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NORTH BORNEO (also known as the STATE OF NORTH BORNEO) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo . The territory of North Borneo was originally established by concessions of the Sultanates of Brunei and Sulu in 1877 and 1878 to an Austrian-German businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck .

Overbeck had recently purchased a small tract of land in the western coast of Borneo in 1876 from an American merchant Joseph William Torrey , had promoted the territory in Hong Kong since 1866. Overbeck then transferred all his rights to Alfred Dent before withdrawing in 1879. In 1881, Dent established the North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd to manage the territory, which was granted a royal charter in the same year. The following year, the Provisional Association was replaced by the North Borneo Chartered Company . The granting of royal charter worried both the neighbouring Spanish and Dutch authorities and as a result the Spanish began to stake their claim to northern Borneo. A protocol known as the Madrid
Madrid
Protocol was signed in 1885 to recognise Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago, in return establishing the definite border of Spanish influence beyond northern Borneo. To avoid further claims from other European powers, North Borneo was made a British protectorate in 1888.

North Borneo produced timber for export; along with agriculture this industry remained the main economic resource for the British in Borneo. As the population was too small to effectively serve the economy, the British sponsored various migration schemes for Chinese workers from Hong Kong and China to work in the European plantations, and for Japanese immigrants to participate in the economic activities of North Borneo. The starting of World War II
World War II
with the arrival of Japanese forces however brought an end to protectorate administration, with the territory placed under a military administration and then designated as a crown colony .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Foundation and early years * 1.2 World War II
World War II
and decline

* 2 Government

* 3 Economy

* 3.1 Currency

* 4 Society

* 4.1 Demography * 4.2 Public service infrastructure * 4.3 Media

* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Footnotes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

FOUNDATION AND EARLY YEARS

Alfred Dent , the founder of North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd (later replaced by the North Borneo Chartered Company ) is the key player to the establishment of solid British presence in northern Borneo.

North Borneo was founded in 1877–1878 through a series of land concessions in northern Borneo from the Sultanate of Brunei and Sulu to an Austrian-German businessman and diplomat, von Overbeck . A former American Trading Company of Borneo territory in the western coast of northern Borneo had already passed to Overbeck, requiring him to go to Brunei to renew the concession of the land he bought from Joseph William Torrey
Joseph William Torrey
. William Clark Cowie played an important role as a close friend of the Sultanate of Sulu in helping Overbeck to buy additional land in the eastern coast of Borneo. Meanwhile, the Sultanate of Bulungan 's influence also reached Tawau in eastern southern coast, but came under the influence of the more dominating Sulu Sultanate. Map of North Borneo from British Library
British Library
, 1888.

Following his success in buying large tract of lands from both the western and eastern part of northern Borneo, Overbeck went to Europe to promote the territory in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Italy as well as in his own country of Germany , but none showed any real interest. Only Great Britain , which had sought to control trade routes in the Far East since the 18th century, responded. The interest of the British was strengthened by their presence in Labuan since 1846. As a result, Overbeck received a financial support from the British Dent brothers ( Alfred Dent and Edward Dent) and diplomatic and military support from the British government. Following the entrance of support from the British side, a clause was included in the treaties that the ceded territories could not be given to another party without the permission of the British government. Civil ensign flag of North Borneo. Territorial changes of northern Borneo from 1500 to 1905.

------------------------- SULTANATES THALASSOCRACY : Sultanate of Brunei Sultanate of Sulu Sultanate of Bulungan ------------------------- EUROPEAN /WESTERN PRESENCE: British North Borneo Company / British North Borneo American Trading Company of Borneo German Borneo Company Dutch East India Company / Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
Kingdom of Sarawak

Unable to attract the interest of the governments of Austria and Germany, Overbeck withdrew in 1879; all his treaty rights with the Sultanates were transferred to Alfred Dent, who in 1881 formed the North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd with the support of countrymen Rutherford Alcock , Admiral Henry Keppel , and Richard Biddulph Martin . The Provisional Association then applied to Queen Victoria for a royal charter , which was granted on 1 November 1881. William Hood Treacher was appointed as the first governor, and Kudat at the northern tip of Borneo was chosen as the Provisional Association administration capital. The granting of royal charter had worried both Dutch and the Spanish , who feared that Britain might threatening the position of their colony.

