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The North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
on 4 April 1949, is the treaty establishing the North Atlantic Treaty
Treaty
Organization (NATO).

Contents

1 Background 2 Members

2.1 Founding members 2.2 Later members

3 Content

3.1 Article 1 3.2 Article 2 3.3 Article 3 3.4 Article 4 3.5 Article 5 3.6 Article 6 3.7 Article 13

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background[edit] The treaty was signed in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
on 4 April 1949 by a committee which was chaired by US diplomat Theodore Achilles. Earlier secret talks had been held at the Pentagon between 22 March and 1 April 1948, of which Achilles said:

The talks lasted about two weeks and by the time they finished, it had been secretly agreed that there would be a treaty, and I had a draft of one in the bottom drawer of my safe. It was never shown to anyone except Jack [Hickerson]. I wish I had kept it, but when I left the Department in 1950, I dutifully left it in the safe and I have never been able to trace it in the archives. It drew heavily on the Rio Treaty, and a bit of the Brussels Treaty, which had not yet been signed, but of which we were being kept heavily supplied with drafts. The eventual North Atlantic Treaty
Treaty
had the general form, and a good bit of the language of my first draft, but with a number of important differences.[1]

According to Achilles, another important author of the treaty was John D. Hickerson:

More than any human being Jack was responsible for the nature, content, and form of the Treaty...It was a one-man Hickerson treaty.[1]

The treaty was created with an armed attack by the Soviet Union against Western Europe in mind, but the mutual self-defense clause was never invoked during the Cold War. Rather, it was invoked for the first time in 2001 in response to the 11 September 2001 attacks against the World Trade Center and The Pentagon
The Pentagon
in Operation Eagle Assist. Members[edit] Founding members[edit]

Current NATO
NATO
member nations

Animated map of NATO
NATO
membership over time

The following twelve nations signed the treaty and thus became the founding members of NATO. The following leaders signed the agreement as plenipotentiaries of their countries in Washington, D.C.:[2][3]

  Belgium
Belgium
– Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak and Ambassador Baron Robert Silvercruys   Canada
Canada
– Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson and Ambassador H. H. Wrong   Denmark
Denmark
– Foreign Minister Gustav Rasmussen and Ambassador Henrik Kauffmann  France – Foreign Minister Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
and Ambassador Henri Bonnet   Iceland
Iceland
– Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Bjarni Benediktsson and Ambassador Thor Thors   Italy
Italy
– Foreign Minister Carlo Sforza
Carlo Sforza
and Ambassador Alberto Tarchiani   Luxembourg
Luxembourg
– Foreign Minister Joseph Bech
Joseph Bech
and Ambassador Hugues Le Gallais   Netherlands
Netherlands
– Foreign Minister Dirk Stikker
Dirk Stikker
and Ambassador Eelco van Kleffens   Norway
Norway
– Foreign Minister Halvard M. Lange and Ambassador Wilhelm von Munthe af Morgenstierne  Portugal – Foreign Minister José Caeiro da Mata and Ambassador Pedro Teotónio Pereira   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin
Ernest Bevin
and Ambassador Oliver Franks, Baron Franks   United States
United States
– Secretary of State Dean Acheson

Later members[edit] The following 17 nations joined the treaty after the 12 founding countries:

Greece
Greece
(joined in 1952)[N 1] Turkey
Turkey
(joined in 1952) Germany
Germany
(joined in 1955)[N 2] Spain
Spain
(joined in 1982) Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(joined in 1999) Hungary
Hungary
(joined in 1999) Poland
Poland
(joined in 1999) Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(joined in 2004)

Estonia
Estonia
(joined in 2004) Latvia
Latvia
(joined in 2004) Lithuania
Lithuania
(joined in 2004) Romania
Romania
(joined in 2004) Slovakia
Slovakia
(joined in 2004) Slovenia
Slovenia
(joined in 2004) Albania
Albania
(joined in 2009) Croatia
Croatia
(joined in 2009) Montenegro
Montenegro
(joined in 2017)

