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North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, plus the similarities between the pronunciation (accent), vocabulary, and grammar of American English and Canadian English, the two spoken varieties are often grouped together under a single category. Canadians are generally tolerant of both British and American spellings, with British spellings being favored in more formal settings and in Canadian print media. The United Empire Loyalists who fled the American Revolution (1775–1783) have had a large influence on Canadian English from its early roots. Some terms in North American English are used almost exclusively in Canada and the United States (for example, the terms ''diaper'' and ''gasoline'' are widely used instead of ''nappy'' and ''petrol''). Although many English speakers from outside North America regard such terms as distinct Americanisms, they are often just as common in Canada, mainly due to the effects of heavy cross-border trade and cultural penetration by the American mass media. The list of divergent words becomes longer if considering regional Canadian dialects, especially as spoken in the Atlantic provinces and parts of Vancouver Island where significant pockets of British culture still remain. There are a considerable number of different accents within the regions of both the United States and Canada. English in North America originally derived from the accents prevalent in different English, Scottish and Irish regions of the British Isles. These were developed, built upon, and blended together as new waves of immigration, and migration across the North American continent, developed new accents and dialects in new areas, and as these ways of speaking merged and assimilated with the English-speaking population.

Dialects



American English

*General American Ethnic American English *African-American English **African-American Vernacular English *American Indian English *Cajun English *Chicano English *Miami Latino English *New York Latino English *Pennsylvania Dutch English *Yeshiva English Regional American English *Mid-Atlantic American English **Baltimore English **Philadelphia English *Midland American English *New York City English *Northern American English **Inland Northern American ("Chicago") English **New England English ***Eastern New England English ****Boston English ****Maine English ***Western New England English **North-Central American ("Upper Midwest") English ***Upper Peninsula ("Yooper") English *Southern American English **Appalachian English **High Tider English **New Orleans English **Older Southern American English **Texan English *Western American English **California English **New Mexican English **Pacific Northwest English *Western Pennsylvania ("Pittsburgh") English

Canadian English

*Aboriginal Canadian English *Atlantic Canadian English **Lunenburg English **Newfoundland English *Ottawa Valley English *Quebec English *Standard Canadian English

Table of accents

Below, thirteen major North American English accents are defined by particular characteristics:

Phonology

A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with ''satin'' pronounced , not ), T- and D-flapping (with ''metal'' and ''medal'' pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with ''filling'' pronounced , not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, ''Mary'', ''marry'', and ''merry'' are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with ''price'' and ''bright'' using a higher vowel sound than ''prize'' and ''bride''), the weak vowel merger (with ''affected'' and ''effected'' often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with ''new'' pronounced , not ). The last item is more advanced in American English than Canadian English.

See also

*North American English regional phonology *Comparison of American and British English *American English *Belizean English *Canadian English, *Caribbean English *List of American words not widely used in the United Kingdom *List of words having different meanings in British and American English *Regional accents of English *Commonwealth English


References





Bibliography


* Chambers, J.K. (1998). "Canadian English: 250 Years in the Making," in ''The Canadian Oxford Dictionary'', 2nd ed., p. xi. * Clark, Joe (2008).
Organizing Our Marvellous Neighbours: How to Feel Good About Canadian English
' (e-book). . *

External links

{{English dialects by continent Category:18th-century establishments in North America Category:Languages attested from the 18th century Category:Dialects of English