In May 1882, the Provisional Association was replaced by the newly formed North Borneo Chartered Company with Alcock acting as the first President and Dent becoming the company managing director. The administration is not considered as a British acquisition of the territory, but rather simply as a private enterprise with government guidelines to protect the territory from being encroached upon by other European powers. Under Governor Treacher, the company gained more territories on the western coast from the Sultanate of Brunei. The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei , expanding the territory under control to the Putatan river (May 1884), the Padas district (November 1884), the Kawang river (February 1885), the Mantanani Islands (April 1885) and additional minor Padas territories (March 1898).

At the early stage of the administration, there was a claim in northern Borneo from the Spanish authorities in the Philippines
Philippines
when an attempt to raise the Spanish flag over Sandakan
Sandakan
was met interference by a British warship. To prevent further conflict and ending the Spanish claim to northern Borneo, an agreement known as the Madrid
Madrid
Protocol was signed in Madrid
Madrid
between the United Kingdom, Germany and Spain in 1885, recognising the Spanish presence in the Philippine archipelago. As the company did not wish to be involved in further foreign affairs issues, North Borneo was made a protectorate on 12 May 1888. In 1890, Labuan was incorporated into the administration of North Borneo before returned to British government rule in 1904. There were several local insurrections from 1894 to 1900 by Mat Salleh and by Antanum in 1915. World War I
World War I
did not greatly affect the territory, and logging business grew during the interwar period .

WORLD WAR II AND DECLINE

Main articles: Battle of Borneo (1941–42) , Japanese occupation of British Borneo , and Battle of North Borneo Japanese military movement throughout the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
from 1941 to 1942.

In World War II
World War II
, North Borneo was overwhelmed by Japanese forces on 17 December 1941. On 3 January 1942, the Japanese navy landed unopposed in Labuan. From 7 January, Japanese troops in Sarawak crossed the border of Dutch Borneo and began to arriving on Jesselton. Another strong Japanese army detachment arrived from Mindanao
Mindanao
and began to land on Tarakan Island before proceeding to Sandakan
Sandakan
on 17 January. The Japanese arrival was met without any strong resistance as the protectorate mainly relied on the British Navy for defense. Although North Borneo has a police force, it never had its own army or navy. By the end of January, North Borneo was completely occupied by the Japanese. It was administered as part of the Empire of Japan , with officers of the chartered company were allowed to continued administration under Japanese supervision. Disarmed Japanese troops marching towards a prisoner of war (POW) compound in Jesselton after surrendering to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 8 October 1945.

The arrival of the Japanese forces to Borneo and the fall of Anglo-Japanese Alliance had already been predicted by revelation through secret telegrams that Japanese ships docked regularly at Jesselton were engaged in espionage. Many of the British and Australian soldiers captured after the fall of Malaya and Singapore were brought to North Borneo and held as a prisoners of war (POWs) in Sandakan
Sandakan
camp where they were then forced to march from Sandakan
Sandakan
to Ranau . Other POWs were also sent to Batu Lintang camp in neighbouring Sarawak. The occupation drove residents in the coastal areas to the interior in searching for food and escaping the brutality during the war period, which led to the creation of several resistance movements; one of the such movement known as the Kinabalu Guerrillas which led by Albert Kwok and supported by indigenous groups in North Borneo. Japanese civilians and soldiers leaving North Borneo after the surrender of Japan .

As part of the Allied Campaign to retake their possessions in the East, Allied forces deployed to Borneo under the Borneo Campaign to liberate the island. The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) eda significant part in the mission, with the force being sent to Tarakan and Labuan islands to secure the east and western Borneo. The Allied Z Special Unit provided intelligence gatherings and other information from the Japanese that could facilitated the AIF landings, while US submarines were used to transport Australian commandos to Borneo. Most of the major towns of North Borneo were heavily bombed during these period. The war ended on 15 August 1945 following the Japanese surrender and the administration of North Borneo was undertaken by the British Military Administration (BMA) from September. The company official administration returned to administer the territory but, unable to finance the reconstruction cost after the war, ceded administration of the protectorate to the crown colony government on 15 July 1946.