Content[edit] Article 1[edit] Article 1 states that: "The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations." [4] Article 2[edit] Article 2 states that: "The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them." Article 3[edit] Article 3 states that: "In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack." Article 4[edit] Article 4 states that: "The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened." The treaty includes Article 4, which triggers not military intervention but merely consultation over military matters when "the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened".[5] It has been invoked three times by Turkey: once in 2003 over the Second Persian Gulf War (Iraq War), once in June 2012 after the shooting down of a Turkish military jet, and once again in October 2012 after Syrian attacks on Turkey
Turkey
and their counterattacks.[6] An Article 4 meeting was invoked by Latvia,[7] Lithuania,[8] and Poland[9] in March 2014 as a response to the extraterritorial 2014 Crimean crisis. Turkey
Turkey
announced plans to convoke under Article 4 an extraordinary meeting on 28 July 2015, ostensibly in response to the 2015 Suruç bombing, which it attributed to ISIS, and other security issues along its southern border.[5][10] A press statement released by the Alliance declared that " Turkey
Turkey
requested the meeting in view of the seriousness of the situation after the heinous terrorist attacks in recent days, and also to inform allies of the measures it is taking."[5] The US announced through the New York Times
New York Times
on 27 July that it had already agreed "in general terms on a plan that envisions American warplanes, Syrian insurgents and Turkish forces working together to sweep Islamic State militants from a 60-mile-long strip of northern Syria along the Turkish border... long-range artillery could be used across the border."[11] Concerns were expressed that the plan would put allied warplanes closer than ever to areas that Syrian aircraft regularly bomb; the plan did not determine the reaction if Syrian warplanes attack allied personnel on the ground in what is Syrian territory.[11] Turkish Prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu
Ahmet Davutoglu
said the operations will continue as long as Turkey
Turkey
faces a threat, and discussed the situation with UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon
Ban Ki-moon
in a telephone call over the weekend of 26 July.[5] The US said that Turkey
Turkey
"has a right to take action" against the PKK, a Kurdish insurrectionary group that has sought since 1984 autonomy from Turkey.[5] A news report also disclosed prior to the 28 July meeting that Turkey
Turkey
had violated Iraqi airspace in its pursuit of the PKK.[5] Article 5[edit] The key section of the treaty is Article 5. Its commitment clause defines the casus foederis. It commits each member state to consider an armed attack against one member state, in Europe or North America, to be an armed attack against them all. It has been invoked only once in NATO
NATO
history: by the United States after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001.[12][13] The invocation was confirmed on 4 October 2001, when NATO
NATO
determined that the attacks were indeed eligible under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty.[14] The eight official actions taken by NATO
NATO
in response to the 9/11 attacks included Operation Eagle Assist and Operation Active Endeavour, a naval operation in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
which was designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction, as well as enhancing the security of shipping in general. Active Endeavour began on 4 October 2001.[15] In April 2012, Turkish PM Erdogan
Erdogan
considered invoking Article 5 of the NATO
NATO
treaty to protect Turkish national security in a dispute over the Syrian Civil War.[16][17] The alliance responded quickly and a spokesperson said the alliance was "monitoring the situation very closely and will continue to do so" and "takes it very seriously protecting its members.”[18] On April 17, Turkey
Turkey
said it would raise the issue quietly in the next NATO
NATO
