Second Edition (2008), the Ciscaucasus region lies on the European side of the "commonly-accepted division" that separates Europe
Europe
from Asia.

In 2011, the Russian government has put forward plans to create a "North Caucasian version of Silicon Valley ", at a cost of 32 billion rubles ($1.1 billion) as part of ongoing efforts to generate opportunities in the region.

SEE ALSO

* Caucasus
Caucasus
* North Caucasian Economic Region * North Caucasian Federal District * North Caucasian Krai * North Caucasian Military District * Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District
* Kuban People\'s Republic * Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus
Caucasus
* Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
* North Caucasian Soviet Republic * North Caucasian Federal University * North Caucasian Railway * List of clashes in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Dolmens of North Caucasus
Caucasus
* South Caucasus
Caucasus
(Transcaucasus)

* Europe
Europe
portal * Russia
Russia
portal

REFERENCES

* ^ A small schematic map of the regions can be seen at * ^ "Проект «Кремниевой долины» на Северном Кавказе обойдется в 32 млрд рублей" Proekt "Kreminevoj doliny" na Severnom Kavkaze obojdetsya v 32 mlrd rublej . Forbes.ru (in Russian). Moscow
Moscow
: Forbes . 25 August 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

FURTHER READING

* In Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
by Anna Zelkina * Russia
Russia
in the Modern World: A New Geography by Denis J. B. Shaw, Institute of British Geographers

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to North Caucasus
Caucasus
at Wikimedia Commons *

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