GOVERNMENT

See also: Governor of North Borneo The British administration building in Sandakan
Sandakan
in 1899, where the town is considered as the longest serving capital of North Borneo from 1884 until 1945.

The Chartered Company's system of administration was based on standard British colonial empire administration structures, with the land divided into Residencies, and sub-divided into Districts. Initially, there were only two Residencies: East Coast and West Coast, with Residents based at Sandakan
Sandakan
and Jesselton respectively. Each Residency was divided into Provinces, later known as Districts, which were run by district officers . By 1922, there were five Residencies to accommodate new areas that were opened up for development. These were the West Coast , Kudat , Tawau , Interior and East Coast Residencies. These Residencies were in turn divided into 17 districts. Under this system, British held top posts, while native chiefs managed the people at grassroots level. This was not a conscious attempt by the British to instil indirect rule but a convenient arrangement for the district officers who were unfamiliar with local customs and politics.

The company administration established a foundation for economic growth in North Borneo by restoring peace to a land where piracy and tribal feuds had grown rampant. It abolished slavery and set up transport, health and education services for the people as well allowing the indigenous communities to continue their traditional lifestyles. The British North Borneo Constabulary responsible as the police force for the territory, with in the first year of 1883 its members comprising 3 Europeans , 50 Indians (Sikhs and Pashtuns
Pashtuns
), 30 Dayaks , 50 Somalis and 20 Malays and the number later increasing to 176. The constabulary members are trained at depot on average three days every week with additional estimate total of 510 officers in the following years. Under the protectorate governance, all powers are conducted under the purview of the British government although it is governed as an independent state by the North Borneo Chartered Company with British protection. According to an agreement signed on 12 May 1888, the treaty stipulated: Agreement between the British Government and the British North Borneo Company for the establishment of a British Protectorate. —Signed at London
London
, 12 May 1888.

I. The State of North Borneo comprises the territories specified in the said Royal Charter, and such other territories as the Company have acquired, or may hereafter acquire, ‘under the provisions of Article XV of the said Charter. It is divided into nine Provinces, namely: Province Alcock; Province Cunliffe; Province Dent; Province Dewhurst; Province Elphinstone; Province Keppel; Province Martin; Province Mayne; Province Myburgh.

II. The State of North Borneo shall continue to be governed and administered as an independent State by the company in conformity with the provisions of the said Charter; under the protection of Great Britain; but such protection shall confer no right on Her Majesty's Government to interfere with the internal administration of the State further than is provided herein or by the Charter of the Company. III. The relations between the State of North Borneo and all foreign States, including the States of Brunei and of Sarawak, shall be conducted by Her Majesty's Government, or in accordance with its directions; and if any difference should arise between the Government of North Borneo and that of any other State, the Company, as representing the State of North Borneo, agrees to abide by the decision of Her Majesty's Government, and to take all necessary to give effect thereto. IV. Her Majesty's Government shall have the right to establish British Consular officers in any part of the said territories, who shall receive exequaturs in the name of the Government of North Borneo. They shall enjoy whatever privileges are usually granted to Consular officers, and they shall be entitled to hoist the British flag over their residences and public offices. V. British subjects, commerce, and shipping shall enjoy the same right, privileges, and advantages as the subjects, commerce, and shipping of the most favoured nation, as well as any other rights, privileges, and advantages which may be enjoyed by the subjects, commerce and shipping of North Borneo. VI. No cession or other alienation of any part of the territory of the State of North Borneo shall be made by its Government to any foreign State, or the subjects or the citizens thereof, without the consent of Her Majesty's Government; but this restriction shall not apply to ordinary grants or leases of lands or houses to private individuals for purposes of residence, agriculture, commerce, or other business.