ministerial meeting.[19] On April 29, the Syrian foreign ministry wrote that it had received Erdogan's message, which he had repeated a few days before, loud and clear.[20] On 25 June, the Turkish Deputy Prime Minister said that he intended to raise Article 5[21] at a specially-convened NATO
NATO
meeting[22] because of the downing of an "unarmed" Turkish military jet which was "13 sea miles" from Syria over "international waters" on a "solo mission to test domestic radar systems".[23] A Syrian Foreign Ministry spokesman insisted that the plane "flying at an altitude of 100 meters inside the Syrian airspace in a clear breach of Syrian sovereignty" and that the "jet was shot down by anti-aircraft fire," the bullets of which "only have a range of 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles)" rather than by radar-guided missile.[24] On 5 August, Erdoğan stated that "The tomb of Suleyman Shah [in Syria] and the land surrounding it is our territory. We cannot ignore any unfavorable act against that monument, as it would be an attack on our territory, as well as an attack on NATO
NATO
land... Everyone knows his duty, and will continue to do what is necessary."[25] NATO
NATO
Secretary-General Rasmussen later said in advance of the October 2012 ministerial meeting that the alliance was prepared to defend Turkey, and acknowledged that this border dispute concerned the alliance, but underlined the alliance's hesitancy over a possible intervention: “A military intervention can have unpredicted repercussions. Let me be very clear. We have no intention to interfere militarily [at present with Syria].”[26] On 27 March 2014, recordings were released on YouTube[27] of a conversation purportedly involving then Turkish foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, Foreign Ministry Undersecretary Feridun Sinirlioğlu, then National Intelligence Organization (MİT) head Hakan Fidan, and Deputy Chief of General Staff General Yaşar Güler. The recording has been reported as being probably recorded at Davutoğlu's office at the Foreign Ministry on 13 March.[28] Transcripts of the conversation reveal that, as well as exploring the options for Turkish forces engaging in false flag operations inside Syria, the meeting involved a discussion about using the threat to the tomb as an excuse for Turkey
Turkey
to intervene militarily inside Syria. Davutoğlu stated that Erdogan
Erdogan
told him that he saw the threat to the tomb as an "opportunity".[29] Prior to the meeting of Defence Ministers and recently appointed Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg
Jens Stoltenberg
at Brussels in late June 2015,[30][31] it was stated by a journalist, who referenced an off-the-record interview with an official source, that "Entirely legal activities, such as running a pro-Moscow TV station, could become a broader assault on a country that would require a NATO
NATO
response under Article Five of the Treaty... A final strategy is expected in October 2015."[32] In another report, the journalist reported that "as part of the hardened stance, the UK has committed £750,000 of its money to support a counter-propaganda unit at NATO’s headquarters in Brussels."[33] Article 6[edit] Article 6 states that the treaty only covers member nations' territories in Europe and North America, and islands in the North Atlantic north of the Tropic of Cancer, plus French Algeria. It was the opinion in August 1965 of the US State Department, the US Defense Department and the legal division of NATO
NATO
that an attack on the U.S. state of Hawaii
Hawaii
would not trigger the treaty, but an attack on the other 49 would.[34] On 16 April 2003, NATO
NATO
agreed to take command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan, which includes troops from 42 countries. The decision came at the request of Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands, the two nations leading ISAF at the time of the agreement, and all nineteen NATO
NATO
ambassadors approved it unanimously. The handover of control to NATO
NATO
took place on 11 August, and marked the first time in NATO's history that it took charge of a mission outside the north Atlantic area.[35] Article 13[edit] Any party may quit NATO
NATO
one year after depositing its notice of denunciation. See also[edit]