ECONOMY

The opening of North Borneo Railway Line on 3 February 1898 to transport commodity in the west coast area.

With the beginning of well planned economic activities under the British administration, the North Borneo authorities began to open land for agricultural purpose and native land rights began to be formed during these period. The government however felt that the native population was too small and unsuited to meet the requirements of modern development, so they began to sponsored the migration of Chinese workers from Hong Kong and China under various immigration schemes. In 1882, the North Borneo authorities appointed Walter Henry Medhurst as Commissioner for Chinese Immigration in the mission to attract more businessmen to invest their money in business related activities in North Borneo by providing workforce. Medhurst efforts were costly and vain, but the Hakka whom are not encouraged by him, began to migrate to North Borneo where they formed an agricultural community. Tobacco estate in Lahad Datu , 1899. Bond Street in Jesselton with Chinese shoplots, c. 1930.

Since the 18th century, tobacco was the North Borneo's foremost planting industry. The logging history in North Borneo can be traced since the 1870s. From 1890s, hardwood exports developed in North Borneo, with logging began rapidly especially during the interwar period . In the 1900s, North Borneo became part of the rubber boom. The completion of North Borneo Railway Line helped to transport the resources to major port in the west coast. By 1915, around 34,828 acres of land had been planted with rubber tree , in addition to Chinese and North Borneo smallholdings. Along the same year, Aylmer Cavendish Pearson, the North Borneo Governor at the time invited Japanese emigrants to participate in the economic activities there. The Japanese government received the request warmly and they start to sent their researchers to discover any potential economic opportunities they should be involving. At the early stage, the Japanese encouraged their farmers to go to North Borneo to cultivate rice as their country are dependent on rice imports. With the increase of economic interest from the Japanese side, they began to purchasing a rubber estate owned by the North Borneo government. By 1937, North Borneo exporting 178,000 cubic metres of timber, surpassing Siam who only exporting 85,000 cubic metres of timber.

CURRENCY

Main article: British North Borneo dollar One North Borneo dollar, 1940.

Since the foundation of North Borneo, its monetary unit is originally Mexican dollar
Mexican dollar
equal to 100 cents. A dollar was later made to match the Straits dollar and rated at 9 Straits dollars (which equals to 5 US dollars at the time). Different notes had been issued throughout the administration with its background featuring the Mount Kinabalu or the company arms.

SOCIETY

1911 specimen stamps of North Borneo.

DEMOGRAPHY

In 1881, North Borneo has a number of indigenous people from 60,000 to 100,000. The people in the coast are mainly Muslims, while the aborigines are mostly located in the interior. The Kadazan-Dusun and Murut are the largest indigenous group in the interior, while Bajau , Bruneian , Illanun , Kedayan and Suluk dominate the coastal areas. Following various immigration schemes initiated by the British, the population increase to 200,000 in 1920, 257,804 in 1930, and 285,000 in 1935. Under the rule of the company, the government of North Borneo not only recruited Chinese workers but also to Japanese immigrants to overcome the shortage of manpower in the economic sectors.

PUBLIC SERVICE INFRASTRUCTURE

See also: North Borneo Railway , Postage stamps and postal history of North Borneo , and Postal orders of British North Borneo

A telegraph line was established from Labuan to Sandakan
Sandakan
in 1894, while radio contact between Sandakan
Sandakan
and Jesselton begun in 1914. The North Borneo Railway opened to the public on 1 August 1914 as the main transport facilities for the west coast communities. Postal service were also available throughout the administration.

MEDIA

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (since 1820) and British North Borneo Herald (since 1883) held a significant amount of records in providing information of North Borneo before and during the British administration.

SEE ALSO

* History of Sabah

* British Empire
British Empire
portal * Sabah
Sabah
portal * Malaysia
Malaysia
portal

NOTES

* ^ See Treaties and Engagements and Orders of Her Britannic Majesty in Council.

FOOTNOTES

* ^ A B C Great Britain. Colonial Office 1956 , p. 6. * ^ A B C Great Britain. Foreign Office 1888 , pp. 238. * ^ A B Pryer 2001 , pp. 11. * ^ Wright 1988 , pp. 107. * ^ A B Doolittle 2011 , pp. 32. * ^ A B C Ooi 2004 , pp. 265. * ^ Pryer 2001 , pp. 10. * ^ Wright 1988 , pp. 143. * ^ Saunders 2013 , pp. 87. * ^ Press 2017 , pp. 61. * ^ Great Britain. Colonial Office 1958 , pp. 164. * ^ Kratoska 2001 , pp. 282. * ^ Trost 1998 , pp. 234. * ^ Magenda 2010 , pp. 42. * ^ Press 2017 , pp. 150. * ^ Fry 2013 , pp. 15. * ^ A B Fitzgerald 2016 , pp. 70. * ^ A B Barbara Watson & Leonard Y 2016 , pp. 193. * ^ Hong Kong Daily Press Office 1910 , pp. 1505. * ^ Webster 1998 , pp. 130. * ^ McCord & Purdue 2007 , pp. 220. * ^ Webster 1998 , pp. 200. * ^ British North Borneo Chartered Company 1886 , pp. 13. * ^ Hilton & Tate 1966 , pp. 82. * ^ de Vienne 2015 , pp. 85. * ^ Doolittle 2011 , pp. 173. * ^ A B Olson 1991 , pp. 92. * ^ Tregonning 1965 , pp. 13. * ^ Great Britain. Colonial Office 1958 , pp. 172. * ^ Yong 1965 , pp. 25. * ^ A B Olson & Shadle 1996 , pp. 192. * ^ Welman 2017 , pp. 163. * ^ Pryer 2001 , pp. 12. * ^ Wright 1988 , pp. 185. * ^ Chamber\'s 1950 , pp. 448. * ^ Dahlhoff 2012 , pp. 1133. * ^ Panton 2015 , pp. 90. * ^ Olson & Shadle 1996 , pp. 645. * ^ Welman 2017 , pp. 153. * ^ A B Jones 2013 , pp. 12. * ^ Epstein 2016 , pp. 90. * ^ A B Rottman 2002 , pp. 206. * ^ Tregonning 1960 , pp. 14. * ^ Lines 1991 , pp. 193. * ^ Evans 2012 , pp. 16. * ^ Saya & Takashi 1993 , pp. 54. * ^ Bickersteth & Hinton 1996 , pp. 19. * ^ Braithwaite 2016 , pp. 347. * ^ Lim 2008 , pp. 36. * ^ Evans 1990 , pp. 50. * ^ Kratoska 2013 , pp. 124. * ^ Ooi 2010 , pp. 201. * ^ A B Heimann 1998 , pp. 174. * ^ Feuer 2005 , pp. 27. * ^ Ooi 2013 , pp. 77. * ^ Ooi 2010 , pp. 208. * ^ Oxford Business 2011 , pp. 13. * ^ Welman 2017 , pp. 159. * ^ Skutsch 2013 , pp. 679. * ^ Adams 1929 , pp. 310. * ^ A B Northwestern University 1935 , pp. 28. * ^ Cleary 1992 , pp. 170. * ^ Colchester 2011 , pp. 87. * ^ A B Danny 1999 , pp. 134. * ^ Wordie 2016 . * ^ A B C Tarling 2003 , pp. 215. * ^ John & Jackson 1973 , pp. 88. * ^ Ibbotson 2014 , pp. 116. * ^ A B Dixon 1991 , pp. 107. * ^ A B Akashi & Yoshimura 2008 , pp. 23. * ^ A B C Lane 2010 , pp. 51. * ^ Judkins 2016 , pp. 149. * ^ Herb & Kaplan 2008 , pp. 1215. * ^ Hose, McDougall -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">