Warsaw Pact

Notes[edit]

^ Joined as Kingdom of Greece. ^ Joined as West Germany.

References[edit]

^ a b " Theodore Achilles Oral History Interview". Truman Library. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ Bevans, Charles Irving (1968). "North Atlantic Treaty". Treaties and other international agreements of the United States
United States
of America 1776–1949. Volume 4, Multilateral 1946–1949. Washington, D.C.: Department of State. p. 831. LCCN 70600742. OCLC 6940. Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ " NATO
NATO
Declassified - Treaty
Treaty
Signatories". NATO.  ^ http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/stock_publications/20120822_nato_treaty_en_light_2009.pdf ^ a b c d e f telegraph.co.uk: " Turkey
Turkey
calls for emergency Nato meeting to discuss Isil and PKK", 26 Jul 2015 ^ "The consultation process and Article 4". NATO.int. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. Since the Alliance's creation in 1949, Article 4 has been invoked several times.... On two occasions in 2012, Turkey requested that the North Atlantic Council
North Atlantic Council
(NAC) convene under Article 4: once on 22 June after one of its fighter jets was shot down by Syrian air defence forces and the second time on 3 October when five Turkish civilians were killed by Syrian shells.... Previously, on 10 February 2003, Turkey
Turkey
formally invoked Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, asking for consultations in the NAC on defensive assistance from NATO
NATO
in the event of a threat to its population or territory resulting from armed conflict in neighbouring Iraq.  ^ "UNSC, EU, NATO
NATO
to hold urgent meetings over Ukraine". 1 March 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014. Meanwhile, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Latvia
Latvia
called upon the North Atlantic Council, the decision-making body of NATO, to hold an extraordinary session on Ukraine, citing security concerns. , Turkishpress.com ^ Ford, Matt (1 March 2014). "Russia's Seizure of Crimea Is Making Former Soviet States Nervous". The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 March 2014. Linas Linkevicius, Lithuania's foreign minister, responded on Saturday by invoking Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty
Treaty
... for only the fourth time in the alliance's history.  ^ Baker, Peter (3 March 2014). "Top Russians Face Sanctions by U.S. for Crimea Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2014. NATO called its second emergency meeting on Ukraine in response to a request from Poland
Poland
under Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty relating to threats to a member state’s security and independence.  ^ Ford, Dana (2015-07-27). " Turkey
Turkey
calls for rare NATO
NATO
talks after attacks along Syrian border". CNN. Retrieved 2015-07-27.  ^ a b nytimes.com: " Turkey
Turkey
and U.S. Plan to Create Syria ‘Safe Zone’ Free of ISIS", 27 Jul 2015 ^ NATO: Key Events (timeline), 2001: "Large-scale terrorist attacks in New York and Washington D.C.— NATO
NATO
invokes Article 5 for the first time ever and adopts a broader approach to security" (See also: Public statement of casus foederis) ^ Daley, Suzanne (2001-09-13). "AFTER THE ATTACKS: THE ALLIANCE; For First Time, NATO
NATO
Invokes Joint Defense Pact With U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-26.  ^ " NATO
NATO
Update: Invocation of Article 5 confirmed – 2 October 2001". Nato.int. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "NATO's Operations 1949–Present" (PDF). NATO. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2013.  ^ todayszaman.com: "PM: Turkey
Turkey
may invoke NATO’s Article 5 over Syrian border fire" Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 11 Apr 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: "Observers say NATO’s fifth charter comes into play if clashes with Syria get worse" Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 11 Apr 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: " NATO
NATO
says monitoring tension in Turkey-Syria border" Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 12 Apr 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: " Turkey
Turkey
to discuss Syria with NATO
NATO
at Brussels meeting" Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 17 Apr 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: " Turkey
Turkey
intends to provoke tension in Syria by raising Article 5, Syria says" Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 29 Apr 2012 ^ "Turkey: Syria's jet downing an attack on the whole of NATO". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.  ^ todayszaman.com: " NATO
NATO
envoys to meet Tuesday over downed Turkish jet" Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 24 Jun 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: " Turkey
Turkey
says jet shot down in international airspace " Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 24 Jun 2012 ^ todayszaman.com: " Turkey
Turkey
not to invoke Art. 5, NATO
NATO
war in Syria as unlikely as ever" Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 25 Jun 2015 ^ Ankara warns against attack on tomb, Hürriyet Daily News, 7 August 2012. ^ todayszaman.com: " NATO
NATO
wary of Syria intervention, but ready to defend Turkey" Archived 27 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine., 8 Oct 2012 ^ "Ankara Bar Association challenges YouTube ban". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015.  ^ "Turkish journalist detained over leak of key Syria meeting". TodaysZaman. 29 March 2014. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015.  ^ YouTube ban: How Turkish officials conspired to stage Syria attack to provoke war RT, 28 March 2014. ^ NATO. " NATO
NATO
– Event: Meetings of NATO
NATO
Ministers of Defence, 24-Jun.-2015". NATO.  ^ nato.int: "Defence Ministers Meetings – Brussels, 24 and 25 june 2015", 26 May 2015 ^ telegraph.co.uk: "US confirms it will place 250 tanks in eastern Europe to counter Russian threat", 23 Jun 2015 ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Nato updates Cold War
Cold War
playbook as Putin vows to build nuclear stockpile", 25 Jun 2015 ^ Hall, John (1965-08-08). " Hawaii
Hawaii
Lacks NATO
NATO
Coverage if Attacked". Chicago Tribune. UPI. pp. Section 1A, Page 4. Retrieved 29 April 2015.  ^ David P. Auerswald, and Stephen M. Saideman, eds. NATO
NATO
in Afghanistan: Fighting Together, Fighting Alone (Princeton U.P., 2014)

Further reading[edit]

Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to North Atlantic Treaty.

Official text " NATO
NATO
Declassified - The Founding Treaty". 

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