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* Braithwaite, Richard Wallace (2016). Fighting Monsters: An Intimate History of the Sandakan
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Tragedy. Australian Scholarly Publishing. ISBN 978-1-925333-76-3 . * Fitzgerald, Robert (2016). The Rise of the Global Company: Multinationals and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84974-6 . * Jude, Marcel (2016). "Japanese community in North Borneo long before World War II". The Borneo Post . PressReader . * Barbara Watson, Andaya; Leonard Y, Andaya (2016). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-60515-3 . * Epstein, Mortimer (2016). The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1943. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-27072-5 . * Wordie, Jason (2016). "From settlers to snorkelling, Hong Kong has long had links to Sabah". South China Morning Post . Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. * Welman, Frans (2017). Borneo Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah. Booksmango. ISBN 978-616-245-078-5 . * Press, Steven (2017). Rogue Empires: Contracts and Conmen in Europe's Scramble for Africa. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-97185-1 . * Lajiun, Jenne (2017). "Sabah’s first railway station proposed as historical heritage site". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017.

FURTHER READING

* Keppel, Henry; Brooke, James; WalterKeating, Kelly (1847). "The expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, Esq., of Sarawak". University of California Libraries . London
London
: Chapman and Hall. p. 347. * British North Borneo Chartered Company (1878). "British North Borneo company charter". Cornell University Library .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NORTH BORNEO .

* North Borneo Historical Society – More information on heritage of North Borneo

* v * t * e

Protectorates and Crown colonies of British Malaya and Borneo

MALAYA

* Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
(1826–1946) * Federated Malay States (1895–1946) * Unfederated Malay States (1800s–1946) * Crown Colony of Malacca (1946–1957) * Crown Colony of Penang (1946–1957)

BORNEO

* Kingdom of Sarawak (1841–1946) * Crown Colony of Sarawak (1946–1963) * Crown Colony of Labuan (1848–1946) * North Borneo (1882–1946) * Crown Colony of North Borneo (1946–1963)

* v * t * e

British Empire
British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British Empire
British Empire

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca
Minorca
* Since 1713 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) * 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) * 1807–1890 Heligoland * 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus
* 1921–1937 Irish Free State
Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion
New Albion
* 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda
Bermuda
* 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts * 1624–1966 *Barbados * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * 1628–1883 Nevis
Nevis
* 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat
Montserrat
* 1632–1860 Antigua
Antigua
* 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven

* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla
Anguilla
* 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
* 1655–1962 *Jamaica * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey * Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *Bahamas * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey
East Jersey
* 1674–1702 West Jersey
West Jersey
* 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England * 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
* 1762–1974 *Grenada * 1763–1978 Dominica * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida * 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada * 1791–1841 Upper Canada * Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country 1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory * 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada 2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts and Nevis
Nevis
* 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 Guiana * Since 1833 Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 Sierra Leone * 1795–1803 Cape Colony
Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 Mauritius
Mauritius
* 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 Uganda * 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 1891–1964 Nyasaland * 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 Swaziland * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 Seychelles * 1910–1931 South Africa * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 Kenya * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia 7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement
Lancaster House Agreement
. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781-1784 and 1795-1819 Padang
Padang
* 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 Maldives

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
* 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo

* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo * 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States * 1888–1984 Brunei * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
Muscat and Oman
* 1892–1971 Trucial States * 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo * 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 Singapore * 1946–1948 Malayan Union * 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
* Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus
Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles )

8 League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales * 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 Fiji 10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands 9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *Australia * 1907–1953 *New Zealand * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea 13

* 9. Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand . * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. * 12. Now the * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
. * 13. Now * Papua New Guinea .

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 Ross Dependency (transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island (1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

* v * t * e

Governors, Civil Commissioners and Administrators of British dependencies

OVERSEAS TERRITORIES

* Governor of Anguilla
Anguilla
* Governor of Bermuda
Bermuda
* Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory * Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
* Governor of the Virgin Islands * Governor of the Cayman Islands * Governor of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
* Governor of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Governor of Montserrat
Montserrat

* Governor of the Pitcairn Islands

* Administrator of the Pitcairn Islands

* Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

* Governor of St Helena

* Governor of Ascension

* Administrator of Ascension

* Governor of Tristan da Cunha

* Administrator of Tristan da Cunha

* Governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands

CROWN DEPENDENCIES

* Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey * Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man * Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

FORMER (AFRICA)

* Governor of British Mauritius * Governor of British Cameroons * Governor of Cape Colony
Cape Colony
* Governor of the Gambia * Governor of Gold Coast * Lieutenant Governor of Griqualand West
Griqualand West
* Governor of Kenya * Governor of Lagos Colony

* Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland

* Governor of Northern Rhodesia * Governor of Nyasaland * Governor of Southern Rhodesia

* Governor of Natal * Governor of Nigeria * Governor of Senegal * Governor of the Seychelles * Governor of Sierra Leone * Governor-General of the Union of South Africa * High Commissioner for Southern Africa * Governor of British Somaliland
British Somaliland
* Governors of Tanganyika * Governor of Uganda * Resident in Zanzibar
Zanzibar

FORMER (AMERICAS)

* Governor of Barbados

* Lieutenant Governor of Grenada

* Lieutenant-Governor of Berbice * Governor of British Guiana * Governor of British Honduras * Governor of Cuba * Governor of Dominica * Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo * Governor of Grenada * Governor of Jamaica * Governor of the Leeward Islands * Governor of St. Lucia * Governor of St. Vincent * Governor of Trinidad and Tobago * Lieutenant governors of Tobago * Governor of Trinidad * Governor of Newfoundland * Governor General of Canada * Governor of British Columbia * Governor of New Brunswick * Governor of Nova Scotia * Governor of Prince Edward Island * Lieutenant Governor of Quebec * Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis
Nevis
and Anguilla
Anguilla
* Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands * Governor-General of the West Indies Federation * Colonial Governors of Connecticut * Colonial governors of Delaware * Colonial Governors of Florida * Colonial Governors of Georgia * Colonial Governors of Maryland * Colonial Governors of Massachusetts * Colonial Governors of New Hampshire * Colonial Governors of New Jersey * Colonial Governor of New York * Colonial Governors of North Carolina * Colonial Governors of Pennsylvania * Colonial Governors of Rhode Island * Colonial Governors of South Carolina * Colonial Governors of Virginia

FORMER (ASIA)

* Governor of Aden * Governor of Burma * Governor of Ceylon

* High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States

* Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states

* Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states

* General Adviser to the Government of Johore * Adviser to the Sultan of Kedah * Adviser to the Government of Kelantan * Adviser to the Government of Perlis * Adviser, Trengganu

* Governor of Hong Kong

* Viceroy and Governor-General of India

* Heads of the provinces of British India

* Governor of Aden * Governor of Bengal * Governor of Bombay * Governor of Madras * Governor of Sind

* Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states

* Resident of Gwalior

* High Commissioner for Iraq * Governor of Labuan * High Commissioner for Malaya * Governor of the Malayan Union * Governor of North Borneo * Resident Minister in Nepal * High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan * Governor of Penang * Governor of Sarawak * Governor of Singapore

FORMER (AUSTRALASIA)

* Governor-General of Australia

* Government Resident of Central Australia * Governor of New South Wales * Government Resident of North Australia * Governor of Queensland * Governor of South Australia * Governor of Tasmania
Governor of Tasmania
* Governor of Victoria * Governor of Western Australia

* Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony * Governor-General of New Zealand * Governor-General of Papua New Guinea * Consul in Tonga

FORMER (EUROPE)

* Governor of Cyprus
Cyprus
* Lieutenant Governor of Heligoland * High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands * Governor of the Isle of Wight * Governor of Malta * Governor of Minorca
Minorca
* Governor of Northern Ireland

FORMER (OCEANIA)

* Governor of Fiji * Governor of the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
* High Commissioner for the Western Pacific

OTHER LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

History of East Malaysia
Malaysia

MAIN HISTORY1

* Empire of Brunei

* Japanese occupation

* Borneo campaign

* British Military Administration * Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation

* Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement

* Proclamation of Malaysia
Malaysia

History of Sabah
Sabah

* Brunei Civil War * Sultanate of Sulu * Austrian colony * North Borneo Chartered Company

* British North Borneo

* Antanum * Mat Salleh

* Madrid
Madrid
Protocol * Jesselton Revolt

* Sandakan
Sandakan
camp

* Sandakan
Sandakan
Death Marches

* Battle of North Borneo * Crown Colony of North Borneo * Self-government of North Borneo

* Cobbold Commission

* 20-point agreement

* Keningau Oath Stone * Double Six Crash

* Cross border attacks from the Philippines
Philippines

* 1985 Lahad Datu ambush * 2000 Sipadan kidnappings * 2013 Lahad Datu standoff

* 1986 Sabah riots * 1991 Sabah political arrests * Project IC * Sabah State Water Department corruption probe

History of Sarawak

* Kingdom of Sarawak

* Rentap * Liu Shan Bang * Syarif Masahor

* Crown Colony of Sarawak

* Anti-cession movement of Sarawak

* Communist insurgency in Sarawak * Self-government of Sarawak

* Cobbold Commission

* 18-point agreement

* 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis * 1987 Ming Court Affair

History of Labuan

* Crown Colony of Labuan * North Borneo Chartered Company * Administered under Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements

* Battle of North Borneo

* Battle of Labuan

* Administered under Crown Colony of North Borneo * Part of Sabah
Sabah
* Became Federal Territory

1: Covers the three territories.

* v * t * e

Malaysia
Malaysia
articles

HISTORY

* Timeline * Prehistoric * Portuguese Malacca * Dutch Malacca

* British Malaya

* Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
* Federated Malay States * Unfederated Malay States

* British Borneo

* Kingdom of Sarawak * Crown Colony of Labuan * North Borneo

* Japanese occupation of Malaya / Borneo * British Military Administration (Malaya / Borneo) * Malayan Union

* Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya

* Independence

* Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency

* Crown Colony of Singapore

* Self-government

* Crown Colony of Sarawak

* Self-government

* Crown Colony of North Borneo

* Self-government

* Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement * 1962 Singapore referendum

* Cobbold Commission

* 18-point agreement * 20-point agreement

* Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation * Sarawak Communist Insurgency

* Proclamation

* Malaysia
Malaysia
Day

* PAP–UMNO relations * 1964 race riots * Singapore in Malaysia
Malaysia
* Second Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
* 13 May Incident * 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis * 1997 Asian financial crisis

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities, towns and villages * Districts * Divisions * East Malaysia
Malaysia
* Environment * Fauna * Flora * World Heritage Sites * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * National parks * Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
* Rivers * States

POLITICS

* Cabinet * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Government * Human rights * Judiciary * Law * Law enforcement * Military * Monarchies * Parliament * Political parties * Prime Minister * State legislative assemblies * Head of state

ECONOMY

* Agriculture
Agriculture

* Banks

* Central bank

* Energy * Federal budget * Ringgit (currency) * States by GDP * Science and technology * Stock exchange * Telecommunications * Tourism * Transport * Unions

SOCIETY

* Crime

* Demographics

* Malaysians

* Education

* Post-secondary * Universities

* Ethnic groups * Health * Income disparity * Languages * Poverty * Religion * Water supply and sanitation * Women * International rankings

CULTURE

* Architecture * Cinema * Cuisine

* Folklore

* Mythology

* Literature * Malay lordship * Media * Music * Names * Public holidays * Sport

SYMBOLS

* Animal * Anthem * Emblem * Flag * Flower * Pledge

* Outline * Index

* Book
Book
* Category * Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Former Austrian colonies

India South East Asia China Arctic

* Cabelon (1722–1727) * Banquibazar (1722–1727)

* Nicobar Islands (1778–1783) * North Borneo (1878–1880)

* Tianjin
Tianjin
concession (1898–1914)

* Franz Josef Land (1873–1926) (unofficial)

* v * t * e

Territories claimed by the Philippines

CURRENT

* Sabah
Sabah
/ North Borneo

* dispute

* South China Sea

* Philippines
Philippines
v. China * Scarborough Shoal

* Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands

* dispute * Philippine activities

FORMER

* Miangas / Island of Palmas

* case

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